Intelligence: How the experts define it… Ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations
Daniel Goleman EQ Emotional Intelligence is defined as Ability to regulate ones emotions Understanding our feelings, Empathy for others and good social skills, Regulation of emotions in a way that enhances living. Critical to lifes success INSTANT GRATIFICATION – PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILL IS MORE FUNDAMENTAL THAN IMPULSE CONTROL!
Walter Mischel 1960 marshmallow experiment Conducted experiment with Preschool on the Stanford campus/20 points higher on SAT those who waited/handled stress Reenacted experiment: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sc4EF 3ijVJ8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sc4EF 3ijVJ8 Survey measuring your EQ
An accurate measurement consists of Validity & Reliability Reliability – test yields consistent results every time it is used. Validity – a Test measures or predicts what it is supposed to… Shoe size X 10 = IQ Valid/Reliable ?
Robert Sternberg Tri-archic Theory (3) Intelligence is made up of 3 components: Analytical thinking Practical intelligence(goal setters, highly motivated, self efficacy, thought to action) Creative thinking http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Youtub+practi cal+verses+analytical+intelligence&qpvt=Youtub+prac tical+verses+analytical+intelligence&FORM=VDRE&adlt =strict#view=detail&mid=E9D6168F70D453B2A21AE9D6 168F70D453B2A21A http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Youtub+practi cal+verses+analytical+intelligence&qpvt=Youtub+prac tical+verses+analytical+intelligence&FORM=VDRE&adlt =strict#view=detail&mid=E9D6168F70D453B2A21AE9D6 168F70D453B2A21A Practical intelligence helped people be successful in life more than academic intelligence.
Spearman G Factor General Intelligence Factor found that schoolchildren's grades across seemingly unrelated subjects were positively correlated (A student or B student etc…) Proposed that these correlations reflected the influence of a dominant factor, which he termed g for "general" intelligence
Flynn Effect Describes a rise in IQ scores over time. There is no strong consensus as to whether rising IQ scores also reflect increases in g.
Intelligence I.Q. – Intelligence quotient. A measurement of intelligence (reification ). History of I.Q Testing – Started in the early 1900s Alfred Binet – Father of intelligence, believed strongly intelligence was a collection of mental abilities At turn of 20 th century, developed idea of mental age. Hired to create intelligence tests for French children struggling in elementary school.
Intelligence Theorists Lewis Terman-Hired to create American version tested 3,000 children using Binets formula. Known as Stanford – Binet Test. David Wechsler – 1940 developed Adult IQ exam. He created the widely most modern intelligence test.
IQ meaning & Math Computation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dr9RW9rBIQk (Start on 7.00) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dr9RW9rBIQk 80 low 100 average 110 above average 120 superior 130 very superior 140 and above gifted Mental Age Chronological Age X 100 Example 15 10 =1.5 x100 =150
True of False – Correlated to I.Q scores (pre quiz)(partner) 1.# of siblings 2. Average hours per week spent watching TV 3.Average hours per week spent reading 4.Familys economic status 5. Nutritional habits 6. Adult child interaction 7. Divorce 8. # of close friends one has 9. Gender 10. Average hours weekly spent playing sports
The formation of intellectual potential 50% by age 4 30% more by age 8 Last 20% by age 22 to 25 Levels of Intellectually Disabled Borderline 70-75 IQ Mild 50-70 IQ Moderate 35-50 IQ Severe 20-35 IQ Profound below 20
Intellectually Disabled http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iHia_XfaFN0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iHia_XfaFN0 In US MC live at home, hospitals, institutions Make up 1% of population Causes: Down snydrome(born with an extra chromosome) mostly moms over 40;teen moms (malnutrition);fetal alcohol syndrome; exposure in utero to tobacco, radiation, other teratogens (harmful substances). 50% of all cases are preventable Most common cause F.A.S http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6He0FWoFj0
Savant Syndrome http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Savant+Syndrome&Form=V QFRVP&adlt=strict#view=detail&mid=1893705F2F72020B7E281893705F 2F72020B7E28 http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Savant+Syndrome&Form=V QFRVP&adlt=strict#view=detail&mid=1893705F2F72020B7E281893705F 2F72020B7E28 1 out of 2,000 mentally challenged People with serious intellectually disabilities who have spectacular islands of ability or brilliance 6 times more common in males than females IQ range from 40 to 70 (Tony ) http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Savant+S yndrome&Form=VQFRVP&adlt=strict#view=detail &mid=1893705F2F72020B7E281893705F2F72020B7E2 8 http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Savant+S yndrome&Form=VQFRVP&adlt=strict#view=detail &mid=1893705F2F72020B7E281893705F2F72020B7E2 8
Thurstone Multiple Factors Theories His theory was that intelligence is made up of several primary mental abilities rather than a general and several specific factors: Verbal Comprehension Word Fluency Number Facility Spatial Visualization Associative Memory Perceptual Speed Reasoning
Howard Gardner – Huge effect in Educational field Multiple Intelligence
Mensa Society Founded in 1945 by two Britons (scientist & Lawyer) Today there are around 110,000 Mensans in 100 countries worldwide. Mensa has professors and truck drivers, scientists and firefighters, computer programmers and farmers, artists, military people, musicians, laborers, police officers, glassblowers--the diverse list goes on and on. 50,000 members in US. Benefits; scholarships, grants, latest news IQ of members is 130 and above or 2% highest in population Take the test do you qualify!!
Heritability of intelligence Refers to the percentage of variation in intelligence within a group that is attributable to genetic factors. With age, genetic influences on intelligence become more apparent.
Standardization Refers to the process of defining meaningful scores relative to a representative pretested group. Examples SAT ACT State School Testing
Two types of Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence – Persons accumulated knowledge and verbal skills. Elderly has this but a bit slower to respond. Fluid Intelligence – Responding quicker to an answer, but still has a lot to learn about many other subjects and life (young people acquire this) http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Cystalliz e+vs.+fluid+intelligence&FORM=HDRSC3&adlt=str ict#view=detail&mid=4C02E00E81A837F74C6F4C 02E00E81A837F74C6F http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Cystalliz e+vs.+fluid+intelligence&FORM=HDRSC3&adlt=str ict#view=detail&mid=4C02E00E81A837F74C6F4C 02E00E81A837F74C6F
True or False 1.IQ administered today are less culturally biased than ones administered in the 60s 2. External conditions and circumstances, like test anxiety or sleep deprivation, can interfere with the accuracy of an IQ test. 3. IQ tests are generally not valid if testing of a child is done before age 3 by about age 7 is when tests are more stable for age intelligence 4. #1 cause of mentally challenge is FAS
True of False 5.Adopted children score closer to biological parents than adopted 6. High intelligence process sensory info more quickly 7. Head-start produce permanent gains in intelligence 8. The consensus among psychologists is that most intelligence tests are not extremely biased.