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Expert opinion on the water- energy nexus Presented to General Accounting Office, Natural Resources and Environment Committee investigating water and power.

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Presentation on theme: "Expert opinion on the water- energy nexus Presented to General Accounting Office, Natural Resources and Environment Committee investigating water and power."— Presentation transcript:

1 Expert opinion on the water- energy nexus Presented to General Accounting Office, Natural Resources and Environment Committee investigating water and power plant siting, Tucson, April 8, 2009

2 Water and Energy Sustainability with Rapid Growth in the Arizona-Sonora Border Region Dr. Martin J. (Mike) Pasqualetti Dr. Christopher ScottJoseph Hoover School of Geographical Sciences Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, & Dept. Geography Barrett Honors College Dept. Geography & Regional Development& Regional Devt. Arizona State University University of ArizonaUniv. of Arizona Arizona State University University of ArizonaUniv. of Arizona pasqualetti@asu.edupasqualetti@asu.edu cascott@email.arizona.edu cascott@email.arizona.edu pasqualetti@asu.educascott@email.arizona.edu This work is supported by the Arizona Water Institute

3 Outline Growth, energy and water Growth, energy and water Energy resources (including renewables) at the border Energy resources (including renewables) at the border Water resources at the border Water resources at the border Tucson case study Tucson case study Preliminary conclusions and next steps Preliminary conclusions and next steps

4 1.Growth, Energy & Water

5 Arizonas Rapid Growth

6 Population Trends in Mexico – 1970 - 1995 Source: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte

7 Population vs Energy Demand (1990-2005)

8 Average Gallons per MWhr for Arizona-Based Facilities Revised 9/29/08

9 APS projected energy demand Renewables DSM / Conservation Still needed 2,563 MW 7,298 MW

10 Source: Allan T. Marks, 2008. http://www.iamericas.org/documents/energy/ljc08/Allan%20Marks.pdf

11 Water-Energy Joint Management Water Energy Water Energy Water Energy Water United States Mexico Current resource management in the border area Potential binational, joint management of water and energy

12 2. Energy and renewables at the border

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14 Arizona has several promising areas located primarily from St. Johns northwest to Gray Mountain Arizonas Wind Energy Resource

15 Geothermal Energy Mexico is 3 rd Largest Geothermal Country (over 300 sites identified) On May 2007, the Wagner Trench off Puerto Peñasco was surveyed by researchers from the Institute of Geophysics and the Institute of Marine Science using UNAMs hydrographic nautical cruiser

16 Map prepared by Patrick Laney and Julie Brizzee, INEEL for US DoE, based on data from Geo-Heat Center Geothermal Database, 2002 & NOAA, 1982. Land Ownership Geothermal Categories Arizonas Geothermal Resource

17 Solar Potential in the US

18 Solar Potential in Mexico Solar radiation in Mexico is one of the highest in the world, allowing for an average solar power generation of 5 KW /m2 per day. A hybrid combined cycle power station, with a 25 MW thermo-solar system, is scheduled to begin operations in 2009, in Agua Prieta, Sonora. Source: Renewable energies for sustainable development in Mexico 2006, Sener.

19 3. Water resources at the border Photos by Ashley Coles and Joseph Hoover

20 Source: Robert Varady (2007) Water issues and institutions: transboundary basins and global water initiatives (PowerPoint)

21 Arizona and Sonora share multiple rivers, basins, and aquifers Transboundary rivers: Transboundary basins: Colorado Sonoyta-Bámori Santa Cruz Bavispe San Pedro Colorado Basin Desierto de Altar-Río Bamori Douglas/ Río Yaqui Concepción-Arroyo Cocóspera Santa Cruz Transboundary aquifers: San Pedro Santa Cruz San Pedro

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23 Subterránea 30.3% Superficial 69.7 % Current Water Use (CONAGUA Northwest Region) Público urbano ( 5.07% ) 377 Mm 3 Agrícola ( 93.50% ) 6,949 Mm 3 Pecuario ( 0.70%) 51.7 Mm 3 Industrial ( 0.73% ) 54.5 Mm 3 Recreación y Turismo (N/SIG.) 1 Mm 3 Usos consuntivos de 7,433.2 Mm3

24 Growing Exports of Ag. Produce = Growing (Virtual) Water Trade

25 Arizona/Sonora Border Aquifers Stressed US Legend Mexico Legend Stressed by over-pumping Impacted by over-pumping Impacted by salt water intrusion

26 Changes in Depth to Water Source: USDA FRIS

27 Night-time ag. pumping

28 3. Tucson Case Study (preliminary results) Acknowledgments: Asia Philbin, Tucson Water Tim Kacerek, Central Arizona Project Wendy Gort, Pima County Wastewater Management

29 Tucson Water Currently serves 675,000 people Over 220,000 potable connections 4,500 miles of pipeline 51 reservoirs 5 wellfields Tucson Water. 2004. Water Plan: 2000-2050. City of Tucson Water Department. November 22, 2004.

30 Projected Water Demand Tucson Water. 2004. Water Plan: 2000-2050. City of Tucson Water Department. November 22, 2004.

31 Unit Sense 1 acre foot of water = 325, 851 gallons 1 kWh = 1000 watts. Ex: 100 watt lightbulb left on for 10 hours End Use kWh/Year Total Household 10,656 Refrigerator1,239 Desktop Computer 262 Coffee Maker 116 Color TV 137 Ceiling Fan 50 DOE. End-Use Consumption of Electricity 2001. Accessed September 19, 2008.

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33 Conveyance 3,140 kWh/AF to get to Tucson Ex: 2007 CAP delivery 90,300 AF = 283,542,000 kWh

34 Water Extraction Energy Costs

35 Water Treatment Energy Costs Direct delivery of CAP water in 1993 and 1994 caused increase in treatment costs

36 Water Distribution

37 Wastewater Treatment Weighted Average for three major Tucson area wastewater treatment plants: 1, 145 kWh/AF *21, 313 kWh/AF for Mt. Lemmon wastewater treatment *

38 Reclaimed Water System

39 3,981 kWh/AF 28 kWh/AF 355 kWh/AF 2,203 kWh/AF Energy Use Numbers

40 Implications of Findings Energy for potable water delivered to Tucson Water customers: ~4,400 kWh/AF 57% of energy for potable water is CAP Energy for reused water: ~2,200 kWh/AF 48% of energy for reuse is reclaimed distribution

41 Future Work Continued work with Tucson Water Expand work to include other water providers in Arizona –Salt River Project –Phoenix Water Services –Small water providers throughout the state Nogales, Sonora - preliminary results by OOMAPAS water provider for potable delivery: ~1,900 kWh/AF (43% of Tucson Water)

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43 Water and Energy Sustainability with Rapid Growth in the Arizona-Sonora Border Region Dr. Martin J. (Mike) Pasqualetti Dr. Christopher ScottJoseph Hoover School of Geographical Sciences Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, & Dept. Geography Barrett Honors College Dept. Geography & Regional Development& Regional Devt. Arizona State University University of ArizonaUniv. of Arizona Arizona State University University of ArizonaUniv. of Arizona pasqualetti@asu.edupasqualetti@asu.edu cascott@email.arizona.edu cascott@email.arizona.edu pasqualetti@asu.educascott@email.arizona.edu This work is supported by the Arizona Water Institute


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