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Chapter 12 The Media. Introduction Mass Media: Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet and other means of popular communication High-Tech.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 The Media. Introduction Mass Media: Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet and other means of popular communication High-Tech."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 The Media

2 Introduction Mass Media: Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet and other means of popular communication High-Tech Politics: A politics in which the behavior of citizens and policymakers and the political agenda itself are increasingly shaped by technology

3 Love-Hate Relationship THEN - Newspapers & TV = main source of political news NOW -TV & Internet = main source of political news -Internet = under age 30 preference ** Politicians RELY on the media to campaign and gain exposure, but REALIZE the medias feeding frenzy…. if it bleeds, it reads

4 The Feeding Frenzy Just as sharks like bloody chum for feeding (JAWS baby!)… the media loves a bloody scandallllll. LANAHAN….Media has the power to: -Glamorize or eliminate politicians -Strip candidates naked on the campaign trail -Cover politics as ET Entertainment Tonight (Hollywood gossip) -Use high tech (mini cameras, mics, etc.) to capture indormation C-SPAN = constant! -Overexpose/exhaust political news ** Media/Press has become a business focused on money and ratings rather than the issues

5 Free Press Problem? United States = Freedom of Information Act -Allows the press to easily gain and expose government information to its citizens… leaks happen all of the time! (Edward Snowden & wikileaks) Newspapers = do not need permission to run TV and Radio = need licenses given by the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) 1.Media/Press must make a profit - what sells?! (if it bleeds, it reads, sex sells) 2. Media/Press can be biased - based off of editor and reporter views

6 Types of Press 1.Party Press -Used in early American History. WHY? -Parties had to create own press to portray political views to stimulate voters -Very partisan! Papers did not exist that were bipartisan 2.Popular Press -Technology = mass production of papers mass readership sensationalism to attract readers yellow journalism: exaggerated, false, misinterpreted information muckrakers: raking the muck out of the skewed press investigative reporting -Est. national culture and the INDUSTRY of media/press

7 3.Electronic Press -TV & radio = very competitive since audience can choose what to listen to or watch -Politicians MUST do something worth getting airtime! (talk shows, entertainment programs * INTERNET midterm elections 50% + used internet for political information! -Candidate websites, blogs, youtube, etc. * Raising money * organize/mobilize people * Instant opinion polls * Instantly respond to criticism by opponents * Target campaigners and coalition

8 Chris Christie – a youtube sensation THE BEST OF CHRIS CHRISTIE What is it about Chris Christie that makes him so high profile, attractable, and entertaining?!

9 Copyright © 2013 Cengage Bettmann/Corbis News used to come by radio, but today many people read newspapers on iPads and other electronic devices. Pixellover RM 3/Alamy

10 Copyright © 2013 Cengage Source: Nielsen Media Research, used under license. Pew Research Centers Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2011 State of the News Media,

11 Copyright © 2013 Cengage Source: The Wall Street Journal (February 15, 2007). Copyright © 2007 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Reprinted with the permission of Dow Jones & Company, Inc., via Copyright Clearance Center. Note: 18–34 readership represents the average of 18–24 readership and 25–34 readership data is through September

12 National Media ** Overall, the media is very local/state (local news/issues) centered as compared to European countries, which thrive off of nationally centered issues. 1.National Press ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN, MSNBC New York Times, Wall Street Journal, USA Today -Mass distribution techniques -Political elite following -Determine headlines and stories -Editors/reporters = highly educated and paid higher -Investigative journalism

13 National Media Gatekeeper -Determines WHAT becomes national issues -Select the amount and type of coverage on certain issues (environment, social issues, political scandals) -shapes public view and opinion

14 National Media Scorekeeper -Mentions and keeps track of politician exposure covering of elections -horse-race journalism: covering of elections (primary, caucus, general) that informs public of front runners and can influence voting behavior

15 National Media Watchdog -watches and investigates the scorekeepers selected people (front runners) -Looking for blood and scandal that will bleed to read! -Investigative reporting

16 Media Regulations Newspapers (PRINT) – least governmental regulation Radio and TV (BROADCASTING) – most governmental regulation - FCC (Federal Communication Commission) *license and license renewals *description of program and how it serves community influencing what is aired! - radio = most deregulated MANY radio shows (XM and Sirius) - FCC relies on the competition to balance differing opinions (Rush Limbaugh & Al Franken) - FCC equal time rule: broadcasters must sell equal time to each campaign candidate

17 Media Regulations What can public officials (even celebrities) do if they feel an invasion of their privacy has been violated? ** NOTHING… journalism is protected under the 1 st amendment UNLESS there is some threat to public safety or national security! Public officials can sue the press for libel Libel: must be PROVEN by evidence that - info. is false/inaccurate - portrayal was done intentional and malicious

18 Media Regulations Should reporters have the opportunity to keep their sources of information secret? *disagreement among the states and fed. Governments courts decide case by case Confidentiality of Sources -Concerning criminal cases, Supreme Court rules that sources and information must be disclosed -Source information is also considered evidence and necessary to a fair trial IF the publication leads to the criminal accusation of an individual

19 National Media Bias Neutral and objective? - Does the media have a specific political attitude? - Does the attitude affect what is written or reported? - Does the reporting affect what citizens believe? * MOST media reporters identify themselves as liberals! * MOST media reporters claim to not be religious How/Why has there been such a growth in conservative talk and radio shows?!

20 Opportunities for Media Bias Routine stories: - public events regularly covered by reporters (elections & factual actions of political officials) Feature Stories: - public events not regularly covered by reporters - reporter must find story and persuade press to report Insider Stories: - non-public events/secrets that require investigative reporting

21 Opportunities for Media Bias Newspapers -Privately operated -Research shows they favor Democratic presidents in office as compared to Republican presidents when reporting on issues WHY?! ** Most reporters are liberal!

22 Copyright © 2013 Cengage Pew Research Center for the People Source: Pew Research Center for the People & the Press,Press Accuracy Rating Hits Two-Decade Low: Public Evaluations of the News Media: 1985–2009, September 2009,

23 Media Influence Ever hear of selective hearing?! 1.Selective attention: people only care, pay attention to, and remember what they agree with or support and tune out other information Ex. Fox News and Fox towns 3-8% increase in republican votes when comparing air time and voting periods 2.Trial Balloon: Source leak of information to test the publics reaction Ex. Possibly done before the idea of Obamacare?! 3.Loaded Language: Use of words that imply a positive or negative reaction among readers Do you think that Obamacare will really make a positive impact?

24 Government & the News 1.President -Roosevelt 1902 West Wing Press Secretary Obamas Former Press Secretary (these reporters laugh so loud!) -Daily coverage 2.Congress -numerous, very individual/specialized roles = not much media attention UNLESS….. theres blood in the water! -Up until 1978 press restricted from covering congressional proceedings Obamacare Congressional Committee

25 Copyright © 2013 Cengage Today, there are huge gatherings held in a special conference room, as on the right. In 1933, White House press conferences were informal affairs, as when reporters gathered around Franklin Roosevelts desk in the Oval Office. Bettmann/Corbis JASON REED/Reuters/Landov

26 Government Leaks Right of Public to Know v. Government Secrets? Why so many leaks? A.Constitution = Separation of Powers -Struggle and competition over power -Information/events happen and must be brought to light in order for the branches to challenge Ex. Congress impeachment of Bill Clinton

27 Government Leaks B.Used by press officers to friend and favor reporters -On the record: govt. official can be quoted -Off the record: what official says cant be used -On background: govt. official information used without disclosing WHO (high ranking official) -On deep background: govt. official information used without any reference to WHO


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