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Teaching Heritage Languages Learners Olga Kagan July 18, 2011 STARTALK/NHLRC Teacher Workshop 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching Heritage Languages Learners Olga Kagan July 18, 2011 STARTALK/NHLRC Teacher Workshop 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching Heritage Languages Learners Olga Kagan July 18, 2011 STARTALK/NHLRC Teacher Workshop 1

2 WELCOME! 2

3 THANK YOU! Liz Galvin Lew Maria Carreira Kathryn Paul Claire Chik Susie Bauckus Agazit Abate Herman Rosiles Arturo Diaz 3

4 And more THANK YOU! All Presenters All Participants 4

5 STARTALK in 2006 Established in STARTALK seeks to expand and improve the teaching and learning of less commonly taught languages. STARTALKs mission is to increase the number of Americans learning, speaking, and teaching foreign languages – by offering students (K–16) and teachers of these languages creative and engaging summer experiences. 5

6 NHLRC National Heritage Language Resource Center Funded by the Title VI U.S. Department of Education ( ; refunded ) One of 15 NLRCs The only one dedicated to heritage languages 6

7 NHLRC Mission Research into heritage language acquisition Innovative teaching practices and professional development Design of HL specific – instructional materials – assessment instruments 7

8 The White Paper Prolegomena to Heritage Linguistics E. Benmamoun, S. Montrul, M. Polinsky (NHLRC website) 8

9 STARTALK/NHLRC 9

10 UCLA STARTALK/NHLRC Summer 2011 H.S. HLLs Amharic Amharic Arabic Arabic Armenian Armenian Chinese Chinese Hindi/Urdu Hindi/Urdu Persian Persian Russian Russian H.S. FL Italian Italian Russian Russian 10

11 Demographics The American Community Survey : 20 % of the U.S. population speak a language other than English at home 11

12 LANGUAGESNUMBER OF SPEAKERS IN U.S. Spanish or Spanish Creole: 35,468,501 Chinese:2,600,150 Tagalog:1,513,734 French ((incl. Patois, Cajun): 1,305,503 Vietnamese:1,251,468 German:1,109,216 Korean:1,039,021 Russian:881,723 Arabic:845,396 Italian:753,992 Portuguese or Portuguese Creole: 731,282 French Creole: 659,053 Polish:593,598 Hindi:560,983 Japanese:445,471 Persian:Amharic:396,769146,337 12

13 UCLA STARTALK PROGRAMS, Summer weeks Appr. 10 hours a week Total: 60 hours (> one quarter) What can you expect to achieve in a FL class and an HL class in 50 hours? 13

14 HLLs and FLLs NEXT SLIDE U.S. State Department Foreign Service Institutes expected levels of proficiency VS hours of instruction for various lengths of training 14

15 15 Foreign Service Institute, U.S. State Department Language From S/L/R*- 0 to:S/L/R 1S/L/R 2S/L/R 3 S/L/R 4 I. Romance and Germanic: French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Romanian, German, Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish 150 hours 400 hours650 hours** II. Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean 350 hours 1,100 hours 2,200 hours ** III. All Others e.g., East European, African, Asian Languages 250 hours 600 hours 1,100 hours **

16 Proficiencies: Speaking A typical FLL graduates at ACTFL I/I+ (ILR 1/1+) after 3-4 years of language study (I. Thompson 2004; B. Rifkin 2009) A typical HLL may be ACTFL N+/I+ (ILR 1-2) (with or without minimal literacy) (Kagan 2005) 16

17 Who is a heritage language learner? Narrow definition: those who have been exposed to a particular language in childhood but did not learn it to full capacity because another language became dominant. FUNCTIONAL PROFICIENCY Broad definition: those who have been raised with a strong cultural connection to a particular language, usually through family interaction. CULTURAL AFINITY Source: Polinsky and Kagan 2007

18 The language of my heart… My home language is Chinese. My parents are from China. They praised me, scolded me, all in Chinese.... My Chinese is really bad. I cant read and I can only write my name. But when I think of Chinese, I think of my mom, dad, and home. It is the language of my home, and my heart. (Jason, a learner of Chinese as a heritage language) Agnes He, The Heart of Heritage: Sociocultural Dimensions of Heritage Language Learning. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (2010), 30, 66–

19 Another way to look at HL …heritage speakers are early bilinguals …the heritage language becomes, structurally and functionally, the weaker language.(The NHLRC White Paper) 19

20 HLL VS FLL HLLs knowledge of the language begins in the home (like NS) FLLs knowledge typically begins in the classroom Source: UCLA Heritage Language Research Priorities Conference,

21 Terminology: raise your hand! First generation immigrant 1.5 generation Second generation A sequential bilingual A simultaneous bilingual 21

22 HL Generations Second generation – born in U.S. to at least one immigrant parent 1.5 generation – born abroad but arrived by age 12 and grew up in U.S. P. Kasinitz et al. Inheriting the city: The Children of Immigrants Come of Age, Russel Sage,

23 Sequential/Simultaneous Sequential bilingual: grew up hearing and speaking HL only until starting school Simultaneous bilingual: grew up with two languages 23

24 HLL: A generic profile Second or 1.5 generation Sequential bilingual (to age 5) Continues using HL in limited ways: oral and aural proficiencies HL specific motivations and identities Source: Carreira & Kagan

25 Limitations Growing up speaking my HL at home has provided me with sufficient vocabulary to carry on conversations with my parents, but I have not learned how to speak formally to those outside the home. (NHLRC Survey 2009) 25

26 What are HLL specific motivations? 26

27 HL Specific Motivation To communicate with family in the U.S. To learn about cultural/linguistic roots To communicate with family in the HL country For future career – To satisfy language requirement 27

28 Tagalog course helps family relationship Because of [studying] Tagalog, my dad and I have grown way closer and him and I can joke around in Tagalog. Language is helpful when I'm speaking to my Lola (grandmother); she is getting very old, and chooses who and what to respond to - but she always and quickly responds to me when I speak Tagalog with her. It has been great and my family & relatives in the Philippines are amused by it as well. (NHLRC 2009) 28

29 Connecting with family Knowledge of my heritage language has helped me outside of school in that I've been able to communicate and connect with my family and the greater Ethiopian community. Without this language, I would never have had conversations with my grandmother, and would have never learned anything about her... (Dutch) (NHLRC Survey 2009) 29

30 30

31 Structuring the curriculum Building on the strengths – Motivation – Oral/aural proficiency – Some knowledge of culture Addressing deficiencies 31

32 I am like Swiss cheese 32

33 Where are the holes? Grammar Vocabulary Pragmatics Knowledge of culture – Not necessarily in this order 33

34 An Example Interviewer: Why do you carry clothes by this particular designer? What attracts you in his designs? Store owner: 34

35 Grammar in the Curriculum some areas of grammatical knowledge appear to be more susceptible to incomplete development than others. Montrul et al. (2008) Do you know what areas of grammar are generally lost in your HL? What assignments may be appropriate? 35

36 Vocabulary 1.BROAD HOME AND HEARTH based 2.Non-textbook based 3.Possibly dialectal/informal/idiosyncratic 4.Code mixing 5.Lack of academic/abstract vocabulary CF. FL learners How can you develop HL vocabulary? 36

37 Pragmatics Formality and degrees of formality (older people/strangers/peers) Ability to request, apologize, explain, initiate a conversation, etc. Dialect/variation VS standard language What kind of assignments can you use in class? 37

38 Teaching Pragmatics Activity: Start a Conversation Student uses conversational starters. Collect a list of situations to role play using correct conversational starters. i.e. 1. giving a message to a teacher 2.joining students who are organizing a recess game 3.greeting a friend in the morning 4.phoning a friend to invite him to your house 5. you need to ask the teacher a question but she is busy *include: eye contact, appropriate way to get attention, physical distance, using persons name (p 95) 38

39 Psycholinguistic Factors Relearning even something that seems to have been completely forgotten takes much less time than learning for the first time. If childhood heritage language speakers seem to have forgotten their childhood language … they may still be able to access it once again if they try to relearn the language. T. Au Salvaging Heritage Language in D. Brinton, O. Kagan, S. Bauckus (ed.) Heritage Language Education: A new field emerging. Routledge,

40 Rethinking the curriculum Stressing vocabulary development Targeting certain grammatical areas Paying attention to pragmatics Being cognizant of relearning effect Understanding the differences between - HL baseline language and Full L1 - HL and FL 40

41 Real Life Perspective Ashley Carlisle, 9th Grade English Teacher As a discipline, English Language Arts lends itself readily to lessons that build upon students real life experiences. Each day in the bustling hallways of my school, I see my students searching for ways to express their unique identities and perspectives. Inside the classroom, I encourage them to continue working towards that goal by asking them to think critically about issues that are relevant to their lives – and then to read, write, and speak about those issues. 41

42 Terminology: raise your hand! Community-based Content-based Project-based Task-based 42

43 Macro-approach Community-based curriculum: Students learn by participating in community events or conducting research within a local language community. Content-based instruction: Students use a different subject, like social studies or biology, as a way to learn language. Project-based instruction: Students pursue an in-depth investigation of a question or problem thats important to them. Task-based instruction: Emphasizes the kinds of real world tasks language speakers might be required to do and uses them to structure the curriculum. 43

44 Discussion: An HL Specific Macro-Approach Implementing a macro-approach curriculum in the HL you teach – What projects have you carried out? – What new projects could you suggest? 44

45 Community-based curriculum Using interviews to 1) Connect to family/community 2) Get background knowledge 3) Expand vocabulary 4) Improve grammar 5) Understand differences between formal and informal use of language/dialect VS standard, etc. 45

46 The Five FROM-TO Principles aural > to reading spoken > to written home-based register > general/academic everyday activities > in-class activities motivation & identity > content 46

47 From Aural to Reading Using listening comprehension as a springboard: – audiobooks; – delayed reading; – reading and listening at the same time. – discussion of audio text; – vocabulary based on audio texts; – delaying written work 47

48 From Spoken to Written THE TRANSITION TO BILITERACY: FROM SPOKEN TO WRITTEN DISCOURSE Starting with composing written forms of conversational discourse J. Chevalier Heritage Language Literacy: Theory and Practice, Heritage Language Journal, # 2,

49 From Home-based to Academic Register Sociolinguistic approach: students as ethnographers Recording and analyzing oral production at home/in the community Explaining the differences between registers: pronunciation/grammar/vocabulary Explaining the differences between dialects/ regional varieties, etc. 49

50 From Everyday Activities to Classroom Tasks HL-based Activities in the past 6 months HL-based Activities in the past 6 months – 90% - spoke on the phone – 76% - listened to music – 69% -watched TV or DVDs – 30 % community events (NHLRC Survey 2009) 50

51 From Motivation to Content Motivation 1.Communicating with family 1.Interest in cultural and linguistic roots 2.Dual identity Content 1.Cultural themes; history of im/migration 2. History of the country; language structure 3. Creating a bicultural individual 51

52 Conditions of Success 1.Setting HL specific goals 2.Time on task 3. Macro approach based curriculum 4.Instructor training and willingness to experiment 52

53 When working on your projects… Macro approach Vocabulary expansion HL specific grammar Pragmatic competence Connecting to – family – culture and community 53

54 Bibliography Au, T.( 2008) Salvaging heritage languages In D. Brinton, O. Kagan and S. Bauckus (eds.). Heritage language education. A new field emerging. NY: Routledge. Bar-Shalom E.G & E.Zaretsky (2008) Selective attrition in Russian-English bilingual children: Preservation of grammatical aspect - International Journal of Bilingualism Carreira, M. & O. Kagan (2011) The Results of the National Heritage Language Survey: Implications for Teaching, Curriculum Design, and Professional Development, Foreign Language Annals, 44 (1) Kagan, O. (2005). In support of a proficiency-based definition of heritage language learners: A case of Russian. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 8 (2 & 3), Montrul, S. (2008). Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism. Re-examining the age factor. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Polinsky, M. (2006). Incomplete acquisition: American Russian. Journal of Slavic Linguistics 14, Polinsky, M. (2008). Heritage language narratives. In D. Brinton, O. Kagan and S. Bauckus (eds.). Heritage language education. A new field emerging, NY: Routledge. 54

55 Dalia Golan e=videos&init=jea e=videos&init=jea 55


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