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Module 3 Mitigation Options

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1 Module 3 Mitigation Options
General considerations Industry Buildings Transport Energy supply Solid waste Land-use, land-use change and forestry Agriculture Note: geological sequestration is not covered but is a potential longer-term mitigation option. Module 3. Mitigation Options: A Sectoral Review Presenters: Dr. Rajan and Dr. Makundi The objective of this module is to provide an overview of the various technologies and options that might be appropriate for mitigating greenhouse gases, as well as the types of policies and measures that can promote the implementation of those options. Session One will be presented by Dr. Rajan and will cover: General considerations Industry Buildings Transport Energy supply Solid waste Session Two will be presented by Dr. Makundi and will cover Agriculture, land use change and forestry.

2 General Considerations
Module 3a General Considerations

3 Technology Innovations Needed to Mitigate CO2 Emissions
More efficient technologies for energy conversion and utilisation in all end-use sectors (transportation, industry, buildings, agriculture; power generation) New or improved technologies for utilising alternative energy sources with lower or no GHG emissions (such as natural gas and renewables) Technologies for CO2 capture and storage (for large-scale industrial processes like electric power generation and fuels production) Numerous technology solutions offer substantial CO2-reductions potential, including renewable energies, fossil-fuel use with CO2 capture and storage, nuclear fission, fusion energy, hydrogen, biofuels, fuel cells and efficient energy end use. No single technology can meet this challenge by itself. Different regions and countries will require different combinations of technologies to best serve their needs and best exploit their indigenous resources. The energy systems of tomorrow will rely on a mix of different advanced, clean, efficient technologies for energy supply and use. Supply-side technologies are not alone in offering significant potential for emissions reduction. Energy technologies for end-use efficiency in the transport, industrial, and residential and commercial sectors are equally crucial. Whether powered by high-carbon or low-carbon energy supplies, more energy-efficient end-use technologies will substantially ease the task of cutting back CO2 emissions. Energy-efficiency technologies will also help lighten the very heavy burden of investment needs created by growth in demand for energy services.

4 Technology Policies Have Reduced the Cost of GHG-Friendly Energy Systems
20000 10000 5000 1000 100 10 100000 1982 1987 1963 1980 Windmills (USA) RD&D Commercialization USA Japan Cumulative MW installed 1981 1983 500 Photovoltaics Gas turbines (USA) US(1990)$/kW 1995 1992 200 2000 Source: Nakicenovic, 1996 Source: Nakićenović, N., Technological change and Learning. In: N. Nakićenović, W.D. Nordhaus, R. Richels and F. Toth (eds.), Climate Change: Integrating Science, Economics and Policy. CP-96-1, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria. As the graph above shows, R&D and learning have reduced the costs of many energy technologies. Reducing the cost of renewables further will require more R&D and also stimulating markets to increase industry experience. According to the International Energy Agency[1], the best potential for future cost reduction among the renewable electricity technologies is about 20% for each doubling of installed capacity. Globally, solar technologies are expected to reduce their costs by some 30% - 50% for each of the next two decades as a result of learning and market growth. Wind and geothermal technology costs are expected to drop about 10% for each doubling of installed capacity. Globally, wind is expected to reduce its costs by some 25% for each of the next two decades on this basis, and geothermal by some 10% – 25% in the same period. Smaller cost reduction potential is likely among the most mature technologies: small hydropower and biomass costs are likely to drop about 5% - 10% for each of the next two decades. This will bring costs further into the competitive range by 2010 in resource-rich locations. This could result in wind power at 2 – 4 cents/kWh, solar PV at cents/kWh, geothermal power at 2 – 3 cents/kWh, and biopower and small hydropower at US cents/kWh. [1] International Energy Agency (2003): Renewables for Power Generation: Status & Prospects, Paris.

5 Facilitating Energy Efficiency
New investments in power, industry, transport and building infrastructure can be substantially more efficient than existing stock; economic growth is powering a rapid increase in these sectors, and associated emissions. Almost all countries exhibit declining energy intensity trends for the economic sectors; most countries have some initiatives to promote energy efficiency in these sectors Technology integration, support, and financing risks are high Adoption is driven by quality and productivity increases Improvements to energy efficiency have a wide range of benefits. They can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, prevent pollution, alleviate poverty, improve security of energy supply, and increase competitiveness and improve health and employment. The potential for energy efficiency improvement in developing countries is often greater than in industrialized countries. Energy-intensive activities are growing rapidly in developing countries, so that a larger fraction of the opportunities for making improvements in energy efficiency is associated with new installations (rather than retrofits of existing installations) compared to the already industrialized countries. However, energy prices are typically subsidized and low in many developing countries, so that the market has not encouraged the use of efficient technologies. Also, many commercial technologies for improving energy efficiency have not been readily available in developing countries. Barriers involve both market-related issues and institutional issues. Some of the major market related barriers include: low consumer awareness of the benefits of specific energy efficiency technologies and practices; lack of consumer interest in buying these technologies or adopting these practices; reluctance to commit capital to energy efficiency projects offering 2-3 year payback periods; risk aversion towards investing in new technologies; and inadequate maturity of the market infrastructure, manifested primarily in poor availability of efficient equipment and personnel to support the installation and maintenance of such equipment. Major institutional barriers include: lack of explicit national policy for energy efficiency at end-use level; subsidies and cross-subsidies that reduce incentives to purchase energy-efficient equipment; disaggregated or uncertain institutional oversight for energy utilization; poor availability of credit; and lack of application of modern management skills. Picture: Courtesy of Emerson Process Management

6 Module 3b Industry

7 Industry: Primary Energy Demand by Region
Industrial energy demand has been stagnant in industrialised countries, but is growing at about 6% per year in developing countries. Industrial emissions account for 43% of carbon released in Industrial sector carbon emissions grew at a rate of 1.5% per year between 1971 and 1995, slowing to 0.4% per year since Industries continue to find more energy efficient processes and reductions of process-related GHGs. Differences in the energy efficiency of industrial processes between different developed countries, and between developed and developing countries remain large, which means that there are substantial differences in relative emission reduction potentials between countries. Source: IPCC, WGIII, 2002

8 Industry: Emissions Contribution
Responsible for 19% of total carbon emissions (50% if total primary energy is considered) Globally, 50% of industry energy consumption made up by Iron & steel Chemicals Petroleum refining Pulp & paper Cement Huge variations between countries Small industries important in many developing countries. The CO2 emissions by the industrial sector worldwide in 1990 amounted to 1,250MtC. However, these emissions are only the direct emissions, related to industrial fuel consumption. The indirect emissions in 1990, caused by industrial electricity consumption, are estimated to be approximately 720MtC. In the period 1990 to 1995 carbon emissions related to energy consumption have grown by 0.4% per year. A substantial part of industrial greenhouse gas emissions is related to the production of a number of primary materials. Relevant to this is the concept of dematerialization (the reduction of society’s material use per unit of GDP). For most individual materials and many countries dematerialization can be observed.

9 Industry Unique opportunities for reducing GHGs because process change with energy efficiency benefits are often driven by economic and organisational considerations. Shortage of capital is a problem in many cases, but gradual improvement in efficiency is likely as investment takes place and new plants are built. Nature of industrial decision-making implies that energy-cost savings may either be dominant or secondary in specific technical actions. Potential for large efficiency gains due to major new industrial investment expected in developing countries (70% of global investment in next 2 decades). Although there is significant potential for improving energy efficiency in all industries, the greatest opportunities for savings are in the energy-intensive industries. Five of these industries—iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and cement—together account for roughly 45% of global industrial energy consumption. Energy purchases represent such a large fraction of production costs in these industries that historically new technologies for making basic materials have been more energy-efficient than the technologies they replaced, a trend that is likely to persist. In heavy industry most of the energy is used to produce a limited number of primary materials, like steel, cement, plastic, paper, etc. Apart from process changes that directly reduce the CO2 emissions of the processes, also the limitation of the use of these primary materials can help in reducing CO2 emissions of these processes. A range of options is available: material efficient product design (Brezet and van Hemel, 1997); material substitution; product recycling; material recycling; quality cascading; and good housekeeping (Worrell et al., 1995b). In light industries, technologies to reduce GHG emissions include efficient lighting, more efficient motors and drive systems, process controls, and energy saving in space heating.

10 Industry: Energy Intensity in Pulp and Paper Industry
Energy intensity (energy use per unit of value added) has been reducing in recent years in many industries, including iron and steel and pulp and paper. A range of new technologies is under development, including black liquor gasification in the pulp industry and improved water removal processes for paper making, e.g., impulse drying and air impingement drying. Source: IPCC, WGIII, 2002

11 Industry: Technical Options
Nature of decision-making in industry demands two classes of options: Those for which energy cost savings are the dominant decision making criteria --“energy-cost-sensitive” Those for which broader criteria such as overall production cost and product quality are more important – “non energy-cost-sensitive”

12 Industry: Energy-cost-sensitive options
Low- to medium-cost improvements to the energy efficiency of existing capital stock, production and use of more energy-efficient equipment, and fuel switching. Measures for existing processes: Housekeeping, equipment maintenance, and energy accounting Energy management systems Motor drive system improvements Improved steam production and management Industrial cogeneration Heat recovery Adoption of efficient electric motors, pumps, fans, compressors, and boilers. Fuel switching (e.g., coal or oil to natural gas, renewables)

13 Industry: Non Energy-cost-sensitive Options
Major process modifications, for example: improvements to electric arc furnaces and revamping open-hearth furnaces (steel) installing an improved aluminium smelter, improved ethylene cracking, and conversion from semi-dry to dry process or installation of pre-calcination (cement) Installation of new production capacity More efficient use of materials

14 Electric Arc Furnace Technologies
Source: Worrell, 2004

15 Industry: Non CO2 Greenhouse Gases
Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Industrial Processes PFC Emissions from Aluminium Production PFCs and Other Substances Used in Semiconductor Production HFC-23 Emissions from HCFC-22 Production Emissions of SF6 from the Production, Use and Decommissioning of Gas Insulated Switchgear Emissions of SF6 from Magnesium Production and Casting Non-CO2 gases from manufacturing (HFCs, PFCs, SF6, and N2O) are increasing. Furthermore, PFCs and SF6 have extremely long atmospheric lifetimes (thousands of years) and GWP values (thousands of times those of CO2) resulting in virtually irreversible atmospheric impacts. Fortunately, there are technically-feasible, low cost emission reduction options available for a number of applications. Implementation of major technological advances have led to significant emission reductions of N2O and the fluorinated greenhouse gases produced as unintended by-products. For the case of fluorinated gases being used as working fluids or process gases, process changes, improved containment and recovery, and use of alternative compounds and technologies have been adopted. On-going research and development efforts are expected to further expand emission reduction options. Energy efficiency improvements are also being achieved in some refrigeration and foam insulation applications, which use fluorinated gases.

16 Industry: Mitigation Measures
Research, development, and commercial demonstration of new technologies and processes Tax incentives for energy efficiency, fuel switching, and reduction in GHG emissions Removal of market barriers Government procurement programs Emission and efficiency standards Voluntary agreements Both OECD and non-OECD countries will benefit from the establishment of supportive frameworks, market conditions and incentives for more environmentally-friendly technologies and business practices to stimulate domestic entrepreneurship and attract investment. Government policies should therefore encourage business to undertake the research and development required to create innovative technology. In addition, enabling frameworks for the commercialization and transfer of these new technologies and for capacity building will permit both developed and developing countries to benefit from technological progress. Strong industry-government and business to business partnerships should be encouraged to accelerate this technology development and co-operation. Regulations are the most direct method of changing industrial behavior. Among the most viable options for influencing industry's use of energy are equipment efficiency standards, reporting and targeting requirements, and regulation of utilities to encourage industrial demand-side management programs and purchase of cogenerated electricity. By excluding substandard equipment from the market, equipment efficiency standards can have a large impact in a short time. They can also help to lower the price of higher efficiency equipment by increasing the size of its markets. Business-led, market-based voluntary initiatives and actions have also proven to be an effective means to control and mitigate emissions while at the same time fostering innovation and investment in new technologies.

17 Buildings (Residential and Commercial Sector)
Module 3c Buildings (Residential and Commercial Sector)

18 Buildings: Primary Energy Growth by Sector
Buildings account for 29% of global CO2 emissions. Space heating is the dominant energy end-use. Developed countries account for the vast majority of buildings-related CO2 emissions, but the bulk of the growth in the past two decades was in developing countries. Energy use in buildings exhibited a steady growth from 1971 through 1990 in all regions of the world, averaging almost 3% per year. Because of the decline in energy use in buildings in the former Soviet Union after 1989, global energy use in buildings has grown slower than for other sectors in recent years. Growth in commercial buildings was higher than growth in residential buildings in all regions of the world, averaging 3.5% per year globally between 1971 and 1990. Global projections of primary energy use for the buildings sector show a doubling, from 103EJ to 208EJ, between 1990 and 2020 in a baseline scenario (WEC, 1995). The most rapid growth is seen in the commercial buildings sector, which is projected to grow at an average rate of 2.6% per year. Increases in energy use in the economies in transition are projected to be as great as those in the developing countries, as these countries recover from the economic crises and as the growth in developing countries begins to slow. Urbanization, especially in developing countries, is clearly associated with increased energy use. As populations become more urbanized and commercial fuels, especially electricity, become easier to obtain, the demand for energy services such as refrigeration, lighting, heating, and cooling increases. The number of people living in urban areas almost doubled between 1970 and 1995, growing from 1.36 billion, or 37% of the total, in 1970 to 2.57 billion, or 45% of the total, in 1995 (UN, 1996). UN (United Nations), 1996: World Population Prospects:1996 Revision. United Nations, New York. WEC, 1995: Efficient Use of Energy Using High Technology – An Assessment of Energy Use in Industry and Buildings. M.D. Levine, N. Martin, L. Price, and E. Worrell (eds.), World Energy Council, London, UK

19 Buildings: Technical Options
Building Equipment energy efficient space and heating (heat pumps, CHP) efficient lighting, air conditioners, refrigerators, and motors efficient cook stoves, household appliances, and electrical equipment efficient building energy management and maintenance Building Thermal Integrity improved insulation and sealing energy-efficient windows proper building orientation Using Solar Energy active and passive heating and cooling; climate-sensitive design effective use of natural light (“daylighting”) There is considerable promise for improving the energy efficiency of appliances and equipment used in buildings, improving building thermal integrity, reducing the carbon intensity of fuels used in buildings, reducing the emissions of HFCs, and limiting the use of HFCs to those areas where appropriate. There are many cost-effective technologies and measures that have the potential to significantly reduce the growth in GHG emissions from buildings in both developing and developed countries by improving the energy performance of whole buildings, as well as reducing GHG emissions from appliances and equipment within the buildings. A recent study identified over 200 emerging technologies and measures to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use in the residential and commercial sectors (Nadel et al., 1998). Individual country studies also identify many technologies and measures to improve the energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the buildings sector in particular climates and regions. Nadel, S., L. Rainer, M. Shepard, M. Suozzo, and J. Thorne, 1998: Emerging Energy-Saving Technologies and Practices for the Buildings Sector. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington DC. Picture: NREL

20 Buildings: Mitigation Measures
Information programs Labelling Demonstration projects Market based programs incentives to consumers for energy-efficient products energy service companies energy-efficient product development incentives for manufacturers government or large-customer procurement for energy-efficient products voluntary initiatives by industry Regulatory measures mandated energy-efficiency performance standards, increasingly stringent over time mandated appliance efficiency standards and efficiency labelling

21 Buildings: Potential for Reducing Emissions
Projected emissions reductions (MtC) Share of projected total emissions 2010 2020 Developing Countries    Residential 125 170 20% 21%    Commercial 80 115 24% 26%    Total 205 285 23% World 715 950 27% 31% Note: Projected total emissions based on B2 Message marker scenario (standardized) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). In general, it is assumed that costs are initially somewhat higher in developing countries because of the reduced availability of advanced technology and the lack of a sufficient delivery infrastructure. However, depending upon conditions in the country or region, these high costs could be offset by the fact that there are many more low-cost opportunities to improve energy efficiency in most developing countries. These studies show that with aggressive implementation of energy-efficient technologies and measures, CO2 emissions from residential buildings in 2010 can be reduced by 325MtC in developed countries and the EIT region at costs ranging from –US$250 to –US$150/tC saved and by 125MtC in developing countries at costs of –US$200 to US$50/tC saved. Similarly, CO2 emissions from commercial buildings in 2010 can be reduced by 185MtC in developed countries and the EIT region at costs ranging from –US$400 to –US$250/tC saved and by 80MtC in developing countries at costs ranging from -US$400 to US$0/tC saved.

22 Module 3d Transport

23 Transport: Projected GHG Emissions by Mode
Worldwide, transport produces roughly 20% of carbon emissions and smaller shares of the other five greenhouse gases covered under the Kyoto Protocol. On a modal basis, road transport accounts for almost 80% of transport energy use. Light-duty vehicles alone comprise about 50%. Air transport is the second largest, and most rapidly growing mode, with about 12% of current transport energy use. The growth of transport energy use, its continued reliance on petroleum and the consequent increases in carbon emissions are driven by the long-term trends of increasing motorization of world transport systems and ever-growing demand for mobility. Source: IEA, World Energy Outlook, 2002

24 Transport: Technical Options
Energy Efficiency Improvements for Vehicles Changes in vehicle and engine design (e.g. hybrids) Alternative Fuel Sources hydrogen or electricity from renewable power biomass fuels, CNG, LPG, etc. fuel cell technology Infrastructure and System Changes traffic and fleet management systems mass transportation systems modal shifts Transport Demand Management Reducing travel demand (e.g. through land use changes, telecommunications, etc.)

25 Transport: Mitigation Measures
Market-based Instruments increase in fuel tax incentives for mass transport systems Economic Instruments fiscal incentives and subsides for alternative fuels and vehicles incentives through vehicle taxes and license fees for more efficient vehicles Regulatory Instruments fuel economy standards vehicle design or alternative fuel mandates

26 Transport: Starting Questions for Analysis
Demand forecasting: how much travel or freight movement is expected? Mode choice: what mix of transport modes will be used to provide passenger and freight services? Vehicle stock analysis: what is the impact of changing technology (fuel economy, fuel type, emission controls) on fuel use and emissions? Logistics management: how can activities be reorganized to reduce transport use? Transport management: how should infrastructure and vehicle flow be managed to reduce congestion or improve efficiency? Transport planning: what investments are needed to meet growing demand and improve efficiency? Emissions from road transport are a function of many factors, which can be classified as: − Activity - the level of transport tasks undertaken − Structure - the split between different modal shares (road, rail, air, water) − Intensity - the efficiency with which energy is used to complete travel tasks − Fuel - the types of fuel used to power transport Correspondingly, there are five types of options for GHG mitigation in transport: (1) behavioral change resulting in reduced activity, (2) modal split changes, (3) improving transportation system efficiency, (4) improving vehicle efficiency through technological change, and (5) improving fuel efficiency, .

27 Module 3e Energy Supply

28 Energy Supply: Conventional
The conventional energy supply system consists of the following sectors: Oil Gas Coal Nuclear materials Electric power While the electric power sector is often the largest contributor to GHG emissions, all elements of the fuel cycle need to be considered when assessing the mitigation potential in this sector. Coal is projected to retain the largest share with a 90% increase in use from strong growth in countries such as India and China reflecting its importance there, steady growth in the USA but a decline in Western Europe. Gas is projected to grow strongly in many world regions reflecting the increasing availability of the fuel, with an overall increase of 160%. Nuclear power is projected to decline slightly on a global basis after 2010.

29 Energy Supply: Fuel Cycle Emissions from Oil Sector
Sector/Fuel Source of Cycle Stage Emissions CO2 CH2 CO NOx Oil Sector Production Gas Flaring x Transport Spills Refining Distillation Fractionation Storage Leaks Combustion

30 Energy Supply: Fuel Cycle Emissions from Gas and Coal Sectors
Sector/Fuel Source of Cycle Stage Emissions CO2 CH2 CO NOx Gas Sector Production Gas Flaring x Transport Pipeline Leaks Liquefaction/ Regasification Leaks Coal Sector Mining Coal bed methane Cleaning

31 Energy Supply: Fuel Cycle Emissions from Nuclear Materials and Electric Power Sectors
Sector/Fuel Source of Cycle Stage Emissions CO2 CH2 CO NOx Nuclear Materials Sector Mining x Processing Electric Power Sector Generation Combustion

32 Energy Supply: Renewable Energy Technologies
Solar Photovoltaics - Flat Plate Photovoltaics - Concentrator Solar Thermal Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Dish/Stirling Solar Thermal Central Receiver Solar Ponds Hydropower Conventional Pumped Storage Micro-hydro Ocean Tidal Energy Thermal Energy Conversion Wind Horizontal Axis Turbine Vertical Axis Turbine Biomass Direct Combustion Gasification/Pyrolysis Anaerobic Digestion Geothermal Dry Steam Flash Steam Binary Cycle Heat Pump Direct Use Natural energy flows vary from location to location, and make the techno-economic performance of renewable energy conversion highly site-specific. Intermittent sources such as wind, solar, tidal, and wave energy require back-up if not grid connected, while large penetration into grids may eventually require storage and/or back-up to guarantee reliable supply. Therefore, it is difficult to generalize costs and potentials. Hydropower is projected to grow by 60%, mainly in China and other Asian countries. New renewables have expanded substantially, in absolute terms, throughout the 1990s (wind 21% per year, solar PV more than 30% per year); these are projected to grow by over tenfold by 2020, but they would still supply less than 2% of the market.

33 Energy Supply: Solar Photovoltaics
Solar panels using silicon PV conversion have efficiencies in excess of 15 percent, and thin film modules are typically 10 percent. PV panels are available in sizes from a few watts to 300 watts and produce DC electricity in the range of 12 to 60 volts, and can be used for applications such as: charging electric lanterns and laptop computers (4 - 6 watts); packaged systems ( watts) for off-grid residential lighting and entertainment (radio/ cassette, TV/VCR); and grid-connected power (hundreds of kilowatts to a megawatt or more). Current costs make solar PVs prohibitive in most situations. Can be attractive in niche applications, especially for off-grid electrification. Good prospects for further increases in efficiency and reductions in costs. An estimation of solar energy potential based on available land in various regions gives 1,575 to 49,837 EJ/yr. Even the lowest estimate exceeds current global energy use by a factor of four. The amount of solar radiation intercepted by the earth may be high but the market potential for capture is low because of: the current relative high costs; time variation from daily and seasonal fluctuations, and hence the need for energy storage, the maximum solar flux at the surface is about 1 kW/m2 whereas the annual average for a given point is only 0.2 kW/m2; geographical variation, i.e. areas near the equator receive approximately twice the annual solar radiation than at 60° latitudes; and diffuse character with low power such that large-scale generation from direct solar energy can require significant amounts of equipment and land even with solar concentrating techniques.

34 Energy Supply: Changes in Wind Electricity Generation Costs in Denmark
Wind power accounts for 0.3% of global installed generation capacity. It has increased by an average of 25% annually in recent years. The cost of wind has fallen dramatically, following a classic learning curve. The global theoretical wind potential is on the order of 480,000TWh/yr, assuming that about 27% of the earth’s land surface is exposed to a mean annual wind speed higher than 5.1 m/s at 10 metres above ground (WEC, 1994). Assuming that for practical reasons just 4% of that land area could be used (derived from detailed studies of the potential of wind power in the Netherlands and the USA), wind power production is estimated at some 20,000 TWh/yr. Since wind power is intermittent the total costs will be higher if back-up capacity has to be provided. In large integrated systems it has been estimated that wind could provide up to 20% of generating capacity without incurring significant penalty. In systems that have large amounts of stored hydropower available, such as in Scandinavia, the contribution could be higher. WEC (World Energy Council), 1994: New Renewable Energy Resources. World Energy Council, London, UK.

35 Energy Supply: Biomass
Modern conversion of biomass into electricity, liquid and gaseous fuels shows great promise. In addition, co-firing 10-15% biomass with coal can reduce GHG emissions In developing countries, biomass is a major source of energy services for the poor. Globally, biomass has an annual primary production of 220 billion oven-dry tonnes (odt) or 4,500 EJ (Hall and Rosillo-Calle, 1998). Of this, 270 EJ/yr might become available for bioenergy on a sustainable basis depending on the economics of production and use as well as the availability of suitable land. In addition to energy crops. biomass resources include agricultural and forestry residues, landfill gas and municipal solid wastes. At the domestic scale in developing countries, the use of firewood in cooking stoves is often inefficient and can lead to health problems. Use of appropriate technology to reduce firewood demand, avoid emissions, and improve health is a no-regrets reduction opportunity. Hall, D.O., and F. Rosillo-Calle, 1998: Biomass Resources Other than Wood. World Energy Council, London. Source: IEA

36 Energy Supply Sector: Mitigation Measures
Pure market-based instruments GHG and energy taxes and subsidies full social cost pricing of energy services Strict command-and-control regulation specifying the use of specific fuels performance and emission standards Hybrid measures tradable emission permits (renewable) portfolio standards, with tradable credits Voluntary agreements and actions by industry Research, development, and demonstration activities Removal of institutional barriers

37 Energy Supply Sector: Technical Options
Advanced conversion technologies advanced pulverized coal combustion fluidized bed combustion (atmospheric and pressurized) coal gasification and combined cycle technology combined heat and power systems cogeneration fuel cells/hydrogen Switching to lower carbon fossil fuels and renewable energy hydropower wind energy biomass geothermal photovoltaics (PV) solar thermal Power station rehabilitation Reduction of losses in transmission and distribution of fuels Improved fuel production and transport recovery of coal mine methane coal beneficiation and refining improved gas and oil flaring Picture: NREL

38 Energy Supply: Technological and Efficiency Improvements in Power Supply Sector
Large efficiency gains can be achieved by replacing the separate production of heat and power with combined heat and power (CHP) technologies. CHP is possible with all heat machines and fuels (including nuclear, biomass and solar thermal) from a few kW-rated to 1000MW steam-condensing power plants. At the utility level the employment of CHP is closely linked with industrial heat loads as well as the availability or development of district heating and/or cooling networks. The expanded use of natural gas may provide a basis for increased dispersed cogeneration. Industrial CHP utilizes temperature differentials between the heat source and the process temperature requirements for electricity generation. More recently, in some countries electricity market deregulation has made it easier for large industrial users to generate their own electricity as well as heat by being more easily able to sell any surplus electricity

39 Energy Supply: Typical Least Cost-Supply Staircase
Planners rank by cost and potential all the various energy-supply and energy-use technologies that might be used to meet a region or country’s requirement, identifying the order that the options would be chosen to achieve the lowest-cost options to implement. Thus various electricity supply technologies such as conventional coal plants, wind generators, hydro plants, and steam-injected gas turbines are compared with each other and with end-use technologies such as compact fluorescent lights and increased insulation in buildings to reduce air conditioning loads. Of all the different possibilities, the lowest-cost options are chosen first for investment .

40 Module 3f Solid Waste

41 Solid Waste: Introduction
Methane (CH4) is emitted during the anaerobic decomposition of the organic content of solid waste and wastewater. There are large uncertainties in emissions estimates, due to the lack of information about the waste management practices employed in different countries, the portion of organic wastes that decompose anaerobically and the extent to which these wastes will ultimately decompose. About 20–40 Mt CH4 (110–230 Mt C), or about 10% of global CH4 emissions from human-related sources, are emitted from landfills and open dumps annually. Another Mt CH4 (170–230 Mt C) annual emissions are from domestic and industrial wastewater disposal. It is important to remember that the materials life-cycle have both energy and non-energy related emissions. Waste and waste management affect the release of greenhouse gases in five major ways: landfill emissions of methane; reductions in fossil fuel use by substituting energy recovery from waste combustion; reduction in energy consumption and process gas releases in extractive and manufacturing industries, as a result of recycling; carbon sequestration in forests, caused by decreased demand for virgin paper; and energy used in the transport of waste for disposal or recycling. Except for the long-range transport of glass for reuse or recycling, transport emissions of secondary materials are often one or two orders of magnitude smaller than the other four factors (Ackerman, 2000). Ackerman, F., 2000: Waste Management and Climate Change. Local Environment, 5(2),

42 Solid Waste: GHG Sources and Sinks associated with Materials Life-Cycle
EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency), Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse Gases: A Life-Cycle Assessment of Emissions and Sinks, EPA530-R , Washington, DC. Source: U.S. EPA

43 Solid Waste: Technical Options
Source Reduction Recycling Composting Incineration (including off-set for electricity generation) Methane Recovery from Solid-waste Disposal Solid waste disposal facilities (including off-sets for electricity generation and co-generation; gas recovery) Methane Recovery and/or Reduction from Wastewater Wastewater treatment plants (including off-sets for electricity generation and co-generation; gas recovery) Voluntary recycling programmes have met with a mixed range of success, with commercial and institutional recycling of office paper and cardboard, and curbside recovery of mixed household materials generally having higher recycling rates. Countries such as Austria and Switzerland successfully require separation of household waste into many disaggregated categories for high value recovery. Landfill gas capture and energy recovery is a frequently applied landfill management practice. However, levels of methane yield and costs vary widely by location and context. In countries where food waste is a high fraction of municipal waste, composting is an attractive alternative way to conduct primary treatment while reducing GHG emissions. Anaerobic digestion of organic waste and sewage to methane for subsequent energy use can substitute for fossil fuels, reducing GHG emissions. Landfill Gas Recovery. Picture: University of Tennessee

44 Solid Waste: Measures Regulatory standards for waste disposal and wastewater management Provision of market incentives for improved waste management and recovery of methane Voluntary program to encourage adoption of technical options

45 Solid Waste: Barriers to Methane Recovery
Lack of awareness of relative costs and effectiveness of alternative technical options. Less experience with low-cost recently developed anaerobic processes It is less economical to recover CH4 from smaller dumps and landfills. Equipment may not be readily available, or limited infrastructure and experience for CH4 use. The existing waste disposal "system" may be an open dump or an effluent stream with no treatment, therefore no capital or operating expenses. Different groups are generally responsible for energy generation, fertilizer supply, and waste management, and CH4 recovery and use can introduce new actors into the waste disposal process, potentially disturbing the current balance of economic and political power in the community.

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