Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

December 2007 Operations of Schooling Review. 2 A dynamic network of research and policy leaders, working together to create, analyse and implement ideas.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "December 2007 Operations of Schooling Review. 2 A dynamic network of research and policy leaders, working together to create, analyse and implement ideas."— Presentation transcript:

1 December 2007 Operations of Schooling Review

2 2 A dynamic network of research and policy leaders, working together to create, analyse and implement ideas to build a better future, locally, nationally, globally Associate Professor Juhani Tuovinen Professor Tania Aspland Dr Bill Allen Dr Leanne Crosswell Dr lisahunter

3 3 Current Project Progress Towards a Human Capital Indicators Project Question: Can we share data to collaboratively develop indicators of human capital in the smart state

4 4 Operations of Schooling Overview Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Summary & recommendations Definitions Methodology Summary of results 1. Bill Allen - School size 2. Tania Aspland - Campus composition 3. Leanne Crosswell - Classroom groupings 4. Juhani Tuovinen - Flexibility of attendance Implications and indications for DETA

5 5 Schooling for Tomorrow: Addressing the Issue of Disadvantage Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 To ensure a world-class education for all young people in Queensland the management and resourcing of the operations of schooling need to be reviewed Current practices are largely underpinned by assumptions which include: Teacher-student ratios remaining fixed at approximately1 : 25-28 Schools based on rigid step-lock patterns by student age Schools functioning from 9am to 3pm only, for 39 weeks of the year Traditional rigid pedagogies contained within an inflexible primary/secondary divide Schools often acting as holding patterns limiting student growth and development If these assumptions continue to shape the operations of schools, they will sustain an educational crisis that currently exists in schools, the crisis of widening advantage and disadvantage

6 6 Operations of Schooling Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Advantages: Larger schools with higher SES students can create a positive critical mass, enjoying broader and deeper curriculum choices and greater teacher specialisation Heterogeneous grouping of students preserve the benefits of the currently dominant groups e.g. boys in Mathematics; girls in English Fixed attendance schedules and timetabling allow those who are socially and financially independent to work comfortably within normative frameworks High quality, well-maintained campuses exist in schools serving higher SES communities who have the capacity to garner resources to ensure these

7 7 Operations of Schooling Disadvantages: Large schools with students from lower SES backgrounds generate negative critical masses resulting in poorer academic, social and behavioural outcomes Heterogeneous groupings preserve the conditions for lack of achievement – such as girls in science classes, boys in English classes, and high ability children in mind-numbing classes pitched at a level below what challenges them Inflexible attendance and timetabling schedules prevent students who have commitments in other areas like work and family, or Indigenous students observing traditional customs and practices, from studying and working at times that best suit them Poor quality classrooms and buildings consolidate feelings of hopelessness and despair and reinforce anti-social behaviours Lack of identity and belongingness exist among students who most need it Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

8 8 Recommendations - Structured Flexibility Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Conceiving of schools as precincts Physical or virtual Multiple phases of schooling Schools within a school Fluidity and flexibility to create student groupings to meet the needs of different groups Fluidity and flexibility to develop attendance patterns and timetable Designed to incorporate the best architectural features and that are pedagogically sound and technologically rich, and are maintained as such Savings from larger, more efficient, predictably urban precincts are transferred to the higher-cost, smaller schools and virtual precincts that will necessarily exist in the rural areas of Queensland

9 9 Defining Questions Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 To what extent do the operational aspects of schooling, especially school size and composition, student grouping in classrooms, especially in terms of sex and ability and the flexibility of attendance, influence student outcomes? What are the mediating and moderating relationships between the operational aspects of schooling (in terms of the above-named variables) and other school environmental factors, e.g. socio-economic, teacher-child engagement, etc? What evidence is there to suggest that the findings can be generalised to Queensland schools?

10 10 Definitions The operational aspects of schooling, including campus composition, the size of school campus, grouping of students and flexibility of attendance have often been the subject of educational research. Student outcomes can include: 1. Academic achievement, measured by results in public examinations or standardised tests; 2. Behavioural indicators such as attendance, violent behaviour, drop-out rates, involvement in extra-curricular activities; sense of belongingness; measures of student self-concept, self esteem, self-efficacy. Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

11 11 Process/Methodology Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Research questions Select bibliographic databases and websites Choose search terms Apply practical screen (content) Apply methodological quality screen (research design) Moderate reviewing process Complete review Synthesize results Produce descriptive review Perform meta- analysis

12 12 Methodology Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Research questions Select bibliographic databases and websites Choose search terms Apply practical screen (content) Apply methodological quality screen (research design) Moderate reviewing process Complete review Synthesize results Produce descriptive review Perform meta- analysis

13 13 Databases Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 A+ (includes AARE) ERIC (includes AERA) CAUL online theses Google scholar ACER Reference follow up

14 14 Methodology Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Research questions Select bibliographic databases and websites Choose search terms Apply practical screen (content) Apply methodological quality screen (research design) Moderate reviewing process Complete review Synthesize results Produce descriptive review Perform meta- analysis

15 15 Complex Model Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

16 16 Complex Model Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

17 17 Campus Composition Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

18 18 Campus Composition Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

19 19 Campus Composition Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Findings Few hits Multiple orientations Quality of school buildings correlated with student performance and SES Quality matters Acoustics & spatial configurations on mood, wellbeing, concentration and performance Optimal age/grade boundaries inconclusive Vertical stages of schooling inconclusive Transition proves difficult across sectors

20 20 Campus Composition Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Implications for future Support variety of learning styles Integrate technology Small school culture Neighbourhood communities Comfortable

21 21 School Size Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

22 22 School Size Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

23 23 School Size Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Student outcomes Two measures in the literature: Student achievement - measured by student scores in common examinations or standardised test scores Other student outcomes - mainly behavioural: e.g. daily attendance;drop out rates; graduation rates; anti-social behaviours and discipline

24 24 School Size Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 School size and student achievement Evidence suggests that student outcomes are better in large schools: Evidence principally from the UK, but supported by studies in the USA where controls for other variables are removed All studies show that the relationship is U-shaped with a threshold size posited by different studies

25 25 School Size Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 School size and student achievement 1.Curriculum offerings broader and deeper 2.Teacher specialisation more likely – especially where teachers can teach at highest levels 3.Evidence shows that presence of post-compulsory years in secondary schools has a positive effect 4.Positive critical mass Major reasons put forward for this:

26 26 School Size Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 School size and other outcomes Evidence strongly shows that school size is negatively related to other student outcomes - i.e. smaller schools do better Studies are principally from the USA Findings have spawned the small schools movement; particularly in urban areas and now actively supported by the US Federal Government

27 27 School Size Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 School size and other aspects of schooling School size and efficiencies are positively related School size and curriculum offerings (breadth and depth positively related - but breadth not incrementally so, and student uptake of curriculum offerings not in proportion to those offerings Some evidence shows that student achievement can be higher in schools with limited range of curriculum offering - focus on achievement in a narrower range of subjects

28 28 School Size Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Impact of socio-economic status A significant number of US studies (Howley, 1996; Bickel & Howley 1999; Stevenson 2006) find that SES accounts for the greatest variations in correlation between school size and student outcomes Principal finding is that students from lower SES do much better in smaller schools Other studies (UK and Australian) find that controls for SES do not affect correlation between school size and student achievement

29 29 School Size Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 School Size and SES For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance; but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that which he hath. (Matthew 13:12) Howley and Howley & Bickel The Matthew Principle - school consolidation plans and its impact on different SES groups:

30 30 School Size Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Role of critical mass and school size Explaining variations between school size, student outcomes and SES in Australian contexts e.g: Lamb et al. (2004) Cohorts of higher SES students in large schools create a positive; critical mass which leads to higher levels of outcomes By implication, a critical mass of lower SES students who are disengaged will have a negative effect on student outcomes

31 31 School Size Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Role of schools with in a school (SWAS) Attempts to break up larger schools and create sub-schools either horizontal or vertical Fouts (1994,1995) Eichenstein (1991) and Wasley (2000) show positive impacts of such actions These findings suggest a compromise for the organisation of large schools

32 32 School Size Summary of findings - a graphical representation High Academic achievement Behavioural outcomes Efficiency Curriculum offerings Low Small Large Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

33 33 School Size Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Implications 1. SWAS in physical campuses 2. smaller schools connected through a network/virtual campus From a human capital perspective: larger schools are better From a citizen/social justice perspective: small schools may be better Compromise? Meeting the best of both worlds through

34 34 Student Groupings Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

35 35 Student Groupings Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

36 36 Student Groupings Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Geographical grouping by disadvantage is of increasing concern Accepted norm of grouping by chronological age is not challenged or investigated in research Literature Key Strategies: Grouped by sex Grouped by ability Alternative approaches: Grouping of multiple grades Grouping students considered to be at risk Grouping students with similar cultural or ethnic background

37 37 Student Groupings Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Relationship to Student Outcomes - Contention within the literature - Evidence that supports gains for affective and academic outcomes – specifically in curriculum areas of mathematics, science and English - Effective in-class group is 3-4 students - Outcomes depends on level student grouped with. - Contention within literature - Gifted students benefit academically but may experience a negative emotional impact - Average students experience a slight positive benefit - Lower ability students experience a slight to significant negative impact Single sex classes: Ability grouping within class: Setting - ability grouping in curriculum areas: Streaming - ability grouping in full programs:

38 38 Student Groupings Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Addresses some of the recognised needs of middle years students. Male classes present challenges unless curriculum and pedagogy are flexible and responsive to their needs. Optimal Patterns Most equitable and viable general grouping strategy is single sex groupings with differentiated curriculum and adapted pedagogical approaches Gifted learners benefit from access to some ability grouped activities Lower ability students benefit from learning in mixed ability groups Students considered at risk benefit from tailored programs to enhance student agency, engagement and achievement

39 39 Student Groupings Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Mediating Factors The Teacher Ability to be flexible and responsive to the needs of the cohort Must continually differentiate curriculum and pedagogy The Hawthorn Effect – novelty of new strategies temporarily enhances outcomes Socioeconomic status Socioeconomic disadvantage has a negative impact on academic results Grouping socioeconomically disadvantaged students together exacerbates social and educational issues for entire community

40 40 Student Groupings Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Implications Grouping decisions need to be a school based response Single-sex classes – flexible use may be beneficial Within class groupings – cautious occasional use of ability grouping may benefit average ability students, whereas lower ability students benefit from use of mixed ability groups Part-time, flexible activities should be considered for gifted students to enhance holistic development Tailored programs/interventions should be considered for at-risk students to improve student engagement and long term outcomes Essential that teachers consulted and support grouping strategies. Differentiation of pedagogy and the curriculum is critical.

41 41 Flexibility of Attendance Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

42 42 Flexibility of Attendance Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7

43 43 Flexibility of Attendance Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Dimensions of flexibility Annual Days/week Hours/day Sessions/day Sessions length Time subject Daily attendance Virtual schooling Location flexibility

44 44 Flexibility of Attendance Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Caveats Evidence is weak, but suggestive Most evidence re flexibility - part of combined packages of factors Findings Longer and shorter school years advocated. Student outcomes evidence contradictory Days/week & hours/day flexibility most relevant to groups of students, e.g. gifted & talented or low achieving students. Evidence not consistent

45 45 Flexibility of Attendance Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Findings, cont Block scheduling benefits not convincing re academic outcomes, but may provide better school climate. Multiple age groups advocated (limited evidence) - implementation conditions often difficult. High-risk students benefit from sessions/day & length of session flexibility. Timetabling for teaching small groups by teams may help with curriculum coordination & pastoral care. Extensive need for (NECTL, 1994) & multiple forms of timetable flexibility in practice (Middleton, 1999) - in major studies.

46 46 Flexibility of Attendance Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Findings, cont Daily attendance flexibility helpful for at-risk students & students with special responsibilities. Virtual schooling viable component of attendance for students with poor access to schools or other school attendance difficulties.

47 47 Flexibility of Attendance Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 1.Good administration 2. Teacher professional development 3. Expert assistance 4. Teacher teams + time for joint planning 5. Strategic variety of teaching approaches 6. Attend to individual student needs 7. Application to students in transition & lower performing students Relationships Longer and shorter school years advocated. Many factors related, e.g. costs homework… Days/week & hours/day flexibility most relevant to gifted and talented or low achieving students. Factors: program nature Block scheduling not wholly convincing. Factors:

48 48 Flexibility of Attendance Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 1.Allowing students a say in curriculum & rules 2. Focus on real life learning activities 3. Experienced teachers 4. Teachers worked as a team 5. Senior teacher (DP) in teaching team. 6. Outside consultant (an academic) in the project Relationships cont Timetabling for teaching small groups of students by teams helps coordination of curriculum &pastoral care. Factors:

49 49 Flexibility of Attendance Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Optimal Patterns Special programs with flexibility of attendance beneficial for gifted & talented. At-risk students benefit from flexibility of attendance. Location flexibility suitable for particular groups of students. Block scheduling, modular & intensive programs benefit students, short-term study targets & continuous time to study deeply, instead of disruption by movement & conflict.

50 50 Flexibility of Attendance Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Environment & School SES important external condition & suggests flexible programs needed for low SES. Participation in community events: school flexibility + ensuring students do not fall behind. Multi-age flexibility a broader curriculum for small schools. Virtual schooling for students with special needs.

51 51 Model 2 Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Flexible attendanceCampus compositionGroupingsSchool size PRIMARY EARLY PHASE -----------------------------GiftedandTalented flexiblity ---------------------- ---------------------Alternative site use flexibility motivation ------------------ ------------------------- Online/virtual flexibility-------------------------------- ------------------------Indigenous-special schools/programs---------------- ------------------------- Indigenous-annual attendance flexible-------------- -----------------School completion flexible – homework------------------- -----Indigenous students/non academic short school days and WPL---- -----Meet individual needs of students –Block------ Already exists Little evidence that smaller campuses is significant Improved literacy and maths outcomes but evidence that small classes minimize disruption Multi-age Chevalum and Montessori nil effect Research limited as primary schools generally small/community based studies-smaller schools more effective (<200) MIDDLE PHASE Already exists Inconclusive evidence of small campus impact on learning outcomes – case study Debatable evidence re impact of large campus/small campus on working, climate, achievement Gifted and talented red and sepia effect SWAS middle schooling SECONDARY Transition block scheduling New schools (+small) reduce dropouts, increase attendance, improve outcomes Strong indicators that building design influences learning especially in lower SES groups: temperature, lighting, air control, building age, acoustics Streaming for talents Sex-split classes in historically sexed knowledge areas (maths/science/English) (WA) positive effect, mixed results Order of success=girls only, co-ed, boys only Target schools broader curriculum Critical mass Non-school/school factor SES – social geography Teacher quality Teaching styles Academic climate SWAS in larger schools improved outcomes SENIOR PHASE Importance of criteria for quality evaluation of school design impact on students – well researched 11-12 in school improvement travel costs often impact on savings through size Optimal size varies for different SES areas Smaller schools in areas of lower SES Smaller schools need more p/c funding Minority students do better in smaller schools ώ interpersonal relations and parental involvement

52 52 Recommendations - Structured Flexibility Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Conceiving of schools as precincts Physical or virtual Multiple phases of schooling Schools within a school Fluidity and flexibility to create student groupings to meet the needs of different groups Fluidity and flexibility to develop attendance patterns and timetable Designed to incorporate the best architectural features and that are pedagogically sound and technologically rich, and are maintained as such; Savings from larger, more efficient, predictably urban precincts are transferred to the higher-cost, smaller schools and virtual precincts that will necessarily exist in the rural areas of Queensland.

53 53 Operations of Schooling Review 3/12/7 Implications and indications for DETA RESEARCH Need for uniquely Australian/Qld studies Extend dominant ideas of schooling Collection and analysis of DETA data related to operations of schooling School redesign network e.g. learning village Re-analysis of literature with multiple indexed categories Clearer definitions and questions re sustainability of outcomes Establish extent causality Longitudinal study

54 December 2007 Operations of Schooling Review


Download ppt "December 2007 Operations of Schooling Review. 2 A dynamic network of research and policy leaders, working together to create, analyse and implement ideas."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google