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Developing a Blended Learning Strategy: Instructional Media and Pedagogical Considerations Dr. Jolly Holden Chairman Emeritus, United States Distance Learning.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing a Blended Learning Strategy: Instructional Media and Pedagogical Considerations Dr. Jolly Holden Chairman Emeritus, United States Distance Learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing a Blended Learning Strategy: Instructional Media and Pedagogical Considerations Dr. Jolly Holden Chairman Emeritus, United States Distance Learning Association

2 The Challenge Driven by the demand to increase access to learning opportunities, educators and trainers are continually challenged to develop and integrate instructional delivery options and reduce costs without impacting instructional integrity, which leads to this question: Q: How do you meet the demand and reduce costs and/or output without sacrificing instructional quality? A: The development and implementation of a blended learning strategy. learning strategy.

3 Blended learning allows the instructional designer the opportunity to leverage the strengths of instructional media with the efficacy of the instructional components to ensure the instructional goal is attained. However, to ensure a successful blended learning strategy, it is imperative you conduct a thorough media analysis while addressing the applicable components of the instructional systems design process. Migrating to blended learning formats requires instructional design analysis that integrates with the technologies that will be utilized to deliver it. The e-Learning Developers Journal, June, 2005 The Trainers Rules of Engagement

4 This presentation will provide some background on blended learning and instructional media, as well as introducing some variables for your consideration when developing a blended learning strategy. The Blended Learning Journey synchronicity elasticity Additionally, this presentation will introduce you to the concepts of synchronicity (the integration of learning environments) and elasticity (the integration of instructional media with appropriate instructional strategies). Define Blended Learning Review the Evolution & Genealogy of Instructional Media Define Learning Environments Identify Instructional Media Selection Considerations Identify & Evaluate Instructional & Pedagogical Variables Presentation objectives : Define Elasticity and Synchronicity

5 Note: On some screens, you will need to click the icon depicted below to view additional information. For example, click the icon for a glossary of terms used in this module. Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications Presentation Road Map Blended Learning Definitions Evolution of Instructional Media Learning Environments: Synchronicity Blended Learning Model Learning Environment Component Instructional Component Media Component Elasticity of Blended Learning Blended Learning Market This is the Home page and depicts the major topics contained in this module. The menu bar at the bottom of the screen consists of hyperlinks when clicked will direct you to that topic. On each side of the menu bar are arrow buttons that allow you to move forward and back between slides.

6 Blended Learning Definition A Holistic Perspective The delivery of instruction using multiple media * Includes the integration of instructional media into a traditional classroom or into a distance learning environment. Includes any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media. * Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach There is no universally accepted definition of blended learning. The following pages articulate several definitions representing different perspectives in an attempt to define this term, but they all have one essential component in common...an integration of instructional media. A rose by any other name is still a rose... Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications A combination of synchronous and asynchronous experiences. For clarification, blended learning is also applied to mixed online and face-to-face training, and more generally to approaches to course design and delivery that combine different modalities (e.g., self-paced Web-based training, followed by classroom instruction, accompanied by printed job aids, and supplemented by virtual classroom follow-up sessions). Source: E-learning Guild Handbook on Synchronous e-Learning (2007)

7 Blended Learning Definition: An Educational Perspective * Note: The two core elements (online and face-to-face instruction) of the above definition were deemed critical and that it eliminated certain forms of stand-alone media such as videotape, CD-ROM, or DVD that might be used solely in a face-to-face course. It would not eliminate these media if used in a course that had both an online and a face-to-face component. 1.Courses that integrate online with traditional face-to- face class activities in a planned pedagogically valuable manner; and… 2.where a portion (institutionally defined) of face-to-face time is replaced by online activity * Source: Laster, S., G. Otte, A. G. Picciano and S. Sorg. Redefining blended learning. Presented at the 2005 Sloan-C Workshop on Blended Learning, Chicago, IL, April 18, Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications Click on the icon for a conceptual view Click on the icon for elements comprising blended learning & online

8 Note According to a recent report (March 2007) by the Sloan-C Foundation entitled Blending In The Extent and Promise of Blended Education in the United States*, only 38% of surveyed universities agreed that blended courses hold more promise than online courses in 2004, a decrease from 46 percent agreement in Note: The percentage of reported blended course offerings remained stable from 2002–2005 while the percentage offered online increased. Schools report offering an average of 10.6 percent of their course sections online in 2005, up from 6.5 percent in 2003, while the respective percentages for blended offerings shown a steady decline from 2003 (6.8%) to 2005 (5.6%) Source: Sloan-C/Eduventures Report: Blending In, available at Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications Click on the icon for more statistics concerning penetration of online & blended courses/programs in higher education* Comment: In online learning for higher education, the majority of instructional content resides in printed material, i.e., the course text(s) [aka the Binded Object Oriented Knowledge System- -BOOKS], delivered via mail and not online. However, the majority of the instructional content [if not all] in online learning within the training community is delivered via online. Click for Comment

9 Consequently, from an educational perspective, blended learning (sometimes referred to as hybrid learning) is primarily focused on integrating two separate paradigms…the traditional face-to-face classroom [synchronous] environment and the asynchronous online environment. Traditional Classroom Blended Learning Online However, when developing a blended learning strategy, consider all available media and leverage their specific strengths in attaining the most optimal solution. so consider another definition as defined on the next page Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

10 Another Definition of Blended Learning Courses that are taught both in the classroom (face-to-face) and at distance and that use a mix of different pedagogic strategies (edutechwiki, 2006, Available at To combine or mix modes of web-based technology (e.g., live virtual classroom, self-paced instruction, collaborative learning, streaming video, audio, and text) to accomplish an educational goal. To combine various pedagogical approaches (e.g., constructivism, behaviorism, cognitivism) to produce an optimal learning outcome with or with out instructional technology. To combine any form of instructional technology (e.g., videotape, CD- ROM, web-based training, film) with face-to-face instructor-led training. To mix or combine instructional technology with actual job tasks in order to create a harmonious effect of learning and working. Source: Margaret Driscoll, n.d, retrieved Jan 5, 2007 from: Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications More specifically…

11 Although this quote sounds as if it were referring to a new technological break- through, in reality, this profound statement was uttered by the Reverend Joseph H. Odell, D. D. (1910) in his address titled "The New Era in Education: A Study of the Psychology of Correspondence Methods of Instruction" delivered in 1910 at the dedication of the instruction building of the International Correspondence Schools in Scranton, Pennsylvania. Where [and when] it really Started I do not know any innovation upon existing methods more radical and revolutionary than this I do not know any innovation upon existing methods more radical and revolutionary than this Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications Nearly a century later, similar sentiments are still echoed today …the single greatest unrecognized trend in higher education. Blended learning is …the single greatest unrecognized trend in higher education. J. Young, President, Pennsylvania State University, 2002

12 What does it mean? As instructional media continues to evolve, propelled by advances in technology and fueled by the need to increase learning opportunities, the evolution and advancements of instructional media will continue to accelerate as well. As a result, permutations of the basic concept will also emerge, resulting in different applications of blended learning and further variations of the definition. Consequently, by tracing the history and genealogy of instructional media, one can establish a solid foundation by which to better understand and apply the basic constructs of blended learning. Developing a comprehensive blended learning strategy is more than just integrating instructional media. Its about considering all aspects of the learning event in attaining the ultimate goal: Increasing performance Increasing performance. Evolution of Instructional Media Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications So lets begin the journey…

13 Evolution of Instructional Media International Correspondence School launched in Pennsylvania Establishment of first correspondence school in Europe 1840 Chautauqua [Correspondence] Institute founded in NY 1921 First educational radio license issued to Latter Day Saints Univ. Iowa State launched first educational TV programs British Open University established PBS is created and launches education TV US DOE launches Star Schools Project National University Teleconferencing Network founded National Technological University founded 1985 One can trace the evolution of distance learning in the United States from the late 19th century, where based on our societys egalitarian approach to education, had its early beginnings in correspondence courses [Note: Correspondence courses originated much earlier in Europe]. This timeline traces the genealogy of instructional media by depicting its early origins over 120 years ago to the application of modern communication media to meet todays demands. Then, with the introduction of the computer, learning communities quickly realized the potential of this powerful new technology and adopted it as another delivery tool. As the computer continued to evolve, a new generation of the computer-mediated instruction arrived, culminating in the emergence of the Internet. Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications Prof Chris Dede coins Distributed Learning John Chambers, CEO Cisco, speaking to the PC industry, states e-learning will make look like a rounding error. Los Alamos Natl Labs launches 1st natl conf. on distance learning 1 st online, accredited university launched [Jones Intl Univ.] 1993 E-learning 2.0 emerges 2005 E-learning arrives As the country grew and evolved from an agrarian society to an industrialized nation, the demand for education increased significantly. With the ensuing emergence of radio and TV, the education community quickly realized the potential of these new media and adopted them to distribute education programs to a geographically dispersed workforce.

14 The Family Tree of Instructional Media Correspondence (1883-present) Electronic-assisted Learning (circa 1990-present) T echnology-enabled (circa 1950s-1990s TV (satellite & cable) audio tape audio graphics audio conferencing e-learning (circa 1995-present) Computer-mediated Learning (circa 1970-present) Computer-based Training (CBT) Web-based Training Online Learning Satellite e-learning Video Conferencing Video tape/DVD/ ipods Electronic whiteboards In the beginning, there was only correspondence courses, and the concept of blending wasnt born yet. Then along came radio and TV with its multimedia and broadcast capability, was adopted by the education community to deliver courses to a geographically dispersed workforce, particularly the agrarian population As the technology evolved, more delivery tools emerged to where the instructional designer now has a plethora of choices that can be used singularly or integrated to create a blended learning solution. Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

15 Correspondence (1883-present) Electronic-assisted Learning (circa 1990-present) T echnology-enabled (circa 1950s-1990s e-learning (circa 1995-present) Computer-mediated Learning (circa 1970-present) Computer-based Training (CBT) Web-based Training Online Learning Satellite e-learning Video Conferencing Video tape/DVD/ ipods Electronic whiteboards Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications Extending the Family Tree of Instructional Media to Tomorrow Portability (Handheld devices) PDAs Wireless (Push technology) ?? iphones ?? Change is inevitable, and tomorrow will bring newer and better technologies, accompanied by a new set of challenges, but the goal is the same: Optimize the technology without sacrificing instructional quality. In the end, incorporating sound instructional design principles will provide you the solid foundation to ensure the learning outcomes are attained. Virtual learning environments

16 The Learning Environment: Two Dimensions The Basics Same time/same place (traditional instructor-led classroom) Same time/different place (virtual instructor-led classroom) Different time/different place SynchronousAsynchronous Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications So how are these two environments integrated as it applies to blended learning? Click the next arrow for more on synchronicity.

17 The Concept of Synchronicity Although synchronicity is dichotomous, per se, either synchronous or asynchronous, it does not mean they are mutually exclusive when considering a blended learning solution. If viewed as being on opposite ends of a continuum, the degree to which these two dichotomous environments can be integrated would result in a blending of synchronicity. Therefore, to attain the most optimum blend, one must consider the vehicle(s) that deliver the content, the [learning environment] in which the learning occurs, and the instructional objective(s) [which drive the development of the content and instructional strategies]. Consequently, blended learning can include any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media. Blended Learning SynchronousAsynchronous Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications Click for instructional media selection matrix Click for instructional media selection matrix

18 Blended Learning Model Components A model can be a description of a system or phenomenon that accounts for its known or inferred properties and used for further study of its characteristics. Therefore, a blended learning model can be used as a guide in evaluating and integrating separate components that would result in an instructionally sound learning situation. Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component The first component is used to evaluate the most appropriate media to delivery the content The second component is to determine which learning environment (synchronous/ asynchronous) best supports the instructional objectives The third component is to select the instructional strategies that support the learning objectives Collaborative online learning is now recognized as a component of a mature blended-learning strategy. Bersin & Associates, Bersin & Associates, Technology Update: Open Source e-Learning Systems, June 2007

19 Blended Learning Model Learning Environment Component Media Component BlendedLearning Instructional Component The degree of integration is based upon evaluating each component's specific attributes, resulting in the most appropriate blend to ensure attainment of the overall instructional goal. Media Component Learning Environment Component Instructional Component Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications With that said and bearing in mind this model is based upon a set of related components, that although evaluated separately, are also viewed holistically. That is to say, each components specific contribution must be viewed as it relates to the sum total of all the parts…which results in a comprehensive blended learning solution. Click here to view a concept map of this model Click on any of the Home button icons for specific information concerning that component. For a brief summary of each component, click here.here

20 Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications The Concept of Elasticity in Blended Learning The power of blended learning is in its elasticity Depending upon the [cognitive] level of the learning objectives and the learning environment (synchronous vis-a-vis asynchronous), different combinations of instructional media and instructional strategies can support various levels of interactivity to attain the most appropriate "blend". As the blend changes, the model becomes "elastic", allowing the instructional designer to modify the blend to meet specific learning outcomes. The point is this…there may be several blended solutions that can meet your instructional objectives, so consider the qualitative merits of all instructional media. The ultimate goal is to increase performance through the systematic evaluation of intra-dependent variables that would result in the most appropriate integration of media. Any combination of instructional delivery medium, including the traditional classroom, can result in a blended learning solution, but the instructional efficacy of the solution is most dependent upon the instructional and learning environment components.

21 What Does the Research Indicate? Degree of interactivity does not always correlate with performance but does affect satisfaction The amount of interaction does not affect learning outcomes Research shows no significant difference in learning outcomes with residence instruction when appropriate media are selected No significant relationship between learning styles and instructional media when appropriate media are selected Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

22 How Does the Market Accept Blended Learning? Surveys from different organizations indicate... 56% Use blended learning approach with the classroom Source: Bersin & Associates, % of the blended learning mix includes the traditional classroom Source: The E-Learning Guild, 2003 Use Blended Learning Sometimes - 61% Use Blended Learning Frequently - 39% Don't Use Blended Learning-15% Use Blended Learning-85% Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

23 International Data Corporation (IDC) Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning Survey from the Chief Learning Officer magazine (July 2007*) Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications The traditional classroom is still the primary delivery media (56%) but synchronous & asynchronous e-learning is increasing (24%), along with the use of m-learning (6%) * Source:

24 Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications * Source: The greatest change in the delivery mix over the next 12 to 18 months will continue to come via the increased adoption of e-learning and the increased use of portable technologies. International Data Corporation (IDC) Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning Survey from the Chief Learning Officer magazine (July 2007*) Click on the icon for IBMs perspective on blended learning and workforce mobility

25 Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications Source: When determining the most appropriate mix of learning needed to meet a companys objectives, learning professionals must weigh the benefits of each method against the associated costs and resource requirements. [There is] an important link between content type and delivery method, and they show that student-instructor interaction receives strong consideration in determining which delivery methods get employed within an organization, particularly as it relates to the more traditional forms of learning. The value of student-to-instructor interaction remains a primary driver for both classroom-based ILT and synchronous e-learning….as well as student-to-student interaction.

26 "It is likely not the blendedness that makes the difference, but rather the fundamental re- consideration of the content in light of new instructional and media choices. Source: Richard Voos, Blended Learning-What is it and where might it take us? Sloan-C View, Volume 2 Issue 1 - February Retrieved 1/10/2007 from Consider This… Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

27 And Metaphorically Speaking… The best current evidence is that media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in nutrition… only the content of the vehicle can influence achievement. Richard Clark, Review of Educational Research Journal, 1993 Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications

28 Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity ImplicationsDefinitionsMedia EvolutionLearning EnvironmentsBlended Learning ModelElasticityImplications Collaboration The Learning Mantra: Why are we here? Training/education is the process Learning is the outcome The technology is the means Final Note Receiver (Learner) Sender (Instructor) Delivery System The learner is why we are here! Focus on learning outcomes…the end result: Improving human performance

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30 Learning Environment Component Distance Learning Traditional Classroom Synchronous Asynchronous A learning environment can either be synchronous or asynchronous, per se, the learning is either occurring real-time with an instructor (synchronous), or it is occurring without the presence of an instructor (asynchronous). Regardless, each learning environment has their distinct advantages and disadvantages, and the goal of developing a blended learning strategy is to leverage those specific attributes of each environment to ensure the most optimum use of resources to attain the instructional goal. Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Learning Environment Page Synchronous AsynchronousLearning Environment PageSynchronousAsynchronous

31 The Synchronous Learning Environment Same TimeDifferent Place Advantages Provides for a dialectic learning environment with a high level of interactivity Encourages spontaneity of oral responses Immediate reinforcement of ideas Supports activation learning strategies such as idea generation (brainstorming) Provides for peer support (social learning theory) Allows for peer-to-peer interaction Structured learning environment Back to Main Page Learning Environment Page Synchronous AsynchronousBack to Main PageLearning Environment PageSynchronousAsynchronous Disadvantages Limited to same time Required dedicated instructor Does not provide for self-pacing May be limited to same place (albeit at a distance) High cognitive load

32 Different Time Different/Same Place Advantages Provides for more opportunity of reflective thought Not constrained by time Delayed reinforcement of ideas Provides for flexibility in delivery of content Less structured learning environment Provides for flexibility in location (home, office, etc.) The Asynchronous Learning Environment Back to Main Page Learning Environment Page Synchronous AsynchronousBack to Main PageLearning Environment PageSynchronousAsynchronous Disadvantages No live interaction Longer completion times Just-in-time = do-it-on-your own-time Higher non-completion rates pacing not optimized

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34 Media Component Synchronicity Asynchronous Instructional Media Synchronous Instructional Media Portability Some instructional media may be more appropriate than others in supporting either a synchronous or asynchronous learning environment, but no single medium is inherently better or worse than another. Although the delivery medium does not affect the content, the selection of certain media may affect how you design the content based on the attributes of that specific medium. Regardless, when the most appropriate media are selected based on the ISD process, then learning outcomes will not be affected. Media are vehicles that simply deliver their contents. When developing a blended learning solution, the selection of the most appropriate media is not based solely on the attributes for that specific medium, but how the media may also impact the pedagogical components, e.g., the learning environment and instructional components. Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy PortabilityMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

35 Taxonomy of Blended Learning Media Click on either of the hyperlinks for a detailed description of the media Synchronous Media Asynchronous Media Visual Only (includes graphics) Correspondence (print) Recorded Video Aural Only Audio Conferencing Recorded Audio Visual & Aural Instructional Television Satellite e-Learning Video Teleconferencing Web Conferencing (SLS*) * synchronous learning systemssynchronous learning systems Webinars Audiographics Recorded Video Computer Based Instruction Asynchronous Web Based Instruction (online training) Instructional Television The taxonomy is focused primarily on a dichotomous learning environment * * Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy PortabilityBack to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

36 Technologies Supporting Blended Learning Synchronous Video Teleconferencing Video Teleconferencing Satellite e-learning Satellite e-learning Audio Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics Audio Graphics Web Conferencing/SLS Web Conferencing/SLS Webinars WebinarsAsynchronous Pre-recorded video audio (video/audio tapes, DVDs, Pre-recorded video audio (video/audio tapes, DVDs, iPods/vPods, etc.) iPods/vPods, etc.) CBT CBT Cable TV Cable TV Correspondence Correspondence Online (stand-alone modules) Online (stand-alone modules) Note: When evaluating the media component, blogs, wikis, and discussion boards are primarily collaborative tools and not considered stand-alone, instructional media delivery options. However, they can be integrated into a course/learning module in developing a social learning structure that supports active learning and knowledge construction through peer-to-peer interaction. Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy PortabilityBack to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

37 Integrating Instructional Media: A Blended Learning Approach Synchronous Media Satellite e-learning Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics Web Conferencing/ SLS Webinars Asynchronous Media Online (Web-Based Training) Computer-based Training Video Tape/DVD Audio Tape Podcast/vodcast Blended Solution Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy PortabilityBack to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

38 Synchronous Instructional Media Internet-based and delivered over the Web that enable synchronous audio and/or text chat, video, document and application sharing, whiteboards, presentations, etc. Can support synchronous oral interaction between the instructor and remote students at multiple locations as well as supporting Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE) or webinars. Due to bandwidth limitations (basically, low-bandwidth applications), high- resolution images and video may be limited. Note: The application of web conferencing in a learning environment is also known as synchronous learning systems (SLS). Synchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI)/Web Conferencing (Synchronous Learning Systems) ITV is defined as a one-way, full motion video and audio transmission of classroom instruction through a telecommunications channel such as satellite, cable TV, or Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS), a dedicated 2.5GHz spectrum managed by the FCC and limited to educational programming only, usually transmitted via microwave Instructional Television (ITV) Audiographics combines audio conferencing with personal computer text and graphics, allowing both voice and data to be transmitted to remote sites. Typically, a site consists of audio conference equipment, plus a large screen that serves as an electronic whiteboard. This system allows for two-way data exchange (limited to high- resolution still images only) and a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor and students at multiple sites. Audiographics An audio-only environment in which students in different locations use telephones or audio conferencing equipment to communicate with each other in real time. Supports a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor, remote students, and multiple sites but does not support visual images and graphics, and often supplemented by electronic or printed handouts. Can be integrated with other delivery systems to provide synchronous audio. Audio Conferencing Description Technology Delivery

39 Synchronous Instructional Media towers. This specific application would not be available to instructional programming programming received via commercial cable TV). Due to the bandwidth available via satellite or ITFS, this delivery medium can emulate the live, traditional classroom environment but at a distance. ITV is sometimes referred to as Business Television (BTV), Interactive Video Teletraining, or Interactive TV, and can be transmitted via analog or digital systems. Instructional Television (ITV)- cont Satellite e-learning represents the next generation of distributed media. Utilizing IP (Internet Protocol) as the network layer and distribution technology, it also incorporates the latest MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) video standard or latest version of Widows Media. Similar in application to ITV, it allows for the live traditional classroom to be transmitted to a remote site while synchronous oral interactivity is supported by audio teleconferencing or student response systems integrating audio and keypad technology (data interaction). Additionally, since satellite e-learning uses IP, video streaming can be utilized at extremely high bandwidths (~3.0Mbps). The IP-based video can be distributed directly to the users end-point and then distributed via the LAN to either a classroom or desktop computer, or both. Also, satellite e-learning can easily transmit large multimedia/web-based training modules (known as data casting) without being constrained by bandwidth, as is common with a terrestrial network. This capability allows the data to bypass the WAN by transmitting directly to the users end- point and then distributed locally via the LAN, thereby effectively bypassing the terrestrial infrastructure and the Internet. Satellite e-learning is also referred to as BTV/IP (Business Television/Internet Protocol). Satellite e-learning Description Technology Delivery

40 Synchronous Instructional Media Technology Delivery Description Video Teleconferencing (VTC) VTC systems are two-way communication systems that offer both audio and video from local and remote sites and provide for synchronous interaction between the instructor and remote students at multiple locations. It allows for the instructor to observe the students at the far end (remote location), allowing the student to demonstrate an event. These systems can be terrestrial, satellite-based, or microwave- based Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS). Generally VTCs transmit and receive between 384Kbps – 1.5Mbps, with the next generation coders/decoders (codecs) IP enabled.

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42 Synchronous Learning Systems (SLS) e-Learning Guild 2007 Report 35% of members surveyed report they do not use a SLS (organization of all sizes) 29% of members working in organizations >10,000 employees report that they do not use a SLS Basically, SLS is web conferencing in that it can support low-bandwidth media such as PowerPoint and Flash with audio (audio conferencing and/or VOIP), but due to bandwidth limitations, is constrained in supporting media-rich applications Back to Taxonomy

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44 Asynchronous Instructional Media Technology Delivery Description Asynchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI) On-demand, online-based instruction stored on a server and accessed across a distributed electronic network. It can be delivered over the Internet or private local area network (LANs) or Wide Area Networks (WANs) where the content is displayed utilizing a web browser. Student access is asynchronous, self-paced, and does not provide for synchronous interaction between the instructor and the remote student. High- resolution images and video may be limited due to available bandwidth. Computer Based Instruction (CBI) Interactive instructional experience between a computer and the learner where the computer provides the majority of the stimulus and the student responds. The computer is the storage and delivery device with all content resident on the students computer. It provides the primary display and storage capability and can support high- resolution images and video. Correspondence (print) Entirely print-based, asynchronous and self-paced. Can be augmented through the use of multimedia CD-ROM. Instructor feedback can be facilitated through the use of . Used extensively to support other media Recorded Audio (Tape and digital broadcast) Recorded audio contenton tape or transmitted electronicallywhich can be used as a stand-alone delivery tool or part of a blended learning approach. Can be used as the sole means of content or as part of a blended approach. Recorded Video (Tape and digital broadcast) A method of capturing learning content on tape or as a digital file for viewing on- demand. Can be used as the sole means of content or as part of a blended approach. Often used to capture a real time event and is an effective distribution medium that supports high-resolution images and video but does not support a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor and the remote student.

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46 Portability Refers to how portable (mobile) a specific media may be, e.g., cell phones, ipods, personal DVD players, other similar wireless devices. When evaluating portability, consider symmetry, per se, the amount of information [digital bits] that flows to/from the sender and receiver in either direction. For example: Asymmetrical interaction is when the flow of information is predominantly in a single direction such as in a didactic lecture or computer based instruction with little or no interaction between the student and instructor. Most consumer internet services are asymmetrical in that the majority of digital information is only flowing one direction for downloading. Conversely, in a conferencing or collaborative learning environment, the information flow is symmetrical; that is to say, the information flow is evenly distributed between learners and instructors and equal amounts of digital information is flowing both directions. A close relationship exists between symmetry and interactivity. The more the interaction, the greater the need for a symmetrical delivery system. Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy PortabilityBack to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

47 Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical Learning Environments Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing Web conferencing Satellite e-learning Print Pre-recorded audio/ video (Tape/DVD) ipods/vpods CBT/WBT LowHigh Symmetry Interactivity When articulating a blended learning strategy, considering symmetry of the learning environment is almost as important as considering its synchronicity. If not taken into account, it may lead the course designer to make less than optimal choices in instructional media selection. Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy PortabilityBack to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

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49 Instructional Component: Variables to Consider Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Complexity Rapidity of Change Multimedia (aural/visual) Interactivity (strategies supporting specific media) Collaboration (P2P) Synchronous Asynchronous Didactic # Collaboration (P2P) Dialectic* * Instructor-student-instructor # Instructor-student When integrating instructional strategies (which are the products of learning objectives and serve to ensure the learning objectives are attained), some strategies may be more appropriate than others to achieve optimal learning. When developing a blended learning solution, maintaining instructional quality is paramount. To that end, learning objectives should never be sacrificed to achieve a blended learning solution. Content Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

50 Note on Learning Objectives The most significant factors in student learning are quality and effectiveness of instruction, and the most important single factor in developing a blended learning solution is the instructional objective. The level of cognitive objectives is a critical variable to consider when selecting the most appropriate media for blended learning, and generally speaking: Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels where knowledge and comprehension and repetition/drill & practice are the primary focus, and Synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels (synthesis/analysis/evaluation) where a synchronous learning environment is required to support a high level of interaction (dialog). Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

51 A learning objective (aka behavioral objective, instructional objective, enabling objective, or performance objective) is a succinct statement that describes a specific learning activity o o Includes a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit in order to evaluate competency o o Expressed in terms of the student and formulated in terms of observable behavior and the special conditions in which the behavior is manifested. What is a Learning Objective? Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

52 The purpose of creating learning objectives is to provide a means of clarifying the instructional goal and ensure the training/education is successful. Establishes the criteria for student performance used to assess learning Used to develop instructional strategies Basis for media selection Why Developing Learning Objectives? Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

53 Types of Objectives Instructional objectives are developed from a taxonomy known as the domain of learning objectives and includes three overlapping domains: Psychomotor Affective Cognitive Demonstrated by knowledge recall and the intellectual skills: comprehending information, organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem solving, and evaluating ideas or actions Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

54 Learning objectives are the foundation for the development of instructional content Continuum of Cognitive Objectives Lower Higher Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation An metaphor depicting the taxonomy of learning objectives can be thought as assembling blocks in building a pyramid. The knowledge and comprehension levels create the foundation from which one develops higher order thinking skills commensurate with the higher cognitive levels (analysis, synthesis,& evaluation). Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

55 Knowledge The first level of learning is knowledge. Knowledge can be characterized as awareness of specifics and of the ways and means of dealing with specifics. The knowledge level focuses on memory or recall where the learner recognizes information, ideas, principles in the approximate form in which they were learned. Comprehension Comprehension is the next level of learning and encompasses understanding. Has the knowledge been internalized or understood? The student should be able to translate, comprehend, or interpret information based on the knowledge. Application Application is the use of knowledge. Can the student use the knowledge in a new situation? It can also be the application of theory to solve a real world problem. The student selects, transfers, and uses data and principles to complete a problem or task. Analysis Analysis involves taking apart a piece of knowledge, the investigation of parts of a concept. It can only occur if the student has obtained knowledge of and comprehends a concept. The student examines, classifies, hypothesizes, collects data, and draws conclusions. Synthesis Synthesis is the creative act. Its the taking of knowledge and the creation of something new. It is an inductive processone of building rather than one of breaking down. The student originates, integrates, and combines ideas into something that is new to him/her. Evaluation Evaluation is judgment or decision-making. The student appraises, assesses or criticizes on a basis of specific standards and criteria. Cognitive Domain of Learning Objectives Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

56 Instruction is designed to transfer knowledge from the instructor to the learner to the real-world environment. The transfer of learning is facilitated by the development of instructional strategies o Certain synchronous instructional technologies may be best suited for instructional strategies that require a live and dialectic learning environment. o Conversely, there are asynchronous instructional technologies that are best integrated with strategies that require asynchronous learning environment. The dissemination of content through the use of instructional media is only as effective as the design of the instruction Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

57 Table of Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Description Narration/Lecture Allows for transfer of learning through mere declaration and explication of knowledge. When interaction is available, it allows for reinforcement of behavior, spontaneous questioning, dialogue, and social interaction with immediate feedback. Note: Lecture is a very efficient strategy to transfer large amounts of content but has a high cognitive load. Demonstration Skill transfer through the depiction of procedural tasks, events, processes, etc. Role Playing Involves recreating a situation relating to a real-world problem in which participants act out various roles. Promotes an understanding of other peoples positions and their attitudes as well as the procedures that may be used for diagnosing and solving problems. Learners may assume the role of a particular character, organization, professional occupation, etc. Guided Discussion Supports a synchronous, dialectic learning environment through the spontaneous and free-flowing exchange of information. Encourages active, participatory learning that supports knowledge transfer through dialogue. Students may discuss material more in-depth, share insights and experiences, and answer questions. Simulation Replicates or mimics a real event and allows for continual observation. A simulation creates a realistic model of an actual situation or environment. Illustration Depicts abstract concepts with evocative, palpable real-world examples. Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

58 Table of Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Description Imagery Imagery is the mental visualization of objects, events, and arrays. It enables internalized visual images that relate to information to be learned. Imagery helps to create or recreate an experience in the learners mind. Imagery involves all the senses: visual, kinesthetic, auditory, and tactile. Modeling A contrived, simplified version of an object or concept that encapsulates its salient features. Brainstorming Brainstorming is a valid and effective problem-solving method in which criticism is delayed and imaginative ways of understanding a situation are welcomed, where quantity is wanted and combination and improvement are sought. Brainstorming can occur with individuals or in a group setting, and involves generating a vast number of ideas in order to find an effective method for solving a problem. Case Studies A problem-solving strategy similar to simulation that works by presenting a realistic situation that requires learners to respond and explore possible solutions. Drill & Practice Repetition of a task or behavior until the desired learning outcome is achieved. Allows for transfer of knowledge from working memory to long- term memory. Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

59 MediaAppropriate Instructional Strategy Asynchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI) Narration/Description (Lecture) Demonstrations Simulations Illustrations Drill and Practice Tutorials Case Studies Modeling Role Playing Computer Based Instruction (CBI) Narration/Description Case Studies Role Playing Demonstration Illustrations Simulation Drill and Practice Tutorials Correspondence (print) Narration/Description Drill and Practice Case Studies Narration Recorded Audio (Tape and digital broadcast) Narration/Description (Lecture) Recorded Video (Tape and digital broadcast) Narration/Description (Lecture) Case Studies Illustrations Instructional Strategies Supporting Asynchronous Media Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

60 MediaAppropriate Instructional Strategy Audio Conferencing Narration/Description (Lecture) Guided Discussion Brainstorming Audiographics Narration/Description (Lecture) Guided Discussion Brainstorming IllustrationsIllustrations Synchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI)/Web Conferencing Narration/Description (Lecture) Discussion Simulation Case Studies Demonstration Illustrations Video Teleconferencing (VTC) Narration/Description (Lecture) Guided Discussion Brainstorming Case Studies Role Playing Panel Discussion Simulation Demonstration Drill and Practice Instructional Television (ITV)/ Satellite e-learning Narration/Description (Lecture) Guided Discussion Brainstorming Case Studies Role Playing Panel Discussion Simulation Demonstration Drill and Practice Instructional Strategies Supporting Synchronous Media Back to Main PageBack to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional StrategiesInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

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62 Source: Picciano, A.G. (February 9, 2005). Posting to the Official Website of the 2005 Sloan-C Summer Workshop held in Victoria, British Columbia. Click to go back

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64 Source: Sloan-C/Eduventures Report, March 2007, Blending In The Extent and Promise of Blended Education in the United States, available at: According to the Sloan-C Foundation, blended courses/programs are defined as having between 30 percent and 79 percent of the course content delivered online. Face-to- face instruction includes those courses in which zero to 29 percent of the content is delivered online (includes both traditional and web facilitated courses), and an online course is where 80%+ of the content is delivered online. Click to go back

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66 Source: Sloan-C/Eduventures Report, March 2007, Blending In The Extent and Promise of Blended Education in the United States, available at: In June 2006, Eduventures conducted a national survey of 2,033 U.S. adults who identified themselves as interested in pursuing postsecondary education in the next three years. The survey was designed to improve understanding of consumer experience and interest in different delivery modes, such as online, campus-based, and blended forms of education delivery. Analysis of the survey was published by Eduventures in the report Expanding Demand for Online Higher Education (August, 2006). Click to go back

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68 Blended Learning Model Concept Map Media Component Instructional Strategies Instructional Objectives SynchronicitySymmetry Content Rapidity of Change Complexity Asynchronous Instructional Media Synchronous Instructional Media Interactivity Dialectic* Instructional Component Symmetrical Media Portability Collaboration (P2P) Multimedia (aural/visual) Synchronous Asynchronous Didactic # Collaboration (P2P) Learning Environment Component Distance Learning Traditional Classroom Synchronous 2 Asynchronous 1 1. Different Time/ Different Place 2. Same Time/Different Place # Instructor-student * Instructor-student-instructor Asymmetrical Media Click to go back

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70 Is there a visual requirement? YesNo Audio Conferencing Is there a requirement for the student to demonstrate an event or the instructor observe the student? VTC YesNo Synchronous WBI (narrowband) Instructional TV Synchronous WBI (broadband) Audiographics VTC Is there a requirement for video & audio? No Satellite e-learning Yes No Is there a visual requirement? Is there an audio requirement? YesNoYesNo Print Video Tape Computer - Based Instruction Asynchronous WBI Instructional TV Audio Tape Is there a requirement to distribute large multimedia files to remote sites? Satellite IP (wireless) DVD/Video Tape/ Ground Shipment Yes No Print Instructional Media Selection Matrix Start Is a synchronous learning environment required? No Yes Asynchronous Learning Environment Synchronous Learning Environment Click to go back

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72 Blended Learning Analogy: A War fighters Perspective Just as technology can be a force multiplier when applied to the battle field to attain superiority, instructional technology can also become an educational force multiplier when applied to a learning environment. To that end, you would leverage your war fighting assets based on the specific attributes of each asset to accomplish the mission objective (instructional objectives), the instructional designer would also allocate assets (instructional media) based on their specific attributes and a specific learning environment (synchronous/asynchronous). Therefore, from an instructional designers perspective, you select the most appropriate media (asset) for the right [learning] environment (synchronous/asynchronous) using the right [instructional] strategies. Click to go back

73 Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component While media does not affect the content, it can affect how you design the content. Variables to consider: Media richness (motion handling, visual clarity/pixel resolution) Dispersion of workforce/distribution of content Ability to update content quickly Technological infrastructure Capital & recurring costs Bandwidth Hardware end points Portability Simplex (one-way) data vs. duplex (2-way data) Summarizing: The Media Component SynchronicitySymmetry Asynchronous Instructional Media Synchronous Instructional Media Symmetrical Media Portability Asymmetrical Media

74 Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component Synchronicity: Is the learning environment primarily synchronous or asynchronous or a combination of both? Variables to consider: Time & space Live interaction Collaboration Pacing Flexibility in content delivery Timeliness of completion Reinforcement of ideas (immediate vs. delayed) Reflection of ideas Summarizing: The Learning Environment Component Distance Learning Traditional Classroom Synchronous Asynchronous

75 Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels whereas synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels. Variables to consider: Level of interactivity Spontaneity Collaboration Peer-to-peer Instructor-student (didactic) Instructor-student-instructor (dialectic) Cognitive load Reinforcement of ideas/thoughts (immediate/delayed) Rapidity of content change Complexity of content Media richness (motion characteristics, visual clarity) Summarizing: The Instructional Component Instructional Strategies Instructional Objectives Content Rapidity of Change Complexity Multimedia (aural/visual) Collaboration (P2P) Interactivity Dialectic Collaboration (P2P) Synchronous Asynchronous Didactic

76 Synchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies Instructional TV/Satellite e-Learning Video Teleconferencing Web Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion/ Group Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Role Playing Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Case Studies Simulations Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming)

77 Asynchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies Pre-recorded audio (podcast, cassette, CD) Correspondence Pre-recorded video (CD/DVD, vodcast, tape) Narration (Lecture) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Drill & Practice Computer-based Instruction Narration (Lecture) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Role Playing Drill & Practice Narration (Lecture) Case Studies Drill & Practice Webinars Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/ Panel Discussion Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Simulations Role Playing

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79 Portability: An IBM Workforce Mobility Perspective* Blended learning allows companies to mix scheduled and unscheduled training modules and structured and unstructured learning experiences, as well as provide self-paced material to keep todays learners engaged. * Source: On demand learning: blended learning for todays evolving workforce, IBM Learning Solutions, September 2005, Available at:: Click to go back

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81 Asynchronous learning environment is when communication between the instructor and the student is not real-time. Asynchronous media is a type of delivery medium that only supports communication between the sender and receive one-way, and does not occur in real time. Behavorialism (behavioral learning theory) is mostly concerned with observable output and does not place any emphasis on the social context of learning. In a behavioral model of instruction the mind is viewed as a black box in the sense that response to stimuli can be observed and anything that exists, exists in a certain quantity and can be measured and where conditioning refers to the strengthening of [desired] behavior which results from reinforcement. Through the use of reinforcement in a predominantly individualized system of instruction, behaviorists seek to increase the number or strength of correct student responses. Under most circumstances, behaviorism is an excellent approach for assessing a learners knowledge and comprehension of a particular subject. Cognitive Levels. In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. The six levels are: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Cognitivism (cognitive learning theory) comes from the perspective that students actively process information and that learning takes place through the efforts of the student as they organize, store, and then find relationships between information, linking old to new knowledge. Cognitive theorists believe that much learning occurs with associations through contiguity and repetition and acknowledges the importance of reinforcement. Cognitive theorists believe that human beings need to acquire and reorganize information into cognitive structures that are understandable. Note: Circa 1960, psychologists began to realize there were many aspects of learning that behavioral theorists could not account for in explaining some of the inconsistencies in learning, so cognitive theory was thrust into the forefront. However, the beginning of cognitive theory can be traced as far back as the 1920s. Constructivism is a view that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information. Constructivist approaches to learning assume that subjectivity is critical because learners take in information and process it in unique ways that reflect their needs, dispositions, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings. The basic idea of constructivism is that knowledge must be constructed by the learner, it cannot be supplied by the teacher. Glossary Click to go back

82 Dialectic. Discussion and reasoning by dialogue as a method of intellectual investigation; in a learning environment, the inquiry method by which the instructor and student engage in question and answering. Didactic. Designed or intended to teach; intended to convey instruction and information. In a learning environment, the transfer of information is primarily one-way from the instructor to the student as in a lecture. Distance Learning. The acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instruction; also, structured learning that takes place without the physical presence of the instructor. Distance Education. Institutionally based formal education where the learning group is separated and where interactive communications systems are used to connect instructors, learners, and resources. e-Learning. The delivery of content via the Internet, intranet-extranet, audio and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, and CD-ROM; also, the educational content, learning services, and delivery solutions that support and enable network-based learning that is either asynchronous or synchronous; instructional content or learning experiences delivered or enabled by electronic technology. Instructional media includes all means of delivering instruction via various delivery mediums including printed material (correspondence courses) and electronic devices such as computers, cable TV, satellite, electronic whiteboards, audio/video tapes, audio and videoconferencing systems, ipods, PDAs, cell phones, etc., using either wireless or wireline technologies. Instructional technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. Educational Technology a more broader term but used synonymously with IT. Pedagogy. The activities of educating or instructing or teaching; activities that impart knowledge or skill. Synchronous learning environment supports live (real time), two-way oral and/or visual communications between the instructor and the student. Synchronous media is any type of delivery medium that supports real time communication both ways between the sender and receive. Click to go back


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