Presentation on theme: "Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice"— Presentation transcript:
1Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice Prejudice is a system of negative beliefs, feelings, and action-orientations regarding a certain group or groups of people.
2Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice Prejudice- means “prejudgment”, and unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group--often a different cultural, ethnic or gender group. It is a mixture of beliefs (overgeneralized - stereotypes), emotions (hostility, envy, or fear), and predispositions to action (to discriminate).
3Prejudice and Discrimination Psychology of Prejudice The psychology of prejudice examines the subjective state of individuals, noting three levels of prejudice:CognitiveEmotionalAction-orientationSome possible causes are self-justification, personality, and frustration aggression
4Prejudice and Discrimination Psychology of Prejudice Cognitive- person’s beliefs and perceptions of group as threatening/non-threatening, inferior/ equal, seclusive/intrusive, impulse gratifying, acquisitive, or possessing positive or negative characteristicsEmotional - feelings that a minority group arouses in an individualAction-orientation - positive or negative predisposition to engage in discriminatory behavior.
5Prejudice and Discrimination Psychology of Prejudice Self-Justification- denigrating a person or group to justify maltreatment of them, leading to prejudice and discrimination against members of another groupAuthoritarian personality - harsh parental discipline, child tends to be insecure and nurture much latent hostility against the parent. As an adult, may demonstrate displaced aggression against a powerless group to compensate for their feelings of insecurity and fear.Frustration - result of relative deprivation in which expectations remain unsatisfied
7Prejudice and Discrimination Sociology of Prejudice The sociology of prejudice examines the objective conditions of society as social forces behind prejudiced attitudes.Some possible causes are--SocializationsCompetitionConformity to social norms
8Prejudice and Discrimination Stereotype A stereotype is an overcomplicated generalization by which we attribute certain traits or characteristics to any person in a group without regard to individuals differences.Once established, stereotypes are difficult to eradicate, as several studies have shown.
9Prejudice and Discrimination Ethnophaulisms Ethnophaulisms are derogatory words or expressions used to describe racial or ethnic groups.Ethnic humor is often at the expense of a particular group, but may also serve to strengthen group cohesiveness, dissociate oneself from stereotypes of one’s group, or affirm oneself by pointing out the absurdity of one’s predicaments..
10Prejudice and Discrimination Social Prejudice Television plays a major roll in shaping attitudes and perceptions.Studies find television usually perpetrates stereotypes as well as reaffirming viewer attitudes.One study showed one-fourth of respondents believed TV depicted reality and influenced their racial and ethnic attitudes
11Prejudice and Discrimination Social Prejudice Greater interaction and education do not necessarily reduce the level of prejudice in a society.Use of cooperative learning technique in a classroom setting has demonstrated an effective means of promoting better intergroup understanding and self-esteem
12Prejudice and Discrimination Discrimination Discrimination is an action or practice of differential and unequal treatment of other groups of people, usually along racial, religious, or ethnic levels.
13Prejudice and Discrimination Discrimination Like prejudice, discrimination also exists at different levels of intensity:Verbal expressionAvoidanceExclusionPhysical abuseExtermination
14Prejudice and Discrimination Ethnoviolence Ethnoviolence is a new term describing a wide range of behavior against a particular group.Merton explains how social-situational variables can influence the relationship between prejudice and discrimination
15Prejudice and Discrimination Ethnoviolence The International Scence boxed feature discusses institutional discrimination against the Irish in Northern Ireland. (pg. 101)Think about what must be done to lessen the prejudice and discrimination that sow the seeds of violence in Northern Ireland.
16Prejudice and Discrimination Affirmative Action From its origins in 1941 through the present, affirmative action programs have been controversial.Supreme Court rulings in the late 1970’s and 1980’s upheld the principle of affirmative action but since 1989, a more conservative court has been ruling against ‘race-conscious remedies’.
17Prejudice and Discrimination Affirmative Action Evidence about the program’s success is mixed.Minority group opponents call affirmative action ‘misplaced condescension’ that has poisoned race relations.Negative public opinion polls and proposed legislation suggest the real possibility of significant changes to come.
18Prejudice and Discrimination What is prejudice? What are some of its manifestations.What are some of the possible causes of prejudice?What role do the media play in combating or reinforcing stereotypes?What is discrimination? What are some of its manifestations?What is the relationship between prejudice and discrimination?Discuss the pros and cons of affirmative action.