ELECTRICITY An electric current is created when electrons flow through a wire. Electric current can power things like our computers and TV sets. ELECTRICITY
ELECTRICITY HAS TRADITIONALLY BEEN………. to your house …fueled by coal, oil or natural gas, generated, G transformed, T and distributed
Brainstorm sources of electricity. Which are renewable and which are non-renewable?
SOLAR …THEY NEED OUR HELP! Keep America Clean! Recycle Use Natural Resources T Transformer Your Home NATURAL AND RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY Distribution Lines Biogas Wind Biomass Geothermal Hydroelectric G Generator
SOLAR ENERGY SOLUTIONS Solar Energy is light and heat energy that comes from the sun.
PHOTO + VOLT = PHOTOVOLTAIC [LIGHT] [UNIT [ELECTRICITY OF PRODUCED ELECTRICITY] FROM LIGHT] http://www.aps.com/ Photovoltaics: The direct conversion of sunlight to electricity SOLAR CELL INVERTER TRANSFORMER POWER LINES
SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS 10,000,000 Watts Solar II Experimental Power Plant, California 25,000 Watts Dish/Stirling Engine System, Arizona 1,000,000 Watts Parabolic Trough Power Plant, Arizona
HOW DOES GEOTHERMAL HEAT GET UP TO EARTH'S SURFACE? Heat comes from hot liquid magma. Magma is Hot liquid rock Magma or very hot rock
Steamboat Geyser Old Faithful Geysers at Yellowstone National Park http://en.wikipedia.org www.nps.gov An example of how the heat rises from the earth
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN ARIZONA IDENTIFY THE LOCATIONS WHERE GEOTHERMAL COULD BE. Picture from www.EnergyAtlas.org
HOW DO YOU CONVERT WIND INTO ELECTRICITY? The transformer changes the voltage to match the voltage on the power lines before it is sent to your house Rotor Diameter Generator Gearbox G Nacelle Tower T Transformer The wind hits the rotor, the rotor spins the generators making electrical energy from mechanical energy
WIND FARMS WHERE HAVE YOU SEEN THESE TYPES OF WINDMILLS?
BIOMASS ENERGY FROM ARIZONA FORESTS 1. Left alone, forests become thick with trees and forest litter. 2. Underburns known as ground fires help clear the forest floors so that grass grows and large trees survive. 3. Underburns also prevent more damaging fires that spread across the top of the trees. 4. The top of tree fires spread quickly and are much more difficult to fight. They leave burnt land that can take years to replenish. 5. Sometimes fire makes seeds grow, but sometimes the forest has to be replanted to speed the return of trees. THE BEGINNING What other damage can happen from forest fires?
Wild fires and bark beetles create biomass that can be used to generate electricity.
THE BEGINNINGS OF BIOMASS Biomass was the first fuel mankind used for energy. CLEANER THAN COAL AVAILABLE BEFORE OIL MORE NATURE FRIENDLY THAN NATURAL GAS Burning wood was used for warmth and cooking, as well as keeping wild animals away
THE BALANCE OF BIOMASS Biomass generates far less emissions than fossil fuels CO 2 (Carbon Dioxide) is released by burning biomass and is used by other plants to make food. CO 2 Use Biomass, get less Greenhouse Gas GREENHOUSE GAS MORE LESS FOSSIL FUEL BIOMASS
BALANCE OF BIOMASS Plants take in CO 2 (Carbon Dioxide) and make oxygen. When biomass is burned, it uses oxygen to make CO 2 This is the balance of biomass
BIOMASS ENERGY COMES FROM plant, human or animal derived organic matter that is eaten, burnt, or converted into fuel. Wood from trees, agriculture, wood factory waste, and the construction industry Burnt wood from forest fires Animals and animal droppings
BIOGAS Organic Waste Material + Decomposition = Biogas Vegetation Manure Sewage Landfill Garbage Breaking down, or changing, from a solid into a liquid or a gas Methane rich flammable gas
NATURE CREATES BIOGAS Nature creates biogas from rotting plants around ponds and wetlands As this methane gas is released into the atmosphere it creates an invisible ceiling which traps the heat from the sun. METHANE Rotting Vegetation
MAN-MADE BIOGAS (LANDFILLS) To prevent methane from escaping into the atmosphere, it is collected and burned in a flare stack Escaping methane can destroy nearby vegetation. What else will we lose as a result of losing plants and trees?
MAN-MADE BIOGAS (SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT) Sewage treatment plants clean sewage water producing large amounts of methane that can be flared or turned into electricity Close-up of Flares Sewage Water Sewage Digester
HYDROELECTRIC POWER Hydro means water in Latin. It is the most often used source of renewable energy to make electricity.
Water is constantly moving through a cycle: Water vapor rises into the atmosphere through evaporation from lakes and oceans and transpiration from plants and trees. It condenses to form clouds. Then rain or snow falls back to the earth to the oceans and lakes. WATER Evaporation Condensation Lake Rain Transpiration is the evaporation of water into the atmosphere from the leaves and stems of plants Transpiration
The energy of water moving downstream from the rain and snow to a reservoir or lake goes to a large dam which has engines and turbines that make electricity. Another source of hydroelectricity is tidal electricity which uses the tides from the ocean to make electricity. HOW HYDROPOWER WORKS
Solar Wind Geothermal Pros and Cons of Renewable Energy – Continuous – Abundant – Portable – Modular –Need storage, –Peaks at solar noon, –Most expensive of renewable energy sources –Cheapest of the renewable energies today –Not always near transmission lines –intermittent power –Can provide heat and cooling –Continuous – Not always near transmission lines – Not portable PRO CON
Biomass Biogas Hydropower –Can be transported to a generator for a continuous source of energy –Always accessible, can provide energy 24 hours per day – Distance to the fuel – Not always accessible – Sources are limited in size PRO CON Pros and Cons of Renewable Energy –Inexpensive –No Pollution –Lakes and reservoirs can be used for recreation –Dam construction is expensive –Damming rivers causes changes in ecological cycles and surrounding landscapes –There are a limited number of feasible sites for large dams
solar Hot Springs Geothermal Wind YOUR HOME YOUR HOME The final destination Hydroelectric Power