Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Respiration And the Pulmonary System. Types of Respiration Pulmonary respiration (ventilation) – Breathing – Inspiration – Expiration External respiration.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Respiration And the Pulmonary System. Types of Respiration Pulmonary respiration (ventilation) – Breathing – Inspiration – Expiration External respiration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiration And the Pulmonary System

2 Types of Respiration Pulmonary respiration (ventilation) – Breathing – Inspiration – Expiration External respiration – between lungs and blood Internal respiration – Between blood and cells Cellular respiration Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide and water and energy.

3 Organization of Respiratory Organs By location – Upper respiratory system Nose Pharynx and associated structure – Lower respiratory system Larynx Bronchial tree Lungs By function – Conducting portion Nasal passageways Pharynx Larynx – Respiratory portion Bronchial tree – Bronchi terminal bronchiole Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveoli

4 Nose Components – External Nasal bones Alar cartilage External nares – Nostils Nasal septum – Internal Choanae Internal nares – Mucous membrane Paranasal sinuses – Frontal – Sphenoidal – Ethmoidal – Maxillary Functions – Incoming air Warmed Moistened Filtered – Olfactory stimuli received – Sound Resonate Modification

5 Pharynx (throat) Extent – Internal nares – Cricoid cartilage (larynx) Regions – Nasopharynx Openings –Internal nares –Auditory (Eustachian) tubes Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid) – Oropharynx Opening – Fauces Tonsils –Palatine –Lingual –Common Path Air Drink Food – Laryngopharynx (hypopharynx) – Connected inferiorly Esophagus Larynx

6 Larynx (Part 1) Joins pharynx to trachea Cartilages – 3 unpaired Epiglottis –Protects airway –Covers glottis Thyroid – Adams apple Cricoid – Tracheostomy landmark – 3 paired Arytenoid Corniculate Cuneiform Voice production – Laryngeal mucous membranes Ventricular folds (false vocal chords)– Superior Vocal folds (true vocal chords) – Inferior – Bring folds together Hold breath against pressure Vibrate in response to pressure

7 Larynx (Part 2) – Control Loudness – Air pressure Pitch – vocal fold tension – Resonance Upper respiratory tract Paranasal sinuses – Modifications – Muscles Pharynx Face Tongue Cheeks

8 Anatomy of the Larynx

9 Trachea Windpipe Leads from larynx into bronchial tree – Sternal angle – T5 – Carina – Cough reflex C-shaped cartilage – Holds trachea open – Allows esophageal expansion Clinical applications – Tracheostomy – Intubation

10 Bronchi (Part 1) Begin at sternal angle (T5) Diameter decreases as branching increases – Amount of cartilage decreases as diameter decreases – Amount of smooth muscle increases as diameter increases Primary (serve a lung) – Right Wider diameter Shorter More vertical – Left Smaller diameter Longer More horizontal Secondary (serve a lobe) – 3 on right – 2 on left Tertiary – Segmental or lobular

11 Bronchi (Part 2) Tertiary – Segmental or lobular Bronchioles – Small branches of bronchial area – Terminal – Extend into alveolar clusters – Respiratory – Extend directly into alveoli ANS effects – Sympathetic -- Bronchodilate – Parasympathetic -- Bronchoconstrict

12 Lungs (Part 1) Enclosed by pleurae – Parietal – Visceral – Pleural cavity Gross anatomy – Base – fits over diagragm – Apex – extends into root of neck – Costal surface – Lies against ribs – Mediastinal surface Faces heart Hilus (hilum) – Entrance/Exit –Blood vessels –Bronchi –Nerves Right lung –3 lobes Superior Middle Inferior –2 fissures

13 Lungs (Part 2) Oblique Horizontal Left lung –2 lobes Superior Inferior –1 fissure – Oblique –Cardiac notch

14 Pulmonary Ventilation - Respiration (Part 1) 1 respiration = 1 inspiration + 1 expiration Exchange of gases between atmosphere and lungs Normal inspiration (inhalation) – Increase thoracic cavity volume – Contract Diaphragm External intercostals – Reduction in intrapleural pressure – Air rushes into lungs Forced inspiration – Body needs more air exchange – Need more change in thoracic cavity volume – Use additional muscles to raise thoracic cage Sterrocleidomastoid Scalenes Pectoralis minor

15 Pulmonary Ventilation - Respiration (Part 2) Normal expiration (exhalation) – Decrease thoracic cavity volume – Diaphragm relaxes – Intrapleural pressure increases – Air pushed out of lungs Forced expiration – Body needs more air exchange – Active process using Abdominal muscles Internal intercostals Factors affecting ease of respiration – Compliance Elasticity –Surface tension – Surfactant Airway resistance Modified respirations – Cough – Sneeze – Sigh – Yawn

16 Pulmonary Ventilation - Respiration (Part 3) – Laugh – Hiccuping Related terminology – Hyperventilation – Hypoventilation – Eupnea – Dyspnea – Apnea – Shortness of Breath (SOB) – Atelectasis

17 Lung Histology Lung – Lobe – Segment – Lobule – Alveoli Alveolus – Epithelial bubble Type I cells – lining Type II cells – surfactant – Alveolar macrophages – Monocytes – Fibroblasts Alveolar capillary membrane – Respiratory membrane – Components Alveolar wall Epithelial basement membrane Capillary basement membrane Capillary endothelial – Thickness – 0.5 microns – Allows fast exchange of respiratory gases Total surface area – 70 square meters (750 square feet)

18 Lung Blood Supply Bronchial – Arteries Bring blood to supply lung cells – Veins Drain blood from lung cells Drain into azygous system Pulmonary – Arteries Carry oxygen poor blood fromR. Ventricle for perfusion – Veins Carry oxygen rich blood back to L. ventricle for systemic circulation

19 Respiratory Gases in the Blood Oxygen – Very little dissolved in plasma – Most bound to hemoglobin (Hb) 1 O2/heme 4 hemes/Hb – Hb+O2 HbO2 Carbon dioxide – Small amount dissolves in plasma – More soluble than oxygen – Carbaminohemoglobin – Hb + CO2 HbCO2 – As bicarbonate ions CO2+H2O H2CO3 H2CO3 H+HCO3

20 Transport and Exchange of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen

21 Pulmonary Function Measurements 1 respiration = 1 inspiration + 1 expiration Should be – About 12 per minute – About 6 L per minute Measure with spirometer Pulmonary volumes (specific conditions) – Tidal volume (TV) – Minute respiratory volume (MVR) – TV x respiration rate – Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) – Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) – Residual volume (RV) – Minimal volume (MV) Pulmonary capacities (combined conditions) – Inspiratory capacity – TV +IRV – Function residual capacity – RV+ERV – Vital capacity – IRV+TV +ERV – Total capacity – TV+IRV+ERV+RV+MV

22 Control of Respiration (Part 1) Respiratory centers – Medullary rhythmicity Areas –Inspiration –Expiratory Sets basic rhythm –2 sec inspiration –3 sec expiration Communicate with diaphragm –Phrenic n. –Intercostal n. – Pons Helps switch between inspiration/expiration Areas –Pneumotaxic Limits inspiration Overrides apneuistic area –Apneuistic –Limits expiration Stimulates inspiration Works when pneumotaxis area is inactive

23 Control of Respiration (Part 2) Influencing factors – Vagus n. Bronchial stretch receptors – Inflation reflex Anal sphincter receptors – Chemical stimuli Medulla oblongata – Central chemoceptors – H ions – Peripheral chemoceptors Where –Aortic body –Carotid body What –H ions –CO2 –O2 – Proprioceptors – Increased body temperature – Pain Acute Chronic – Upper respiratory irritation – Emotional stimuli – Cortical influences


Download ppt "Respiration And the Pulmonary System. Types of Respiration Pulmonary respiration (ventilation) – Breathing – Inspiration – Expiration External respiration."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google