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And the Pulmonary System

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Presentation on theme: "And the Pulmonary System"— Presentation transcript:

1 And the Pulmonary System
Respiration And the Pulmonary System

2 Types of Respiration Pulmonary respiration (ventilation) – Breathing
Inspiration Expiration External respiration – between lungs and blood Internal respiration – Between blood and cells Cellular respiration Glucose + Oxygen  Carbon Dioxide and water and energy.

3 Organization of Respiratory Organs
By location Upper respiratory system Nose Pharynx and associated structure Lower respiratory system Larynx Bronchial tree Lungs By function Conducting portion Nasal passageways Pharynx Larynx Respiratory portion Bronchial tree – Bronchi  terminal bronchiole Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveoli

4 Nose Components Paranasal sinuses External Functions Internal
Nasal bones Alar cartilage External nares – Nostils Nasal septum Internal Choanae Internal nares Mucous membrane Paranasal sinuses Frontal Sphenoidal Ethmoidal Maxillary Functions Incoming air Warmed Moistened Filtered Olfactory stimuli received Sound Resonate Modification

5 Pharynx (throat) Extent Regions Internal nares
Cricoid cartilage (larynx) Regions Nasopharynx Openings Auditory (Eustachian) tubes Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid) Oropharynx Opening – Fauces Tonsils Palatine Lingual Common Path Air Drink Food Laryngopharynx (hypopharynx) – Connected inferiorly Esophagus Larynx

6 Larynx (Part 1) Voice production Joins pharynx to trachea Cartilages
3 unpaired Epiglottis Protects airway Covers glottis Thyroid – Adam’s apple Cricoid – Tracheostomy landmark 3 paired Arytenoid Corniculate Cuneiform Voice production Laryngeal mucous membranes Ventricular folds (false vocal chords)– Superior Vocal folds (true vocal chords) – Inferior Bring folds together Hold breath against pressure Vibrate in response to pressure

7 Larynx (Part 2) Control Resonance Modifications – Muscles
Loudness – Air pressure Pitch – vocal fold tension Resonance Upper respiratory tract Paranasal sinuses Modifications – Muscles Pharynx Face Tongue Cheeks

8 Anatomy of the Larynx

9 Trachea Windpipe Leads from larynx into bronchial tree
Sternal angle T5 Carina – Cough reflex C-shaped cartilage Holds trachea open Allows esophageal expansion Clinical applications Tracheostomy Intubation

10 Bronchi (Part 1) Begin at sternal angle (T5)
Diameter decreases as branching increases Amount of cartilage decreases as diameter decreases Amount of smooth muscle increases as diameter increases Primary (serve a lung) Right Wider diameter Shorter More vertical Left Smaller diameter Longer More horizontal Secondary (serve a lobe) 3 on right 2 on left Tertiary – Segmental or lobular

11 Bronchi (Part 2) Tertiary – Segmental or lobular Bronchioles
Small branches of bronchial area Terminal – Extend into alveolar clusters Respiratory – Extend directly into alveoli ANS effects Sympathetic --Bronchodilate Parasympathetic -- Bronchoconstrict

12 Lungs (Part 1) Enclosed by pleurae Gross anatomy Faces heart Parietal
Visceral Pleural cavity Gross anatomy Base – fits over diagragm Apex – extends into root of neck Costal surface – Lies against ribs Mediastinal surface Faces heart Hilus (hilum) – Entrance/Exit Blood vessels Bronchi Nerves Right lung 3 lobes Superior Middle Inferior 2 fissures

13 Lungs (Part 2) Left lung Oblique Horizontal 2 lobes Superior Inferior
1 fissure – Oblique Cardiac notch

14 Pulmonary Ventilation - Respiration (Part 1)
1 respiration = 1 inspiration + 1 expiration Exchange of gases between atmosphere and lungs Normal inspiration (inhalation) Increase thoracic cavity volume – Contract Diaphragm External intercostals Reduction in intrapleural pressure Air rushes into lungs Forced inspiration Body needs more air exchange Need more change in thoracic cavity volume Use additional muscles to raise thoracic cage Sterrocleidomastoid Scalenes Pectoralis minor

15 Pulmonary Ventilation - Respiration (Part 2)
Normal expiration (exhalation) Decrease thoracic cavity volume Diaphragm relaxes Intrapleural pressure increases Air pushed out of lungs Forced expiration Body needs more air exchange Active process using Abdominal muscles Internal intercostals Factors affecting ease of respiration Compliance Elasticity Surface tension – Surfactant Airway resistance Modified respirations Cough Sneeze Sigh Yawn

16 Pulmonary Ventilation - Respiration (Part 3)
Laugh Hiccuping Related terminology Hyperventilation Hypoventilation Eupnea Dyspnea Apnea Shortness of Breath (SOB) Atelectasis

17 Lung Histology Lung – Lobe – Segment – Lobule – Alveoli Alveolus
Epithelial “bubble” Type I cells – lining Type II cells – surfactant Alveolar macrophages Monocytes Fibroblasts Alveolar capillary membrane Respiratory membrane Components Alveolar wall Epithelial basement membrane Capillary basement membrane Capillary endothelial Thickness – 0.5 microns Allows fast exchange of respiratory gases Total surface area – 70 square meters (750 square feet)

18 Lung Blood Supply Bronchial Pulmonary Veins Arteries
Bring blood to supply lung cells Veins Drain blood from lung cells Drain into azygous system Pulmonary Carry oxygen poor blood fromR. Ventricle for perfusion Veins Carry oxygen rich blood back to L. ventricle for systemic circulation

19 Respiratory Gases in the Blood
Oxygen Very little dissolved in plasma Most bound to hemoglobin (Hb) 1 O2/heme 4 hemes/Hb Hb+O2 HbO2 Carbon dioxide Small amount dissolves in plasma – More soluble than oxygen Carbaminohemoglobin – Hb + CO2  HbCO2 As bicarbonate ions CO2+H2OH2CO3 H2CO3H+HCO3

20 Transport and Exchange of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen

21 Pulmonary Function Measurements
1 respiration = 1 inspiration + 1 expiration Should be About 12 per minute About 6 L per minute Measure with spirometer Pulmonary volumes (specific conditions) Tidal volume (TV) Minute respiratory volume (MVR) – TV x respiration rate Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) Residual volume (RV) Minimal volume (MV) Pulmonary capacities (combined conditions) Inspiratory capacity – TV +IRV Function residual capacity – RV+ERV Vital capacity – IRV+TV +ERV Total capacity – TV+IRV+ERV+RV+MV

22 Control of Respiration (Part 1)
Respiratory centers Medullary rhythmicity Areas Inspiration Expiratory Sets basic rhythm 2 sec inspiration 3 sec expiration Communicate with diaphragm Phrenic n. Intercostal n. Pons Helps switch between inspiration/expiration Areas Pneumotaxic Limits inspiration Overrides apneuistic area Apneuistic Limits expiration Stimulates inspiration Works when pneumotaxis area is inactive

23 Control of Respiration (Part 2)
Influencing factors Vagus n. Bronchial stretch receptors – Inflation reflex Anal sphincter receptors Chemical stimuli Medulla oblongata – Central chemoceptors – H ions Peripheral chemoceptors Where Aortic body Carotid body What H ions CO2 O2 Proprioceptors Increased body temperature Pain Acute Chronic Upper respiratory irritation Emotional stimuli Cortical influences

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