2 Agenda Understanding Signal Types Video, Audio and Control SignalsMinimizing Loss and Maximizing PerformanceEnvironmental and Length LimitationsBest Installation PracticesWhat’s Next?What Does the Future Hold?
4 Video Signal Technology Video Can Be Digital or AnalogDigital = SDI, HDMI, or DVIAnalog = Component, S-Video or Composite VideoRF = CATV, MATV or Satellite IFA Signal Can Be Sourced In Either The Digital or Analog DomainThe Signal Can Change Formats Depending on Components Installed!
5 Digital Video DefinedDigital Video Transport Is Independent of the Various HDTV Standards Such As ATSC, DVB(-T,-S,-C)These Are Encapsulations of the MPEG Data Streams, Which Are Passed off to a Decoder, and Output As Uncompressed High-Resolution Video DataThis Video Data Is Then Encoded Into TMDS for Transmission Digitally Over HDMI or DVI-DA Single DVI Link Consists of Four Twisted Pairs of Wire (Red, Green, Blue, and Clock) to Transmit 24 Bits Per PixelBecause There Is No Error Correction Or Packetization, Maximum Interconnect Length Is Hard Limited Based On System ImpedanceSystem Impedance Is Very Difficult To Control In A Twisted Pair Configuration
6 Digital HDTV/SDTV Signals SDI – Serial Digital InterfaceProfessional Standard, Never Used on Consumer ProductUses Coaxial Cable (RG6) for TransmissionHDMI – High Definition Multimedia InterfaceHDTV Digital Video to 1080p ResolutionSame As DVI Single Link!Includes Eight Channel, 24 Bit Digital Audio and Control SignalsThis Connection Consolidates Audio and Video Into One Simple Cable!Includes Inter-Component Operability CommandsAllows DVD Player to Control A/V Pre-Pro and Display DeviceHDMI LLC Quality Control Through Testing Labs Certification
7 Digital Video Signals DVI – Digital Visual Interface VESA M1-DA Transmission Minimized Differential SignalingThis Transmission Standard Was Adopted by HDMI LLCTMDS Does Not Incorporate Error CorrectionThere Are Multiple DVI “Flavors”DVI-A, Analog Signal That Is The Equivalent of SVGADVI- I, Includes Both Analog and Digital Transport AbilityDVI-D, Digital Video OnlySingle Link (<2.3M Pixels) Supports Up To 1920 X 1080Dual Link (>2.3M Pixels) Supports Up To 2560 X 1600VESA M1-DAData Connection Standard Promoted by In-FocusIncorporates USB As Well As Digital and Analog Video Ability
9 Consumer Electronics Control Allows user to control all HDMI devices with TV remoteCan control DVD player by pointing remote at the TVEnables high-level functions such as “one-touch play” :Automatically… Turns on TVPress Play on DVDAnd then… Plays DVDAutomatically… Turns on A/V RcvrAutomatically… Switches to correct input (from A/V Receiver)Automatically… Switches to correct input (from DVD player)
12 Analog HDTV Video Signals Component Video Means Signals Are Transported as Separate B&W, Color and Sync SegmentsRGBHV Sends Signals as Red, Green, Blue, Horizontal and Vertical SyncRGBS Sends Signals as Red, Green, Blue and Multiplexed SyncComponent Sends Signals As R-Y, B-Y and YY Is the Luminance Channel, B-Y (also called U or Cb) Is the Blue Component Minus the Luminance Information, and R-Y (also called V or Cr) Is the Red Component Minus the Luminance InformationComponent Can Also Send Signals As RGB – This Is A Computer Display Standard
14 Standard Resolution (SD) Analog Video S-Video Was Introduced by JVC in the 1980’sS-Video Transports the Image As Separate Color (Chroma) and Black&White (Luma) InformationS-Video Is Ubiquitous on Current ProductsComposite Video Is A Single Wire StandardUses a Single 75-Ohm Coaxial CableSupports Up To 500 Lines of Resolution
15 SD Analog Video Connectors RF MATV/CATVComposite VideoS-Video (4-Pin DIN)
19 Digital Audio Signals AES/EBU Balanced Digital Audio AES3 Is a Professional, Balanced, Digital Audio Transfer StandardAT&T ST Optical Digital TransferS/PDIF Digital AudioIs an Acronym for Sony Philips Digital Interface and Is a CD “Red Book” Standard Digital Audio Transfer File FormatTOSLINK Optical Digital AudioJISF05 Is an Optical Transfer File Format that Incorporates S/PDIF Data Formatting and Converts the Signal to LED Sourced Optical Transmission
20 Digital Audio Connectors S/PDIF Uses the Same 75-Ohm Coaxial Cable as Composite and Component VideoTOSLINK Uses Single or Multiple Plastic – or Multiple Quartz Glass – Conductors
21 Analog Audio Signals XLR Balanced Audio Connections Originally the "Cannon X" Series, Subsequent Versions Added a Latch ("Cannon XL") and Then a Rubber Gasket, Which Led to the Acronym XLR.Utilizes 2 Conductors (Like S-video) to Carry Positive and Negative Halves of the Audio Signal, Thus Minimizing Common Mode NoiseSingle-ended (RCA) Audio ConnectionsSingle Ended Interconnects Are of a Coaxial, Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), or Shielded Twisted Pair TopologyThe Signal Is Carried on One Conductor and the Ground Reference Is Carried on Another.Speaker Level ConnectionsLow Impedance, Low Voltage Connection for High Performance70-volt Systems Are Ideal for Longer Wire Runs, Distributed Background MusicHigher Voltage and Lower Current Maximize Efficiency
25 Audio and Video Control Sophisticated Control Systems Capable of Operating Audio, Video, Lighting, Security and Environmental Controls Are a Critical Component of a Well Designed InstallationAlmost All CE Control Systems Require Dedicated CAT5e WiringSome Sophisticated Systems Require RS232 or Other, Proprietary WiringUnderstanding Who Will Use The System Will Define The Control Requirements
26 System Control Wiring Plan Planning For, and Providing, a System Control Infrastructure Ensures Futures Sales OpportunitiesGive Your Customers the Ability to Add, Improve and EnlargeScalability Is Not Just for Software!Understanding the Importance of Control Is a Key Differentiator for Successful A/V IntegrationYour Customer Is Relying on YOU to Provide Answers to Questions They Haven’t Even Asked!Consider Where the User Will Be, Who the User Will Be, What the System Will Be Used For, How the System Might EvolveYour Wiring Strategy Must Fill Immediate Needs and Anticipate Future Requirements
27 Example of a Multi-Room Single-Zone Background Music System Control Configuration – Xantech Product Shown
29 HDMI and DVI Limitations HDMI and DVI Have Identical Length LimitationsSomewhat Affected by Source and Display Build QualitySomewhat Affected by Tight Bends or Noisy EnvironmentHDMI and DVI Signals Can Exhibit “Snow” and Drop-OutsThe Longest Practical Installation Length Is 10 MetersCopper Connections to 20 Meters Are AvailableBuilt In Signal Repeaters Make Some “Active” Cables Capable of 40 MetersAdd-on Signal Boosters Allow Up To Two 20 Meter Runs To Be ConnectedOptical Conversion Allows DVI Runs Up To 200 Meters – Use Caution Due To HDCP Limitations With Optical Solutions
30 HDMI and DVI Limitations HDMI and DVI Connections Don’t Transport Analog Content – A Good Installation Is Versatile!If A System Has Only An HDMI or DVI Input, It Won’t Be Compatible With Composite Video, S-Video or Component Video Sources Unless An Active Converter Is UsedHDCP (High Definition Content Protection) May Limit The Application of Active DevicesConversion of HD Digital Signals To Analog Component Is Not SupportedUp Conversion Of HD Component To HD Digital May Be Supported
31 HDMI and DVI Limitations HDMI and DVI Are Susceptible To Environmental InterferenceRFI Is Radio Frequency InterferencePossible Sources Include High Speed Digital Processors, RF Transmitters, Faulty Dimmers and SwitchesEMI Is Electromagnetic InterferenceTypically Lower Frequency Variation of the AboveMain Source of EMI Is From Electrical Power Circuits and DevicesRFI and EMI Diminish As A Function of the Square of the DistanceA Source of RFI or EMI Is 144 Times 1 Foot From the Source Than It Is At 1 Inch From the Source
33 Analog Audio/Video Limitations Analog Video Is Very RobustSignal Runs to 300 Feet Or More Are Not A ProblemCharacteristic Impedance of the Cable Must Be 75-ohms For Maximum PerformanceCable Impedance Is Determined By The Geometric Relationship Of the Conductor and Dielectric Size and ShapeSignal Levels Can Be Easily Amplified For DistributionQuality Shielding Virtually Eliminates Problems
34 Analog Video Limitations Use a Quality Distribution AmpAvoid Tight Bends In Coaxial CableUse A Minimum Of Dual Shielded CableFoil and BraidRG-6 Is Best For Longer RunsUse Quality Crimp Tools and Coax Strippers For Best Results
35 Best Practices – the Importance of a Wiring Strategy
36 Let’s Install a System Now We’ve been asked to install a multi-media system in a conference room. The project requires:ceiling mounted projector capable of displaying an HDTV image in 16:9 on a perforated screen.sound system must support full 7.1EX Dolby Digital and DTS decoding.In-wall speakers will be installed to the left and right of the screen, with the center channel behind the screen.powered subwooferin-ceiling speakers are spec’d for rear channel support.All product will be in an equipment closet.What do we need to install for the pre-wire portion of the project?
38 The Pre-Wire Continued To Handle the Speakers We’ll Install a 14/2 CL2 From Each Speaker Back-box to the Equipment ClosetThe Subwoofer Requires a Line-level Connection. We’ll Run an RG-6 Coax From the Equipment Closet to a Wall-plate Positioned Close to the Electrical Outlet That Will Power the SubwooferSince We Aren’t Sure How System Control Will Be Handled, We’ll Run a Length of Cat5e From the Equipment Closet to the Projector Location and to the Screen Location for Possible Installation of IR Targets. We’ll also run a CAT5e to a location near the lighting control for possible installation of a keypad.The Projector Will Need to Handle Digital Signals As Well As Analog Signals. To Cover the Full Spectrum of Possibilities We’ll Run Five (5) RG-6 Coaxial Cables to Handle the Component and S-video Signals. We’ll Also Run an HDMI or DVI-D Dual Link to Handle Digital Video.
39 Optimizing The Media System Installation Run Five (5) Coaxial Cables from the Projector to the Equipment RackThree for Component, Two for S-VideoRun DVI-D Dual Link or HDMI from the Projector to the RackRack Mount All Components If At All PossibleBetter Ventilation and Access
40 What About Distributed Music? Establish The Basic DesignForeground or Background?Can All Wires Be “Home Run”Where Is The Primary Listening Location For Each Room or Zone?How Large Is the Volume of the Room or Zone?Determine The Number of Speaker Pairs to Be InstalledMore Speakers At Lower Volume Are Preferable To Fewer Speakers at Higher VolumeDetermine the Desired Average Playback LevelIt Is Important to Understand the Type of Music to Be Played!Determine Other Structural Wiring Runs In Order To Avoid TroubleA/V Wiring Should Be Kept At Least 6” From AC WiringAvoid Running A/V Wiring Parallel to ACWhen Crossing An AC Mains, Do So At A Right Angle
41 Multi-Room vs Multi-Zone What Is Multi-Room?A System That Can Deliver One Source to Multiple Locations SimultaneouslyWhat Is Multi-Zone?A System That Can Deliver More Than One Source Simultaneously To More Than One LocationAlways Pre-Wire For Multi-Zone!
42 Multi-Room or Multi-Zone, The Game’s The Same… For Best Performance, All Speaker Wires Must Be “Home Run”In Each Room or Listening Location, Determine the Best Spot for the Speakers and the Local ControlIf the Project Doesn’t Call for Local Control, Wire for Them for Future Application! The End-user Will Want Them Sooner Rather Than Later! No Accessible Infrastructure Means No Additional Sales! Always “Set The Table”!The Run From the Equipment Closet to the “Volume Control” Location Is Done With a 4-conductor Cl2 WireUsing a Composite 14/4 & Cat5e Allows You to Pull One Run and Cover Both Speaker and Control Requirements. Maximize Efficiency and Through That, Profit!The Run From the “Volume Control” Location to the Actual Speakers Can Be Via a Looped 4-conductor or a Single Run of 2-conductor
43 Other Issues To Consider Distributed Music Systems Require Some Type Of Impedance Matching Distribution TransformerMost Amplifiers Won’t Drive Loads Lower Than 2 OhmsEach Additional Pair Of Speakers Halves The System ImpedanceSpeaker Switching Must Be ConsideredDoes The Installation Require All Zones To Be Controlled From A Single Location, From The Remote Location, Or From Both?Think ScalabilityIt’s Not Only Possible, But Easy To Take A Multi-Room System To A Multi-Zone System If The Structural Wiring Supports The Upgrade!
44 70-Volt Distribution Basics 70-Volt Is Used For Background OnlyEach Speaker “Drop” Uses A Step-Down TransformerTypically Built Into The Speaker ItselfAppropriate for Restaurants, Common Spaces, PagingHigher Voltage and Lower Current Means Lower Losses and Greater Efficiency of the SystemA 25-Volt System Can Also Power 70-Volt SpeakersUses The Same CL2 or CL3 Speaker Wire As Direct Distribution
46 High Definition Media HDCP - High Definition Content Protection Digital Only Method Of Preventing Content PiracyAnalog HDTV Transport May Be Limited In The FutureRunning Multi-mode Fiber May Allow For Future GrowthWhere Might You Encounter HDCP?ATSC and Off Air BroadcastDBS Satellite BroadcastPrivate NetworksDigital Cable BroadcastHD-DVD and Blu-Ray DVD
47 BroadcastFCC Is Currently Working To Eliminate Analog Satellite Broadcast From C-bandC-band Is the Key Delivery Vehicle for All Network and Premium Channel ProgrammingSCPC and MCPC Transmissions Are Moving Private Networks Towards a Digital FutureTerrestrial Broadcasting Is Migrating Towards a Total Digital Environment’New Channels, New Capacity, New Content for the ViewerYour Wiring Strategy Must Include Provisions For DBS And Terrestrial Antenna Installation
48 Broadcast over IP? Streaming Media WILL Become a Consumer Medium Incorporate Network Connectivity Into the Audio/Video EnvironmentThink “NARROWCASTING”Open Media Network,
49 The Computer as a Media Component Media Servers ARE A Mainstream Component!Multi-Media Content ServersProvide Access to Music, Movies, PhotosMulti-Room, Multi-ZoneMusic/Audio Content ServersModels From Escient, Apple, Kenwood, Denon and Others Are UbiquitousHTPCHome Theater Personal Computer
50 The Results of a good wiring strategy Increase Your Bottom LineImprove Customer SatisfactionEnsure Repeat BusinessOptimize The Pre-Wire!Take Time To Determine What Your Customer Wants, Even If It’s Not In The Budget… Yet!