Presentation on theme: "Convergence and difference between campus based and distance education: trends in a digital age Jennifer Glennie April 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Convergence and difference between campus based and distance education: trends in a digital age Jennifer Glennie April 2013
Continuum of Educational Provision From purely face-to-face (contact) tuition through to education purely at a distance Face-to-faceDistance As for face-to-face education, there are many variations of distance provision
Convergence? No doubt that any toenadering will be accelerated by the growing use of technology which offers opportunities, or affordances, to facilitate and enrich learning in all modes
Technology has always had a dramatic impact on Distance Education So-called Generations which privilege technology as the differentiator e.g. Moore and Kearsley (2005) 1 st Correspondence – single medium (print) – mass production –correspondence 2 nd Radio and TV broadcasting in the ascendency 3 rd Combined approach – correspondence assisted by broadcasting 4 th Tele-learning: interactive audio/video conferencing 5 th Online delivery – multimedia interactive content with online communication and support
Affordances of New Technologies for Distance Education: Some examples Communication Learning materials – More cost effective, quicker access to a wider range of learning materials for online and offline use – Ease of adaptation of course materials – Availability of open educational resources
Affordances of New Technologies for Distance Education: Some examples Possibility of real time and/or asynchronous engagement with and support of students – also among students Assessment – More frequent and interactive formative assessment – peer and educator – Rapid turnaround in assignment submission, marking and return Tracking students progress
Changing context Increased bandwidth Increased connectivity Affordable devices Unisa set to take advantage of these affordances
Changing nature of face-to-face education
Changing nature of face-to-face Bates prediction: Hybrid learning: one year 20-40%; three years: 40-60%; five years: 70-90% Questions? What can the university or college offer that will make the morning commute for students worthwhile (not to mention faculty)? How can institutions leverage more fully the benefits of the campus when students can do much of their learning more conveniently, and often more effectively, online or remotely?
The emerging Networked School environment
Moving to two dimensions Campus-based Remote/off campus No digital support Digitally supported Internet-supported Internet-dependant Fully online
A D C B Fully Offline Internet Supported Internet Dependent Fully Online Campus-basedRemote E Digitally Supported Off-line -->
Third dimension: level of interaction Laurillard (2002) meaningful learning requires active student engagement including interactions between students and content, students and other students, students and faculty and, when appropriate, students and workplaces and/or communities Made more difficult by large class size
Good teaching may overcome a poor choice of technology but technology will never save bad teaching
Challenges in Remote Provision Having distance/remote students requires careful upfront planning which consider all dimensions Robust systems which can accommodate growing numbers are essential
Moving to Distance: NADEOSA Quality Guidelines Policy and planning Learners Programme development Course design Course materials Assessment Learner support HRD – employing more and more tutors Management and administration Collaborative arrangements Quality assurance Information dissemination Results
An Example: Learners and Their context Criterion There is up-to-date detailed information about past, present and potential learners. This is used to inform policy and planning in programme development, course design and materials development, learner support and other relevant aspects of educational provision
Course Design and Development Creating an enabling learning environment – need to invest Course curriculum is well researched with aims appropriate to the level of study. Content, teaching and learning strategies and assessment are carefully structured to facilitate the achievement of learning outcomes
Course Materials Assessment Learning support Course materials support the aims and learning outcomes; are accessibly presented; teach in a coherent way that engages the learners. There is an identified process of development and evaluation of course materials.
Assessment Learning support Course materials an integral part of the teaching and learning process, is recognised as a key motivator; is properly managed, and meets the requirements of accreditation bodies and employers.
Learning Support Assessment Learning support Course materials Learners are provided with a range of opportunities for real two-way communication through the use of various forms of technology for tutoring at a distance, contact tutoring, assignment tutoring, mentoring where appropriate, counselling (both remote and face-to-face), and the stimulation of peer support structures. The need of learners for physical facilities and study resources and participation in decision-making is also taken into account.
A Word on MOOCs The technology hype cycle: Gartner Inc, 2012 MOOCs are examples of fully online courses for remote students Lots of hype – need time to discover real worth
Offering MOOCs? Unpack your understanding of a MOOC - ?mass Explore your purpose What do you want to be known for? – Where have your faculty made a name for themselves in research and in global conversations? – Any UCT MOOC will reflect on UCTs pedagogical practices Be sure to meet open learning principles
In Siemens words: our cMOOC model emphasises creation, creativity, autonomy and social networking learning. The Coursera model emphasises a more traditional learning approach through video presentations and short quizzes and testing. Put another way, cMOOCs focus on knowledge creation and generation whereas xMOOCs focus on knowledge duplication
Fulfilling Open Learning Principles? Learners are provided with opportunities and capacity for lifelong learning Learning processes centre on the learners and the contexts of learning, build on their experience and encourage active engagement leading to independent and critical thinking Learning provision is flexible, allowing learners to increasingly determine where, when, what and how they learn, as well as the pace at which they will learn Prior learning and experience is recognised wherever possible; arrangements for credit transfer and articulation between qualifications facilitate further learning Providers create the conditions for a fair chance of learner success through learner support, contextually appropriate resources and sound pedagogical practices
In conclusion.. Embrace the opportunities while Holding onto the key principles of quality pedagogical practices and Concentrating on creating an enabling learning environment using these wonderful technologies but Attempting to bring down the unit costs of quality education