3Factual programming is? Factual programming is a genre of programs based on non-fiction and based on actual people and events.Factual television has existed since the birth of television, but has only recently been recognised as a genre in its own right and has appeared as a category since the 1990s at the British Academy Awards .Factual programs are based on giving out facts, and should show both side of the argument.
4Task 1You must find a range of programs you think are factual programs. You should also find out what the programs are about.
5Your examplesWhich one of these are based on the following categories of factual programming.
6Types of factual programming by genre: NewsDocumentaty eg documsoap or docudramaInfotainmentRealityEducationalWildlifeSpecial interestMakeoverMagazineDiscussionReviewChat show
7Codes and conventionsAll genres are recognised by codes and conventionsA code is a way of communicating ideas. These can be analysed based on the followingTechnical Codes: Camera techniques, framing, depth of field, lighting, exposure and juxtapositionSymbolic Codes: Objects, setting, body language, clothing and colorWritten Codes : Headlines, captions, speech bubbles, language styleConventions: a long accepted ways of doing thing , which becomes familiar to the audience i.e the use of establing shots to set the scene, or over the shoulder shots to show conversation.
8Language of TV and film Camera Lights Sound Editing Setting Costume Actor expressions
9Factual programing codes and conventions Editing – MontagePresentation of factsStrong and interesting premiseVoice over/PresenterEditing, piecing together to make meaningUse of suspense, concealing outcomePoint of view; biasConstructing a version of reality often using narrative techniquesHand held cameraPoor sound/lightingDisjointed editingInterviewsUse of expertsArchive footage; film and photographsMusicFraming to create meaning
11DocumentaryDocument of fact, which should be unscripted and often use steady cam.Often use voiceoversReal footage of events and will often say in the narration that these are real footage and have not been altered.Element of realism with use of stedicam as must not looked staged.Uses archive footage and stillsInterviews with experts, but must be balanced to show both sides.Will often used text with labels and dates to show peoples titles or when it happened.Use of music is important to anchor emotion in the documentaryWill use visual coding i.e when Louie meets Nazi family.
12Documentary by type: Docudrama A docudrama is a film or television show which combines the fields of documentary and drama with a focus on real events and real people, which are dramatized and often uses actors and reconstruction of events.Docudramas can also focus on hypothetical situations i.e. what might happen i.e. the effects of global warming. It focuses on the facts of the event, as they are known.Docudramas sometimes enhance historical events but the narrative must not mislead.
14ExamplesBowling for ColumbineSecret MillionaireSupersize me
15Are they a document of fact? Documentaries are supposed to be a document of fact and unbiased, but they often contain and element of bias, i.e. from what is shown and not shown, but also how things are shown to be through codes to create meaning
16Task 2You now will be given a category and you need to find and research the following:A definition of your categoryFind 2-3 examples and prepare an analysis of what you think are the codes and conventions are in your genre.Present to the class your ideasConsider whether you think all the programs you have selected contain the same codes and conventions or are they different
17What you are analysing Codes and Conventions Technical Codes: Camera techniques, framing, depth of field, lighting, exposure and juxtapositionSymbolic Codes: Objects, setting, body language, clothing and colorWritten Codes : Headlines, captions, speech bubbles, language styleConventions: a long accepted ways of doing thing , which becomes familiar to the audience i.e the use of establishing shots to set the scene, or over the shoulder shots to show conversation.