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Environmental Impacts Assessment for GSM radiated power and FM Radio Broadcasting in Baghdad Eng. Jawad Al-Aboudi Environmental Research Center Environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Impacts Assessment for GSM radiated power and FM Radio Broadcasting in Baghdad Eng. Jawad Al-Aboudi Environmental Research Center Environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Impacts Assessment for GSM radiated power and FM Radio Broadcasting in Baghdad Eng. Jawad Al-Aboudi Environmental Research Center Environment and Water Directorate / Ministry of Science and Technology Baghdad, IRAQ

2 This presentation includes: -The effects of EMF exposure - Previous research and studies results - International limits and local limits - Local researches in EMF exposure assessment - Recommendations and suggestions


4 Radio Frequency (natural, man made) Effect: Molecular rotation and torsion results in heating, mainly due to power absorbed by tissue. IT IS NON IONIZING Infrared – Warming of skin surface, non ionizing Visible – Electron level changes, non ionizing Ultra violet – Ionizing but skin deep effect (Sunburn) X-ray (medical, TV screens) - Ionizing effect (deep) Nuclear (natural / power plants) – Ionizing effect, radiation hazard is deeper and risk of cancer) Gamma ray (radioactive process) - Ionizing effect (risk of mutation and cancer) Higher the frequency deeper the effectHigher the frequency deeper the effect Increasing Frequency


6 Base Stations and Headsets Mobile Radio Systems Radiation: Analysis, Mitigation and Simulations Techniques Professor JACOB GAVAN (Fellow IEEE) Holon Institute of Technology (H.I.T)Faculty of Engineering – Dept of Communication Engineering





11 Temperature distribution after 3 minute of cell phone call, Thermal Effect


13 ICNIRP exposure limits ( for limited exposure time)

14 GSM typeIEEEFCCARPANSAICNIRPANSI 900MHz 6 W/m 2 - 6 W/m 2 - 4.5 W/m 2 41.1 v/m 0.1092 A/m 4.5 W/m 2 41.25 v/m 0.111 A/m 6 W/m 2 - 1800MHz 12 W/m 2 - 10 W/m 2 - 9 W/m 2 58 v/m 0.1544 A/m 9 W/m 2 58.33 v/m 0.157 A/m 12 W/m 2 - GSM typeIEEEFCCARPANSAICNIRPANSI 900MHz 30 W/m2 - 30 W/m2 - 22.5 W/m2 92.1 v/m 0.2442 A/m 22.5 W/m2 90 v/m 0.24 A/m 30 W/m2 - 1800MHz 60 W/m2 - 50 W/m2 - 45 W/m2 130 v/m 0.3453 A/m 45 W/m2 127.28 v/m 0.339 A/m 50 W/m2 - General public exposure limits Professional workers limits ICNIRP Limits compared with other standard limits


16 Overview of Al-Sader City (Baghdad), a case study (1)

17 Mobile phone tower distribution in (Sector 5)

18 Over view of Al-Binouk section (Baghdad), a case study (2)

19 Overview of AlShaab city, a case study (3)



22 Measurements in Wasit Governorate, case study(4)


24 Iraq, Baghdad(Peak)Iraq, Wasit (Peak)IEEEFCCARPANSAICNIRPANSI 7.18 V/m7.76 V/m47.56 V/m 41.1 V/m41.25 V/m47.56 V/m Iraq, Baghdad(Peak) Iraq, Wasit (Peak)ItalyRussiaPolandnewzealandAustriaCheck new south Wales 7.18 V/m7.76 V/m6.14 V/m2.74 V/m6.14 V/m27.45 V/m0.614 V/m9.51 V/m0.0614 V/m LocationPeak valueAverageDate Wasit 7.76 V/m 1.8441 V/m 22/1/2012 Baghdad / AlSader 7.18 V/m 1.584 V/m 15/5/2011 Baghdad / Binouk 5.52 V/m1.76 V/m24/10/2010 Measurements in Iraq compared with international limits Measurements in Iraq compared with local limits in some countries Measurements in Wasit and Baghdad Governorates

25 GSM Tower distribution in Paris, (Nedhif, 2008)

26 Country Peak power density mW/m 2 Researcher Germany 100 (Humann, 2007) KSA 100 (Alshebili, 2009) Baghdad 81 MOST Italy 23.87 (Arnelli, 2000) Kosovo 15.66 (Mimozal, 2007) Palestine 16.6 (Muhammad, 2005) Malaysia 8.3 (ECOST, 2003) India 6.366 (Kummar, 2009) Austria39.6(Neubauer, 2001) Baghdad/BinoukBaghdad/AlshaabParis 182212 Measurement in Iraq and some countries Number of towers in Baghdad and Paris for the same area

27 Exposure limits according to frequency, Hz

28 AMFMVHFUHF 78/f 0.5 28 1.375xf 0.5 ICNIRP 823.8/f 27.5 2xf 0.5 IEEE 824/f 27.5 2xf 0.5 ASNI 824/f 27.5 2xf 0.5 FCC 61.4 3.07xf 0.5 ARPANSA F= frequency in MHz International Exposure limits for Radio and TV Broadcasting Low: 10uW/m2 = 0.0614 v/m Medium: 10- 100 µw/m2 = 0.0614 – 0.2 v/m High: above 100 µw/m2 = above 0.2 v/m Extreme: 10000 – 100000 µw/m2 = 1.94 - 6.14 v/m OEKOTEST, 2001 Exposure levels classification

29 Broadcasting type Exposure limits, mW/cm 2 AM(100-180)/f 2 FM0.2 (27.5 V/m) VHF0.2 (27.5 V/m) UHF1 - 1500/f 2 In 2011, Iraqi MOEN issued instructions and recommendations represent the requirements for the environmental agreement for new TV and Radio broadcasting stations, according to these local instructions, the broadcasting stations classified as an environmental pollutants (Grade C) Iraqi local limits (MOEN)

30 TV & Radio Broadcasting Stations in Iraq Broadcasting typeIraqBaghdad FM11331 AM74 TV (UHF)2710 TV (Satellite)3123

31 Std. Deviation Mean V/m Max V/m Min V/mmeasurementsStation 0.7922.174.95197 Alfuraat 0.6932.13.551.0760 Iraqia 1.2453.5847.191.9626 Summaria 2.045.17420.171.74317 Al-Ahd 1.0532.7464.83142 Al-Salam 1.8342.5828.09152 Al-Jawadain 1.1713.0038.931.0793 Al-Mustaqbal 1.2842.9438.241.0755Al-Balagh Statistical calculations of selected Radio stations in Baghdad

32 Statistical findings of Alfouraat broadcasting station NRangeMinimumMaximumMeanStd. DeviationVariance Statistic Std. ErrorStatistic Exposure level V/m973.951.004.952.1707.08042.79203.627 Valid N (listwise)97 Alfouraat Broadcasting station in Baghdad, case study (5)

33 Statistical analysis of Alfouraat Broadcasting station in Baghdad


35 EMF level, V/m Limits 28 ICNIRP 27.5 IEEE 27.5 ASNI 27.5 FCC 61.4 ARPANSA 27.5 Local limits 20.17 Peak measurement MAX EMF Exposure V/mLocation 8.0Slovenia (Valic, 2012) 0.41 Switzerland, (Theodoros, 2009) 7.742 Germany (Schmiedel, 2008) 1.7 Belgium (Wout, 2010) 0.247 Bulgaria, (Theodoros, 2009) 1.43 France, (Theodoros, 2009) 6.0 USA, (NRPB, 2003) 20.17 IRAQ, Baghdad FM radiation Peak exposure in Baghdad compared with international limits FM radiation Peak exposure in Baghdad compared other studies

36 Conclusions and suggestions: 1.All measurements are below the international standard limits, but, they are higher than local limits of some counties. 2.The international limits are protect the professional workers and publics from EMF thermal effects, we are looking forward for new international standard limits considering the non-thermal effects 3.In Iraq most of GSM towers are fixed on the top of the citizens houses. 4.The better use of mobile phone the lower exposure level 5.Child should avoids the use of mobile phone 6.More knowledge to the possible impacts of EMF exposure including the best use of mobile phone should be included in educational text books in primary schools 7.Workers close to FM transmitters should periodically replace each other to avoid continuous exposure. 8.All people and workers who are work or live near GSM or FM transmitters must be subjected to free medical examinations. 9.All types of tower thats transmitted EMF energy must be fixed away from houses, schools and child health care centers as far as possible. 10.High power Radio and TV transmitters should be far from studio, workers and office 11.Radio and TV frequency band had the lower international standard limits 12.All measurements are implemented with normal human height (1.75 cm), higher readings expected in upper levels 13.Most of FM radio station in Baghdad located in crowded residential areas

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