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RESPIRATION. ACTIVITY 1 Write down as many terms as you can that are used to describe the respiratory system Bullet point your answers.

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Presentation on theme: "RESPIRATION. ACTIVITY 1 Write down as many terms as you can that are used to describe the respiratory system Bullet point your answers."— Presentation transcript:

1 RESPIRATION

2 ACTIVITY 1 Write down as many terms as you can that are used to describe the respiratory system Bullet point your answers

3 The air continues into many branching airways known as the bronchial tree The trachea and bronchi have supporting cartilage to keep the airways open Bronchiole walls contain more smooth muscle. The airways from the nasal cavity through the terminal bronchioles are called the conducting zone The air is moistened, warmed and filtered as it flows through these passageways The air then reaches the respiratory zone

4 The respiratory zone Terminal bronchi Alveoli The respiratory zone contains alveoli, tiny thin walled sacs where gas exchanges occurs. Lets now look at the actual site of diffusion, the respiratory membrane

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7 ACTIVITY 2 Complete the following worksheets: 1.WS.1 2.Worksheet Worksheet 5.2

8 ACTIVITY 3 Highlight the key words within the following text on IS 1

9 MECHANICS OF RESPIRATION DURING EXERCISE What muscles are involved? Inspiration – SCOM (sternocleidomastoid), scalenes & pectoralis minor Expiration – internal intercostals & rectus abdominals / obliques

10 Sternocleidomastoid (SCOM)

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12 Scalenes

13 ABDOMINALS

14 ACTIVITY 4 Highlight the key words on IS 2

15 Respiratory system – 3 main processes Pulmonary respiration – The breathing of air into and out of the lungs External respiration – Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the blood Internal respiration – Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and muscle tissues

16 RESPIRATORY VOLUMES AT REST Tidal volume (TV) – Amount of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath (approx 500ml) Frequency (F) – Rate of breathing Minute Ventilation (VE) – VE = TV X f Residual volume (RV) – Volume of air remaining in the lungs (1200ml)

17 RESPIRATORY VOLUMES AT REST (Contd) Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal breath in. The maximum volume of air that can be inspired in addition to the tidal volume. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) The amount of additional air that can be pushed out after the end expiratory level of normal breathing *see IS 3

18 LUNG CAPACITIES Inspiratory capacity = IRV + TV Expiratory capacity = ERV + TV Vital capacity – Maximal volume of air that can be expired after maximal inspiration Total lung capacity – Maximal volume of air contained in the lungs after a maximal inspiration – TLC = TV + IRV + ERV + RV

19 Control of breathing Respiratory Control Centre (RCC) regulates breathing. Located in the medulla oblongata Respiratory muscles – involuntary neural control RCC – 2 areas – Inspiratory centre – Expiratory centre

20 Important terminology 1.Chemoreceptors from within the carotid arteries send information to the inspiratory centre on chemical changes 2.Proprioceptors – muscle movements 3.Thermoreceptors – blood temperature 4.Baroreceptors – stretch receptors

21 NEURAL CONTROL DURING EXERCISE Associated muscles (inspiratory centre): – Sternocleidomastoid – Scalenes – Pectoralis minor Associated muscles (expiratory centre): – Internal intercostals – Rectus abdominus – Obliques

22 This is summarised on IS 4 Complete WS2


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