3Introduction The evolution of HRD can be discussed in 2 stages: 1. A global perspective-At global level we have:Emergence of Apprenticeship training program and collective bargaining mechanisms;Emergence of vocational training program and factory schools;Training programs for semi-skilled workers; andEmergence of training as a profession.2. An Indian perspective-Growth and Development of HR in India.
4Evolution of HRD Early apprenticeship programs Early vocational education programsEarly factory schoolsEarly training for unskilled/semi-skilledHuman relations movementEstablishment of training professionEmergence of HRD
5Early Apprenticeship Programs Artisans in 1700sArtisans had to train their own workersGuild schoolsYeomanries (early worker unions)
6Early Vocational Education Programs 1809 – DeWitt Clinton’s Manual School1863 – President Lincoln signs the Land- Grant Act promoting A&M colleges.1917 – Smith-Hughes Act provides funding for vocational education at the state level.
7Companies started machinist and mechanical schools in-house. Early Factory SchoolsIndustrial Revolution increases need for trained workers to design, build, and repair machines used by unskilled workers.Companies started machinist and mechanical schools in-house.Shorter and more narrowly-focused than apprenticeship programs.
8Early training for Unskilled/Semi-Skilled Workers Mass production (Model T)Semi and unskilled workersWorld War IRetool & retrain“Show, Tell, Do, and Check” (OJT)
9Human Relations Movement Factory system often abused workers.“Human Relations” movement promoted better working conditions.Start of business & management education.Tied to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
10Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualizationEsteemSocialSafetyPhysiological
11Establishment of the Training profession Outbreak of WWII increased the need for trained workers.Federal Government started the Training Within Industry (TWI) Program.1942 – American Society for Training Directors (ASTD) formed.
12Emergence of HRDIn the early seventies 2 consultants Prof.Udai Pareek & Prof.T.V.Rao from the IIM were approached by L&T for a review exercise of their performance appraisal system. In 1974 the consultants studied the system and made recommendations for improving it. They felt that a development oriented performance appraisal system may not achieve its objectives unless accompanied by other sub-systems like employee counseling, potential appraisal, career planning and development, training, OD etc. So a new HRD system was introduced at L&T in the year 1975.
13Contd.This was the first of its kind in India. The new system clearly established the linkages between the various personnel related aspects such as performance appraisal, employee counseling, potential appraisal, training etc. Today most of larger private & public sector organizations in India are using the techniques and approaches of HRD to develop their workforce for the attainment of organization goals along with individual satisfaction and growth.i
14Meaning of HRDLeonard Nadler introduced the term HRD in He defined HRD as “those learning expenses which are organized for a specific time and designed to bring about the possibility of behavioural change”
15Relation between HRM & HRD Human Resource Management (HRM) encompasses many functions.Human Resource Development (HRD) is just one of the functions within HRM.
16Assumptions on which HRD is based Frank in 1988 identified the following assumptions on which HRD is based;HRD is based on Research and theories drawn from the field of adult education and is different from learning that occurs in children. Learning is based on creating appropriate circumstances in which adults can learn and thereby change behaviour.
17Assumptions Contd.2. HRD is concerned with improving performance within the work environment and not with improving people’s health or their personal relations with their family. 3. HRD utilizes the theories of change and how these relate to the organization. Change affects individuals, group and the organization and HRD is predominantly concerned with change of individuals.
18According to T.V.Rao, HRD is a process by which employees of a organization are continuously helped in a planned way1.To acquire capabilities (knowledge, perspectives, attitudes, values & skills) for performing tasks.2.To develop their enabling capabilities so that they are able to discover & utilize their inner potential.3.To develop an organizational culture where team work contributes to the organizational health & dynamism.
19Comprehensive Definition “A process by which the employees of an organization are helped/motivated to acquire and develop technical, managerial and behavioural knowledge, skills and attitudes and mould the values, beliefs and attitudes necessary to perform present and future roles by realizing the highest human potential with a view to contribute positively to the organization, group, individual and social goals.”
20HRD is a continuous process HRD is a system Quality of life Nature of HRDA Behavioural scienceHRD is a continuous processHRD is a systemQuality of lifeAddition in productivity
21Scope of HRDIn today’s context, HRD is no longer confined to training and development functions. It now encompasses all development functions of HR, like; performance management, potential appraisals mentoring, counseling, job rotation, career development and overall organizational development. Focus on continuous development of manpower is necessary for organization to sustain their competitive advantage, as people are the most important strategic resource for any organization.
22Contd.For individual employee, HRD is important as they can develop and build their capabilities, which contributes to their professional and personal growth. Thus HRD benefits both the organization and the individual. Continuous planned focus on HRD also enables organization to develop the appropriate culture of team work, collaboration, inter-personal relationships, which transforms the organization to a compelling place to work, i.e., employees with increased level of motivation and self pride volunteer to do the work.
23Objectives of HRDTo develop capabilities of all individuals working in an organization in relation to their present role.To develop capabilities of all such individuals in relation to their future role.To develop better inter-personal and employer- employee relationships in an organization.To develop team spirit.To develop coordination among different units of an organization.To develop organizational health by continuous renewal of individual capabilities keeping pace with technological changes.
24HRD objectives can also be couched in line with W HRD objectives can also be couched in line with W. Edward Deming’s 14 principles for quality improvement in an org. Thus those related to HRD objectives are,Institute training on the job.Breakdown barriers between departments to build teamwork.Drive fear out of the work place.Create conditions to enable the employees to take pride in their workmanship.Institute programme of education and self-improvement.
25Development of employees is the primary task of the company. Example in Siemens Ltd.Development of employees is the primary task of the company.Recruitment of quality manpower and their retention, mainly at entry level.Performance as the sole criterion for increments and promotion.Use of training as a strategic factor for competitive advantage.To ensure transparency in decision making.
26Purpose Equity: Recognizing human beings as strategic assets Employability: Ability, skills and competencies to seek meaningful employmentAdaptability/Competitiveness: To face challenges vis-à-vis organizational changes
27Principles Principle of Development of Organizational Capability Principle of Potential MaximizationPrinciple of Autonomy MaximizationPrinciple of Maximum DelegationPrinciple of Participative Decision MakingPrinciple of Change ManagementPrinciple of Periodic Review
28Strategic Role of HRD Succession Planning Culture Change Strategic ChangePerformance ManagementStrategic HiringManaging External Partnerships and Tie-ups- CCL, IIMs, ISB, Strategy Academy (Ranjan Das), Paid sites: HBS Publishing, McKinsey Quarterly etc.Marketing Programs- externally and internallyResearch and DevelopmentKnowledge Management
29Human Resource Development Process Initially welfare was perceived as a moral duty and later welfare was considered as precondition of industrial efficiency. The second development sprung from the employer’s endeavors to cope with the challenges of trade unionism. The third phase of development could be attributed to the development of the concept of humanization of work.
30Factors responsible for this development in a phased manner are; Technological changesCompetitionConsumerismSocial ChangesPolitical dev.Structural changes
31The 70-20-10 Development Model 70/20/10 learning concept was developed by Morgan McCall, Robert W. Eichinger, and Michael M. Lombardo at the Center for Creative Leadership70% from real life and on-the-job experiences, tasks and problem solving. This is the most important aspect of any learning and development plan.20% from feedback and from observing and working with role models.10% from formal training
33HRD Process MappingEvery organization for HRD requires to perform process mapping duly understanding what is being currently done and what needs to be done, keeping the core perspective of value addition. To determine the future HRD processes, organizations draw a blueprint within the ambit of policies, procedures and structure, keeping in view the desired changes in the HR pattern.
34Contd.For HRD process documentation organizations focus both on the qualitative and quantitative measures, considering the following aspects:Description of the entire HRD process.Identification of HRD process elements and resources.Current HRD process performance.Analytic decomposition of HRD processes.
35Important Areas of HRD Increasing the enabling capabilities Focus on balanced organizational cultureFocus on learning contextual factorsFocus on diffusion of HRD functionFocus on periodic review of HRD system
36Low Commitment from management Emerging Issues in HRDChanging EnvironmentIndian organizations have also undergone drastic transformation for vibrant new ideas.Technological ImpactFocus may be on services which will be retained, re-skilled & deployed by the employees.Low Commitment from managementSince HRD is seen as a non-productive expenditure for the org the line managers are not serious.GlobalizationThis compels them to increase their ability to learn and collaborate and manage diversity & uncertainity.Employee OrientationThis requires adequate premium to be placed on individual growth & development.HR OutsourcingThis might pose a threat to the internal HR talent over a period of time.
37Summary HRD is too important to be left to amateurs 4/1/2017SummaryHRD is too important to be left to amateursHRD should be a revenue producer, not a revenue userHRD should be a central part of companyYou need to be able to talk MONEYTHRD-160-2
38BibliographyT.V.Rao, Human Resource Development: Experiences, Interventions, StrategiesR. Krishnaveni, Human Resource Development: A researcher’s perspectiveDr.D.K.Bhattacharya, Human Resource Development