The evolution of HRD can be discussed in 2 stages: 1. A global perspective-At global level we have: Emergence of Apprenticeship training program and collective bargaining mechanisms; Emergence of vocational training program and factory schools; Training programs for semi-skilled workers; and Emergence of training as a profession. 2. An Indian perspective-Growth and Development of HR in India. Introduction
Early apprenticeship programs Early vocational education programs Early factory schools Early training for unskilled/semi-skilled Human relations movement Establishment of training profession Emergence of HRD Evolution of HRD
Artisans in 1700s Artisans had to train their own workers Guild schools Yeomanries (early worker unions) Early Apprenticeship Programs
1809 – DeWitt Clintons Manual School 1863 – President Lincoln signs the Land- Grant Act promoting A&M colleges – Smith-Hughes Act provides funding for vocational education at the state level. Early Vocational Education Programs
Industrial Revolution increases need for trained workers to design, build, and repair machines used by unskilled workers. Companies started machinist and mechanical schools in-house. Shorter and more narrowly-focused than apprenticeship programs. Early Factory Schools
Mass production (Model T) Semi and unskilled workers World War I Retool & retrain Show, Tell, Do, and Check (OJT) Early training for Unskilled/Semi- Skilled Workers
Factory system often abused workers. Human Relations movement promoted better working conditions. Start of business & management education. Tied to Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. Human Relations Movement
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualizationEsteemSocialSafetyPhysiological
Outbreak of WWII increased the need for trained workers. Federal Government started the Training Within Industry (TWI) Program – American Society for Training Directors (ASTD) formed. Establishment of the Training profession
In the early seventies 2 consultants Prof.Udai Pareek & Prof.T.V.Rao from the IIM were approached by L&T for a review exercise of their performance appraisal system. In 1974 the consultants studied the system and made recommendations for improving it. They felt that a development oriented performance appraisal system may not achieve its objectives unless accompanied by other sub-systems like employee counseling, potential appraisal, career planning and development, training, OD etc. So a new HRD system was introduced at L&T in the year Emergence of HRD
This was the first of its kind in India. The new system clearly established the linkages between the various personnel related aspects such as performance appraisal, employee counseling, potential appraisal, training etc. Today most of larger private & public sector organizations in India are using the techniques and approaches of HRD to develop their workforce for the attainment of organization goals along with individual satisfaction and growth. Contd.
Leonard Nadler introduced the term HRD in He defined HRD as those learning expenses which are organized for a specific time and designed to bring about the possibility of behavioural change Meaning of HRD
Human Resource Management (HRM) encompasses many functions. Human Resource Development (HRD) is just one of the functions within HRM. Relation between HRM & HRD
Frank in 1988 identified the following assumptions on which HRD is based; 1. HRD is based on Research and theories drawn from the field of adult education and is different from learning that occurs in children. Learning is based on creating appropriate circumstances in which adults can learn and thereby change behaviour. Assumptions on which HRD is based
2. HRD is concerned with improving performance within the work environment and not with improving peoples health or their personal relations with their family. 3. HRD utilizes the theories of change and how these relate to the organization. Change affects individuals, group and the organization and HRD is predominantly concerned with change of individuals. Assumptions Contd.
1. To acquire capabilities (knowledge, perspectives, attitudes, values & skills) for performing tasks. 2. To develop their enabling capabilities so that they are able to discover & utilize their inner potential. 3. To develop an organizational culture where team work contributes to the organizational health & dynamism. According to T.V.Rao, HRD is a process by which employees of a organization are continuously helped in a planned way
A process by which the employees of an organization are helped/motivated to acquire and develop technical, managerial and behavioural knowledge, skills and attitudes and mould the values, beliefs and attitudes necessary to perform present and future roles by realizing the highest human potential with a view to contribute positively to the organization, group, individual and social goals. Comprehensive Definition
A Behavioural science HRD is a continuous process HRD is a system Quality of life Addition in productivity Nature of HRD
In todays context, HRD is no longer confined to training and development functions. It now encompasses all development functions of HR, like; performance management, potential appraisals mentoring, counseling, job rotation, career development and overall organizational development. Focus on continuous development of manpower is necessary for organization to sustain their competitive advantage, as people are the most important strategic resource for any organization. Scope of HRD
For individual employee, HRD is important as they can develop and build their capabilities, which contributes to their professional and personal growth. Thus HRD benefits both the organization and the individual. Continuous planned focus on HRD also enables organization to develop the appropriate culture of team work, collaboration, inter-personal relationships, which transforms the organization to a compelling place to work, i.e., employees with increased level of motivation and self pride volunteer to do the work. Contd.
To develop capabilities of all individuals working in an organization in relation to their present role. To develop capabilities of all such individuals in relation to their future role. To develop better inter-personal and employer- employee relationships in an organization. To develop team spirit. To develop coordination among different units of an organization. To develop organizational health by continuous renewal of individual capabilities keeping pace with technological changes. Objectives of HRD
HRD objectives can also be couched in line with W. Edward Demings 14 principles for quality improvement in an org. Thus those related to HRD objectives are, Institute training on the job. Breakdown barriers between departments to build teamwork. Drive fear out of the work place. Create conditions to enable the employees to take pride in their workmanship. Institute programme of education and self-improvement.
Development of employees is the primary task of the company. Recruitment of quality manpower and their retention, mainly at entry level. Performance as the sole criterion for increments and promotion. Use of training as a strategic factor for competitive advantage. To ensure transparency in decision making. Example in Siemens Ltd.
Equity: Recognizing human beings as strategic assets Employability: Ability, skills and competencies to seek meaningful employment Adaptability/Competitiveness: To face challenges vis-à-vis organizational changes Purpose
Principle of Development of Organizational Capability Principle of Potential Maximization Principle of Autonomy Maximization Principle of Maximum Delegation Principle of Participative Decision Making Principle of Change Management Principle of Periodic Review Principles
Succession Planning Culture Change Strategic Change Performance Management Strategic Hiring Managing External Partnerships and Tie-ups- CCL, IIMs, ISB, Strategy Academy (Ranjan Das), Paid sites: HBS Publishing, McKinsey Quarterly etc. Marketing Programs- externally and internally Research and Development Knowledge Management Strategic Role of HRD
Initially welfare was perceived as a moral duty and later welfare was considered as precondition of industrial efficiency. The second development sprung from the employers endeavors to cope with the challenges of trade unionism. The third phase of development could be attributed to the development of the concept of humanization of work. Human Resource Development Process
Technolo gical changes Competiti on Consumer ism Social Changes Political dev. Structural changes Factors responsible for this development in a phased manner are;
70% from real life and on-the-job experiences, tasks and problem solving. This is the most important aspect of any learning and development plan. 20% from feedback and from observing and working with role models. 10% from formal training 70/20/10 learning concept was developed by Morgan McCall, Robert W. Eichinger, and Michael M. Lombardo at the Center for Creative Leadership The Development Model
Primary functions Training & Development Career Development Organizational Development Secondary functions Role analysis & development Performance appraisal Potential appraisal Employee Orientation Success planning, quality circle Information sharing
Every organization for HRD requires to perform process mapping duly understanding what is being currently done and what needs to be done, keeping the core perspective of value addition. To determine the future HRD processes, organizations draw a blueprint within the ambit of policies, procedures and structure, keeping in view the desired changes in the HR pattern. HRD Process Mapping
For HRD process documentation organizations focus both on the qualitative and quantitative measures, considering the following aspects: Description of the entire HRD process. Identification of HRD process elements and resources. Current HRD process performance. Analytic decomposition of HRD processes. Contd.
Important Areas of HRD Increasing the enabling capabilities Focus on balanced organizational culture Focus on learning contextual factors Focus on diffusion of HRD function Focus on periodic review of HRD system
Low Commitment from management Since HRD is seen as a non-productive expenditure for the org the line managers are not serious. T echnological Impact Focus may be on services which will be retained, re-skilled & deployed by the employees. Changing Environment Indian organizations have also undergone drastic transformation for vibrant new ideas. Emerging Issues in HRD HR Outsourcing This might pose a threat to the internal HR talent over a period of time. Employee Orientation This requires adequate premium to be placed on individual growth & development. Globalization This compels them to increase their ability to learn and collaborate and manage diversity & uncertainity.
HRD is too important to be left to amateurs HRD should be a revenue producer, not a revenue user HRD should be a central part of company You need to be able to talk MONEY Summary
T.V.Rao, Human Resource Development: Experiences, Interventions, Strategies R. Krishnaveni, Human Resource Development: A researchers perspective Dr.D.K.Bhattacharya, Human Resource Development Bibliography