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Presentation on theme: "By Danny Cox ROLES IN THE TV AND FILM INDUSTRY. MANAGERIAL ROLES - DIRECTOR."— Presentation transcript:



3 In the TV and Film industry the director leads his crew members in a production. The director is in charge of his team and is responsible for leading them in bringing a script to life through visuals and sounds. Directors can also assume multiple roles such as directing/writing or director/producer. In pre-production directors decide who they want to work with by choosing their cast and crew members as well as choosing locations to film. They are also in charge of script editing, shot composition, shot selection and editing. Directors are in charge of directing rehearsals and performances for actors/actresses when the film is in production The director meets with producers and screenwriters to discuss shots and any changes to the script. The director also meets with producers to discuss hiring additional crew members, such as costume designers, cinematographers etc. Directors also take charge of the technical aspect of filming, such as lighting, sound, camera, design and special effects. Directors work closely with the films editors in post-production too, aiding them in producing the final cut of a film. Directors need to motivate their team to produce the best possible results at all times, whilst appreciating the needs and expectations of the films financiers. A director is the driving creating force of the films production, and is ultimately responsible for the films success or failure. MANAGERIAL ROLES - DIRECTOR

4 A director needs to be able to have a strong vision of the finished product he is aiming for, whilst having communication and interpersonal skills needed to work well with cast and crewmembers. These include the actors/actresses, artists and technicians. Directors need to be able to work long days as well as having excellent time management skills. Directors can take on multiple roles within a production too. For example, George Clooney who became famous from the 90s show ER who is now on the Hollywood A-list, is an actor, director and producer. George Clooney acted, directed and produced the Oscar- nominated films Good Night and Good Luck and The Ides of March. MANAGERIAL ROLES - DIRECTOR


6 Production Managers take charge of productions on behalf of the Producer and Line Producer. They help to come up with the most efficient and economic way to schedule shoots, negotiate business deals for crews, locations and technical equipment, and make daily decisions to make sure that productions run smoothly. In pre-production, Production Managers work closely with the Producer, Line Producer and First Assistant Director to break the script down in order to prepare a schedule. The Production manager is in charge of the negotiating and approving of renting and purchasing all equipment, supplies and production materials. As well as organizing locations, having location releases signed, and communicating with local authorities and the Police regarding permits and other permissions needed for the production. At the end of a shoot, the Production Manager 'wraps' the production. This involves making sure that all final invoices for the provided services are all received and checked, as well as being passed for payment. The production manager also makes sure that all locations are signed off in connection with agreements, and that all rental agreements are terminated, and equipment is returned on time. Production managers require a thorough knowledge of film production and must be hard working with excellent planning, organizational and administrative skills. Production managers require excellent communication and negotiation skills in order to gain confidence and respect of suppliers and production personnel. Production managers must be able to have good contacts with local equipment suppliers and understand Health & Safety legislation. As well as knowing how to carry our risk assessments according to regulatory requirements. They must also be familiar with all insurance issues. MANAGERIAL ROLES – PRODUCTION MANAGER

7 In TV Production Managers work across all genres in television production including documentaries, current affairs, children's programs, soaps or serial dramas etc. On drama productions, Production Managers use Movie Magic (a specialist scheduling and budgeting software package). The software provides a breakdown of all scripts and details production requirements. These include how many actors are needed and on what day they are needed, what locations are required for each day, and crewing requirements etc. On drama productions, Production Managers oversee 1 st Assistant Directors' (1at ADs) preparation of daily call sheets for actors and crew members. They must ensure that all cast and crew members' conditions of work are matched with the needed local agreements and regulations. In the event of rain or illnesses, they work closely with Producers, Directors and 1 st ADs to re-schedule shooting times. MANAGERIAL ROLES – PRODUCTION MANAGER


9 Camera Operators perform a vital role in the camera department for feature films. They are the support for the Director of Photography and the Director. Camera Operators are expected to carry out their instructions accurately in terms of shot composition and development. Camera Operators are usually the first people to use the camera's eye piece to confirm that all the elements of a performance come together. Elements such as art direction, lighting, composition and camera movement are crucial in creating a cinematic experience. They often begin their work at the end of pre-production and work closely with the Director of Photography, Director and Grip. They are also responsible for the 1st Assistant Camera (AC), 2nd Assistant Camera (AC) and the Camera Trainee. Camera Operators and DoP decide where the camera needs to be positioned as well as what other equipment needs to be used, such as lenses etc. While working with the director camera operators are instructed to fine tune exact details of each shot, including creative improvements or alternative suggestions.

10 On bigger budget films, the Camera Operator remains a crucial link between the creative ambitions of the Director, the DoP, and other major departments in the production, departments such as Art, Hair and Make-Up and Costume design. Camera Operator is a senior role within television, but responsibilities vary depending on the type of production. On high budget television dramas or commercials camera operators have the same role and expectations as the film industry camera operator, supporting the DoP and Director by carrying out their instructions. Camera Operators make sure that the camera and equipment are prepared and set-up, whilst keeping alert for any last-minute changes needed. They must be able to multi-task, watch, listen and think on their feet while carrying out complex and technical tasks. Camera Operators work closely with performers, guiding them on what can and cannot be seen in shot by the camera TECHNICAL ROLES – CAMERA OPERATOR Responsibilities and CharacteristicsFeature films and TV

11 Camera operators need a good sense of visual composition whilst combining their creativity with technical skills, as well as being precise to attention to detail. Camera operators need to be able to work with a team effectively whilst having effective communication skills. Camera operators must have diplomacy and sensitivity when working with artists and other crewmembers, whilst understanding the requirements of relevant Health and Safety legislation and procedures. In TV Camera Operators usually work on a freelance basis, and job availability can be unpredictable. In both industries Hours are long (12- 14 hours a day). Some foreign travel may be involved, including long periods of time spent away from home. This can be challenging to home and family life. TECHNICAL ROLES – CAMERA OPERATOR


13 Lighting technicians (otherwise known as Sparks) set up and operate lighting equipment in television and film. Lightning technicians specialize in one industry or the other due to the equipment and techniques being different. They help to provide the relevant lighting and power supply for a film. This can be either in studio on a set, or on location. Lighting technicians work once they are fully qualified, which requires being an apprentice or a trainee for 3 years. Once this is done they can begin working on the road as part of the lighting team. However, lighting technicians require at least of two years work experience as well as being 23 years old before they are allowed to work on feature films or commercials. The lighting team's work is crucial, this is because the correct lighting creates the right atmosphere in a scene. Having this will help getting the right response from the audience. Being able to do this requires high-level technical and creative skills. Some Lighting Technicians are required to set up the lighting equipment before a shoot has started and carry out lighting tests. These are known as Rigging Electricians. Others work in the Lighting Store, which can be a temporary store set up in a corner of a studio. These people are known as Lighting Storemen, they are in charge of all the light bulbs and all other additional equipment, such as the traces and filters that are used to create particular effects. Others are responsible for positioning lights during the shoot or recording. TECHNICAL ROLES – LIGHTING TECHNICIAN

14 Lighting technicians responsibilities are different depending on the production and must be able to adapt to whatever role is given to them. They are required to report any issues to the Best Boy whilst constantly being aware of the required Health and Safety legislation and procedures. Lighting Technicians are given their instructions from the Gaffer and the Best Boy, who act as the team leader in coordinating their work. Lighting technicians work with the director to review footage shots and/or with other staff to interpret their creative vision into the lighting design. These include the floor manager, producer and sound technician They are required to visit and assess locations for technical purposes, whilst conducting risk assessments for health and safety purposes. The required work is long (possible 6 day weeks with 12/13 hours work per day) and physically demanding. Working with heights comfortably is a must as well as being able to work with a crew effectively, especially a large crew on a feature film. They are also required for pre-rigging the lighting and ensuring all cables and wires are safely hidden. They are also required for de- rigging all equipment at the end of the broadcast or production. As well as making sure it is safely transported away and/or stored. TECHNICAL ROLES – LIGHTING TECHNICIAN


16 In film, Art Directors act as project managers for the Art Department, which can be referred to as the biggest department of a film. Art directors work with the production designer on many levels, They aid the Production Designer's creative vision for all locations and sets required for the production. This leads to giving the film its look and unique visual identity Art Directors are in charge of the budget and schedule of work, and help the Production Designer to increase the money allocated to the art department as much as possible. Art directors can begin working 8 weeks before shooting on a low budget film, or 4 to 5 months on a feature film. Once a final schedule has been received art directors oversee the preparations for the first required set, as well as analysing the script to identify all props and/or additional items that may require longer preparation times. A major part of an Art Directors work is being able to troubleshoot. They must find budget friendly solutions which also provide practical resolutions to any construction and decorating issues. CREATIVE ROLES – ART DIRECTOR

17 Art directors need to have an eye for decoration and detail as well as being able to think visually. Because they will be working with members of a team, film art directors possess highly developed communication and interpersonal skills in order to work with their team effectively. Art directors not only need to be able to work with a team, but they will need to be able to lead a team too. Being an art director requires a sense of creativity, imagination and curiosity, as well as a sense of adventure. Art directors are responsible for commissioning all Special Effects, hiring any/all vehicles, and casting any animals in the production that the director has chosen. Art directors work closely with the Location Manager to negotiate when locations can be prepared and organized for shooting. This is usually done as the shooting date is close. Whilst filming, Art Directors must continue to oversee the construction, dressing and dismantling of the remaining sets. Once filming is completed art directors must ensure that all sets are struck and locations cleared, and that all/any art department bills that havent been paid are dealt with. CREATIVE ROLES – ART DIRECTOR Further responsibilitiesCharacteristics and Skills


19 Costume designers are in charge of designing, creating, acquiring and hiring all the costumes needed for the actors/actresses and extras in a film/commercial/theatre production. Costume designers are crucial for assisting in the overall look in a production, this can be done by designing original costumes, or an adaptation of a ready made outfit. During pre-production Costume Designers break down scripts through each scene, in order to work out how many characters are involved, and what costumes are required. Costume Designers are required to carry out research for the costume styles, designs and construction methods which are accurate for the stories time period. Many resources can be used for this research, such as the internet, libraries and even museums. Costume designers present possible ideas to directors about the general costume image, character plots and original costume designs, using sketches and fabric samples. They also discuss color palettes and suggestions with the director of photography and the production designer. CREATIVE ROLES – COSTUME DESIGNER

20 Getting the right look is essential in making the production believable. Different TV shows and/or films are often set in different times. For example, The 2011 film The Woman in Black directed by James Watkins is set in the Edwardian era in the 1900s. The fashion sense was much more formal in this time. Most men in this era wore smart clothes, such as suits and bowler hats. Women on the other hand wore 2 piece dresses, corsets, skirts etc. If the film or another production set in this timeframe had men/women wearing clothes that werent worn at the time, the story wouldnt be believable. CREATIVE ROLES – COSTUME DESIGNER


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