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Media Use in Burma Findings from the 2012 International Audience Research Project.

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Presentation on theme: "Media Use in Burma Findings from the 2012 International Audience Research Project."— Presentation transcript:

1 Media Use in Burma Findings from the 2012 International Audience Research Project

2 Survey Background and Conditions

3 Target population is any adult in Burma, aged 15 years or older Total sample size is 3,000 Language: Burmese Interviews were collected face-to-face in respondents home Duration was 8 ½ weeks (May 5 – June 20, 2012) Fieldwork team of 48 interviewers and supervisors + 2 independent QC 3

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5 Survey Background and Conditions Nationally representative sample The country has 7 states (ethnic minorities) and 7 regions (predominantly Burman) 4 states and 7 regions were covered –Chin and Kayah (size) and Kachin (armed conflict) were excluded, representing 4.1% of total population 50 townships out of 287 were selected by PPS method Sampled wards and villages were selected in the townships depending on urban and rural population ratio 25% urban, 75% rural, or 760 urban, 2,240 rural interviews 5

6 Burma 4 States and 7 Regions 50 out of 287 Townships Rural: 224 Villages Urban: 76 Wards Survey Background and Conditions 6 Chin Kachin Kayah

7 Survey Background and Conditions Household selection Systematic random sampling method was used, by which an interval was devised using the total number of households in the village/ward and dividing by the target (10 households). Respondent selection Kish grid 7

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9 Survey Background and Conditions Conditions for collecting data in Burma are difficult. Supervisors spoke of taking multiple modes of transportation to reach a village (moto, boat, ox cart, walking several kilometers). There are bad roads and irregular public transportation. It is customary, but not necessary, to ask permission of township administrator to conduct the survey. Most township administrators say yes, but not all. This causes delays and at times tense situations. 9

10 Most Households Have Radio, Television; Digital Devices Remain Rare Which of the following do you have working in your household? 10

11 TVs, Digital Devices Most Common in Urban Areas Which of the following do you have working in your household? 11

12 12 When was the last time you…? Overall, Radio is More Commonly Used Than Television

13 AM Radio Audience Drops Sharply; FM Use Continues to Rise 13 Which of the following wave bands have you used in the last week to listen to the radio?

14 State-Owned Radio Faces Competition From Private and International Stations 14 Radio broadcasters% listened in the past week Myanmar Radio National Service44% Shwe FM40% Myanmar Radio Padauk Myay Service38% U.S. Radio Broadcasts21% BBC World Service18% Mandalay City FM 87.916% Yangon City FM 89.08% DVB Radio3%

15 Weekly TV Use Twice as Common in Urban as Rural Areas 15 Percentage who used each form of media in the past seven days

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17 TV, Internet Use Also Skew Toward Higher Education Levels 17 Percentage who used each form of media in the past seven days

18 TV Market Still Largely Dominated by State-Owned Outlets 18 TV broadcasters% watched in the past week Myanmar Television (MRTV)39% Myawaddy TV33% MRTV 4 (local)24% MRTV 3 (international TV service)5% DVB-TV4% CNN International3% CCTV4 – China TV2% U.S. TV Broadcasts1% BBC World News0.5%

19 Mobile Phone SIM Cards Remain Out of Reach for Most 19 Do you, yourself, have a mobile phone, or not? Percent yes

20 Major Developments The introduction of new private FM radio stations in recent years has prompted a dramatic rise in FM listenership; many AM listeners may have migrated to new FM options. Television use is more common than radio use in Burmas urban areas; if the pace of development quickens with new foreign investment, TV use may also grow more quickly. Internet use remains rare – but it remains to be seen whether the end of Burmas censorship regime will spur the development of new media infrastructure. 20

21 Use of Media for News in Burma 21 Photo: DVB-TV Photo: AFP Photo: FreeBurmaRangers.org

22 Weekly Use for News 22 Source: Amnesty Internationa l Photo: Amnesty International

23 Weekly Use for News All Burmese (n=3,000) Urban areas (n=900) Small towns/ Rural areas (n=2,100) Every day/ most days At least once a week Every day/ most days At least once a week Every day/ most days At least once a week Radio43.3%62.3%29.6%50.8%49.2%67.3% TV23.3%44.7%41.3%67.5%15.7%35.1% Newspapers/Magazines5.8%14.4%16.3%33.8%1.3%6.0% Friends/Family members5.3%25.6%6.0%32.7%5.0%22.6% Journals2.1%16.3%5.5%36.4%0.7%7.8% SMS0.4%1.7%0.8%4.1%0.3%0.7% Internet0.4%1.1%1.3%3.3%–0.1% 23

24 What Is News in Burma? Photo: AFP Photo: Wikimedia Commons

25 What Is News in Burma? Photo: AFP 25 What are the most serious problems facing Burma today? (%, First response, unprompted)

26 What Is News in Burma? Photo: Avaaz.org Please tell me your level of interest in the following topics: (% responding very interested) 26

27 27 Source First Response Second Response Third Response All Responses Myanmar Radio National Service15.38.84.828.9 MRTV12.56.93.923.3 Shwe FM11.45.64.221.2 Padauk Myay Radio7.67.53.618.7 Myawaddy TV7.48.42.518.3 MRTV 47.83.92.914.6 Radio Free Asia5.65.03.414.0 VOA3.26.54.113.8 BBC3.03.74.210.9 Padamya FM3.53.02.89.3 Mandalay City FM1.72.21.55.4 DVB-TV2.40.8 4.0 Cherry FM0.41.31.53.2 Days News Journal0.01.31.62.9 Which stations, publications, or sites are your three MOST important sources of information? (%, unprompted) Media Outlets Most Frequently Mentioned Among Respondents Top Three Sources

28 28 Which stations, publications, or sites are your three MOST important sources of information? Source Total Burmese (n=3,000) Yangon/ Mandalay (n=269) Other urban areas (n=631) Small towns/ Rural areas (n=2,101) Myanmar Radio National Service MW/SW29.0%6.3%19.2%34.8% Myanmar Television (MRTV)23.6%21.9%40.0%18.9% Shwe FM21.0%9.3%11.3%25.4% Padauk Myay Radio MW/SW18.7%6.3%10.7%22.7% Myawaddy TV18.6%28.3%27.9%14.5% RFA14.5%2.2%14.8%15.9% MRTV 414.3%62.5%17.1%7.4% VOA14.1%4.5%14.4%15.3% BBC London/BBC International11.0%11.5%11.6%10.7%

29 Jointly operated by official MRTV and Forever Group Launched May 2004 24 hours daily with a focus on entertainment MRTV 4 international (2008) Forever Media TV operations now called 4-TV –51 channels, including 12 free-to-air, 8 HD, 7 digital and 24 international stations –For Info provides attractively produced talk shows and news –Free-to-air foreign news products include CCTV, Fox News, Bloomberg, DW, KBS, Arirang 29

30 Est. 1995, creating television commercials using computer graphics 1998-2001, cooperative ventures with government Tech training, e-education, publishing, public relations, advertising, digital marketing Other media ventures also include Mandalay FM (2008) and Pyinsawadi FM (2009) Latest venture: Myanmar Media Development Center (MMDC) opened in July. Forever Group 30

31 Shwe FM Launched October 2009 The only fully private radio operation in Burma Weekly audience: 40% of Burmese adults Pop music, chat, variety of topics 31

32 How does a private station grow so large, so fast? 32

33 Shwe Than Lwin Co., Ltd. Chairman Kyaw Win has close ties to military leaders Until recently, best known for its mining, construction, trade, and agricultural ventures Shwe FM (2009) Sky Net direct-to-home, multi- play services (late 2010) Beer, soft drinks, and cigarettes (2012) 2011: Official media reported the group would launch a free-to-air television channel 33

34 Reached via satellite, requires SkyNet box –Costs roughly $180, plus monthly $12 fee 48 channels International News: MSNBC, Fox, Sky News, CCTV, Channel News Asia (soon) Sole domestic broadcaster of Aung San Suu Kyis speeches during European trip Four locally produced channels: –Buddha Channel –Up-to-Date Channel –Myanmar International –Hluttaw Channel 34 Photo: AFP

35 How much do you trust the news you get from the following sources? Comparisons with BBG 2010-11 survey: –Significantly more said they trusted international radio a great deal compared with 2010-11 –Drop in overall trust numbers for all three domestic stations –No significant change in those considering domestic TV stations very trustworthy 35

36 Is official media more trustworthy now than 6 months ago? 52% yes (6% say much more trustworthy now) 34% the same 1% no (0% say much less trustworthy now) 14% dont know 36

37 Satellites, New Media, and the Future 37

38 Mobile Phone Ownership Trends Base: 2009 n=6,137; 2010 n=4,030; 2012 n=3,000. Data show percentages of adults who personally own a mobile phone. 38

39 Alternative Media: Mobiles, Internet, Satellite Alternative media impact held back by obstacles of strict control, high cost, and inadequate infrastructure Most access now in large cities; even there, 80% or more are unconnected Radio remains main means of access to external information for most Neighboring countries show how quickly alternative media growth can be achieved 39

40 Mobile Phone Ownership: Regional Comparison Data for Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Vietnam based on BBG-sponsored national surveys in 2011. All figures show percentages of adults who personally a mobile phone. 40

41 Mobile Ownership by Urbanicity 41

42 Activities Performed on Mobile Phones 42 Base: Mobile phone owners (n=417). Data show percentages of mobile owners performing each activity listed in past 7 days.

43 Internet Use 43 Base: All respondents (n=3,000). Data show percentage using Internet within previous 7 days.

44 Locations of Internet Use Base: Past month Internet users (n=77). Data show percentages of this group accessing Internet at each location (multiple responses accepted). 44

45 Internet Use by Age Percentage in each age group using Internet in previous 7 days. 45

46 Websites Used for News/Information Base: Past month Internet users (n=77). 46

47 Satellite Dish Ownership Percentage of households in each category with installed satellite dish. 47

48 Satellite Dish Trends Percentage of households with satellite dishes. 48

49 TV Viewing Patterns: Satellite vs. Non-Satellite TV HHs Base: Satellite households (n=177); TV households without satellite (n=1,491) 49

50 A Connectedness Index Percentage of individuals who EITHER have satellite dish or have used Internet in past 4 weeks. 50

51 Trends From a Neighboring Country: Bangladesh Percentage of individuals who own a mobile phone and percentage of households with cable television. 51

52 Conclusions Burmas media environment is underdeveloped and firmly anchored in old media, but changes have started. Radio is the most used media for entertainment and news in Burma, and domestic outlets have expanded rapidly in recent years. Televisions growth in urban areas has been striking in recent years. A very limited number of private players have gained market access, tapping into a deep desire for entertainment, religion, and news you can use. Photo: Amnesty International Burmese are cautious but appear to trust local media more than in the past. Web and mobile infrastructure lags with slow connections and low use. Mobile phone growth potential is high. 52 Gallup ® is a trademark of Gallup, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.


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