Presentation on theme: "PORTRAYAL OF NURSING IN THE MEDIA"— Presentation transcript:
1PORTRAYAL OF NURSING IN THE MEDIA Allison Mentink, Christine Ostendorf, Jessica GumsUniversity of Wisconsin - Eau Claire
2IntroductionWe have all heard stories regarding nurses: killer nurses, incompetent nurses, poorly trained nurses and of course the entertainment media have their “naughty nurses”Negative/derogatory portrayal of nursing in the media has become more prevalent over the past 50 years. This has heightened with more negative images in the past 20 years.The medias portrayal of nurses is one of the most difficult to compete withThe issue of how nurses and nursing as a profession are portrayed in the media is affected by many different influences. Nurses in general do not like to be in the media. As stated in Silence to Voice Nurses encountered by the media seem terrified of talking about their work and expressing their opinions. From a professional standpoint nurses have been more focused on their profession and not justifying themselves to the media and those that have misconceptions of nurses.
3Media Print ads Radio News coverage Books Internet Television Movies Print news media sometimes portrays nurses as skilled professionals, but often reports only on nursing mistakes.The media has portrayed nurses as meek handmaidens, love interests, bimbos and naughty nurses. The naughty nurse image has been used to sell alcohol, razor blades, cosmetics, shoes and milk.Johnson & Johnson ad campaign to get people to enter nursing, but portrayed nurses as ‘angels’ not professionals
5Wait! People Trust Nurses! 2008 Gallup poll ranked nurses #1 for honesty and ethicsTrust is not the same as respect!
6Does it Matter? Nursing is an autonomous profession TV, movies, and news accounts frequently give credit for the work nurses do to physicians or hospitalsPeople are affected by what they see and hear – this is why companies and politicians spend millions of dollars on advertisingEntertainment educationIn the 1950s and 1960s, the American Medical Association asserted control over network television shows, ensuring scripts included heroic physiciansEntertainment education – a way of informing the public about a social issue or concern by using popular social media like TVHarvard and UCLA schools of public healthHollywood Health and Society Project at USC sponsored by the CDC and the Writers Guild of America
7Where are all the nurses? In 2008, 39 of 43 major characters on the top 5 U.S. health related prime time TV shows were physicians. In reality, there were 3 million nurses and 700,000 physicians; a 4:1 ratio
8Real Nurses vs Fictional Nurses WHAT REAL NURSE DOWHAT TV NURSES DOEducateAnswer PhonesPatient AdvocateFollow Doctor OrdersTriageHave Affairs with DoctorsMonitor PatientsAssist DoctorsProvide Emotional SupportWatch Doctors Save LivesPerform ProceduresSave Lives
9Do people really believe what they see? 2000 survey by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showed:52% of people reported getting information they trust to be accurate from a prime time TV showGreater than 25% said such shows are among their top 3 sources for health information9 out of 10 regular viewers said they learned something about diseases from TVAlmost 50% took some action after watching the show42% told someone the storyline16% told someone to do something or did something themselves9% visited a clinic or physician
10How does the media currently view nurses? From , NBC’s daytime soap opera Passion’s had an orangutan play the role of Precious – a private duty nurse.
11Early Ideas About Nursing Angels of Mercy until end of WWII1920’s to end of WWII – pragmatic, even heroicA Farewell to Arms (1932)
121930’s-1940’s – Dr. Kildare films introduced nurses as love interests1940’s-1960’s – series of juvenile novels about Cherry AmesAdventurous, bright, young nurse crime solver1950’s-1960’s – AMA asserted control over network televisionHeroic physician characters virtuous,no mistakes
131960’s brought the naughty nurse, balanced by the senior battle-axQuality of nursing portrayal decreased in both film and prime time televisionOne Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975): The Nurses series
141960’s and 1970’s: increase in portrayal of explicit sexual activityCatch 22 (1970)M.A.S.H. (1972)Kalischs of University of Michigan Nursing School published multiple studies in the 1980’s
151980’s – 1990’sNurses were shown as peripheral assistants to dominant physiciansSt. Elsewhere showed occasional formidable nurse characterChina Beach lead character colleen McMurphy was competent, tough army nurse but did not generally display much skillOverall nurses encountered by the media appear terrified of talking about their work and expressing their opinions. (Buresh & Gordon, 2006)
161980’s – 1990’sTV sitcom Nurses treated nurses with some respectNightingales featured sexy nursing students who spent so much time partially undressed that outraged nurses actually managed to chase the show off the airER 1994 One of the most influential health care shows in history. Fairly realistic scenes, some of the best depictions of nursing ever to appear on network TV, occasionally showed serious nursing skill and autonomy, but as a whole depicted nurses as the handmaiden, as a skilled physician assistant who must defer to him.Look at newspapers, popular magazines, television news or internet sites and inevitably you will encounter health information and news. Studies show that the media and internet are relied on as primary sources of health information. (Buresh & Gordan, 2006)
17PresentStrong Medicine on Lifetime had a handsome, articulate nurse midwife Peter Riggs, but other nurses were mute handmaidens2001-Present Scrubs, main nurse Carla Espinosa at times shows real skill, but also shows doctors starting iv’s and hanging medications and providing virtually all careHouse stated nurses were invented to pick patients up when they fall and to get him coffeePrivate Practice only has one nurse/receptionist character-male midwife studentHawthoRNe – Told from the point of view of nurses as they struggle against the odds to deliver the best care possible.Several different nurses in different stages of their nursing careers.Television depends more on pictures than words to convey the news while newspapers use more words than pictures. (Buresh & Gordon, 2006)
18PresentNurse Jackie – Portrays an irresponsible nurse that is addicted to pain medications and does things the way she wants to, not the legal way.
20How has the Media’s Portrayal Affected Nurses? Nursing shortagePrevented men from entering nursingReduced respect and trust in nursingReduced the patient population of nurse practitioners
21What Can We Do?Nurses must recognize that they have the power to change the professionProject a professional imageWrite letters to editors and producersHospital managers can promote nursing just like they do medicineMedia can consult with nursesHollywood can include characters to reflect real nursing work
22“Most people know they can’t get into a hospital without a doctor “Most people know they can’t get into a hospital without a doctor. What they don’t know is that they won’t get out of one – at least not alive – without a nurse.”- Nursing Historian Joan Lynaugh
23REFERENCESAdler, J. (2009, February 28). The nurse will see you now. Newsweek. Retrieved from now.html Buresh,B. & Gordon,S. (2006). From silence to voice: What nurses know and must communicate to the public (2nd ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Fealy, G. M. (2004). The good nurse: Visions and values in images of the nurse. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 46 (6), Gordon, S. (2005). Nursing against the odds: How health care cost cutting, media stereotypes, and medical hubris undermine nurses and patient care. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Kalisch, B.J. & Kalilsch, P. A. (1983). Improving the image of nursing. The American Journal of Nursing, 83 (1), Kalisch, B.J., Kalisch, P.A. & McHugh, M.L. (1982). The nurse as a sex object in motion pictures, 1930 to Research in Nursing and Health, 5,
24REFERENCESKalisch, P. A., Kalisch, B.J. & Clinton, J. (1982). The world of nursing on prime time television, 1950 to Nursing Research, 31 (6), Lusk, B. (2000). Pretty and powerless: Nurses in advertisements, Research in Nursing & Health, 23 (3), Saad, L. (2008). [Graph illustration Top rated professions for honesty and ethics Nov 7-9, 2008] Nurses shine while bankers slump in ethics rating. Retrieved November 10, 2010, from Gallup: Shine-While-Bankers-Slump-Ethics-Ratings.aspx Schorr, T. (1963). Nursing's TV image. American Journal of Nursing, 63 (10), Spangler, R. W. (1955). We're on TV every week. American Journal of Nursing, 55 (5), Summers, S., & Summers, H. J. (2009). Saving lives: Why the media's portrayal of nurses puts us all at risk. New York, NY: Kaplan Publishing. Takase, M., Maude, P., & Manias, E. (2006). Impact of the perceived public image of nursing on nurses' work behaviour. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53 (3),