Presentation on theme: "TV History and Its Impact on our culture. A Brief History of Early TV TV first surfaced in science fiction writing of the 1880s. 1884-German inventor."— Presentation transcript:
A Brief History of Early TV TV first surfaced in science fiction writing of the 1880s. 1884-German inventor Paul Nipkow developed technology to transmit pictures over a wire. Invented first spinning disc TV. Mechanical TV-rotating disc-had too many problems.
A Brief History of Early TV Electronic TV-no moving parts 1927-Farnsworth developed dissector tube 1928-Zworykin hired by Sarnoff; advanced technology with the iconoscope 1939-FDR welcome address from NYC Worlds Fair-debut of TV 1941-FCC authorized TV as a broadcast service
A Brief History of Early TV First TV sets were between $200-$600. After World War II, TV expanded rapidly-too rapidly. The FREEZE-1948-FCC put a 6-month freeze on the issuance of new TV broadcast licenses. Toward the end of the freeze-108 stations broadcasting, 17 million receivers and several big shows..
A Brief History of Early TV ED SULLIVAN- Toast of the Town NBC- Saturday Night Review Milton Berle Murrows See It Now Early dramas
A Brief History of Early TV Freeze was lifted in 1952 City-by-city channel assignments NTSC (National Television System Committee) came up with new, compatible system-still in place today.
A Brief History of Early TV 1950s- Golden Days of TV 1954-Edward R. Murrow-attacked anti- communist witchhunt of Senator McCarthy on See It Now program. (First time TV made strong political statement.) Mid 1950s- Quiz Show Scandal- represented the end of innocence.
The Medium is the Massage Carl Sandburg The impact of television on our culture is just indescribable
The Medium is the Massage 1946: 7,000 TV sets in America 1953: More TVs than bathtubs in America 1955: 88% of all homes have at least 1 TV. 1966: 98% of all homes have at least 1 TV 1998: 99% of all homes have at least 1 TV
The Medium is the Massage Average # of TV sets in a household: 2.24 Average teen spends 1.8 hrs/wk reading, 5.6 hrs on homework, & 21 hrs watching TV. Average youth spends 900 hrs/yr in school, 1500 hrs/yr watching TV Between 2 & 65, avg person watch 72,000 hrs of TV (8 full years!)
The Medium is the Massage Why is TV so powerful? –Availability –Persuasive Ability –Visual Imagery –Participatory Nature –TV is Right there!
The Medium is the Massage Marshall McLuhan –1960s media theorist –Coined the phrase medium is the massage –1. Massage/Message: Medium itself is stronger, more important than what it communicates –2. Massage: works us over, arouses thoughts –3. Mass-age: mass media –4. Mess-age: media can truly be a mess!
The Medium is the Massage EFFECTS OF TV –Quantitative vs Qualitative –Quantitative-having a large mass of results –Qualitative-having high quality results
The Medium is the Massage EFFECTS ON CULTURE –Crime and Violence –Does TV influence criminal activity? -Some say that TV influences our violent nature/behaviors. -As violence in TV increased, violence in society increased.
The Medium is the Massage –Sexual Behavior/Attitudes –TV influences our behavior. -Sexual nature on TV has an effect on our behavior and attitudes. - For example, our perception of homosexuality is influenced by TV.
The Medium is the Massage EFFECTS ON CULTURE -News and Politics -rely on TV for news -political stories -Minority Representation -1970s major strides with minorities on TV
The Medium is the Massage EFFECTS ON CULTURE -Educational Process -raise level of knowledge for kids -Does TV repress creativity and activity
Quiz Show Scandal A story of deception-before America became accustom to lying to the public. I learned a lot about good and evil. Theyre not always what they appear to be. –Charles Van Doren
Quiz Show Scandal 1950s-TV was link to reality and an escape from it. Early quiz show programs were most successful. $64,000 question-1955-sponsored by Revlon-contestants came back for repeat performance to win more money- idea borrowed from Take It or Leave It -a radio program.
Quiz Show Scandal Very organized from the start –IBM question machine –Close-up of contestants family members –Banker who asked questions –Isolation booth –Producer: Mark Goodson- suggested that the only way to make the show successful was to rig it.
Quiz Show Scandal Contestants were questioned to determine their areas of knowledge Producers would lead contestants often times without players even knowing it. Joyce Brothers-early contestant that became a boxing expert. (Producers thought it was interesting for people to have unexpected specialties.) Many early contestants became quite famous from their show appearances.
Quiz Show Scandal $64,000 Challenge an extension of the other show, also sponsored by Revlon. Took first steps toward outright fraud. Twenty-One-1956-took ultimate step toward total fraud.
Quiz Show Scandal Contestants were cast as actors Everything was choreographed 1st show wasnt rigged and it was a disaster All subsequent shows were rigged At one time, the top 5 highest rated shows were all Quiz Shows!
Quiz Show Scandal Herb Stempel Infamous Twenty-One contestant Had ability to antagonize viewers Portrayed as humble, sheepish, nerd Producers provided him with answers, choreography and stage direction. Would later betray the show.
Quiz Show Scandal Charles Van Doren Most acclaimed quiz show contestant Notable, intellectual family Knocked Stempel from top spot on Twenty- One Symbolized integrity and intellectual achievement Initially refused coaching but finally agreed; became rich and famous
Quiz Show Scandal When producer Rick Enright told Stempel that he was to lose, he was reluctant. Stempel became resentful after giving up celebrity status Took his story to many media outlets But this did not ultimately come out until after the Dotto incident
Quiz Show Scandal Dotto-standby contestant discovered contestants notebook full of answers This scandal forced the show off air immediately. All quiz show ratings plummeted Suspicion about Twenty-One resurfaced.
Quiz Show Scandal NYC Asst. DA started investigation in 1958. Grand jury was convened for 9 months 150 witnesses, including contestants and producers Stempel vs. everyone else
Quiz Show Scandal Congressional hearing Patty Duke-despite coaching she finally told the truth about the deception. James Snodgrass-ultimately proved it was rigged be providing self- addressed sealed letter, documenting answers he had been given.
Quiz Show Scandal Charles Van Doren-finally admitted his involvement, stated that he had lived in dread for years One producer, 17 contestants were convicted of lying under oath to the grand jury. –Blacklisted and forced out of TV –Life of shame –The end of innocence
Test Review Names and Terms to Know TV HistoryTV Theory NYC Worlds FairMarshall McLuhan The Freeze NTSC 1950s-Golden Days Game ShowsContestants $64,000 QuestionHerb Stempel $64,000 ChallengeCharles Van Duren Twenty-OnePatty Duke DottoJames Snodgrass Joyce Brothers
Test Review 1.RCA unveiled television on April 30, 1939 at __________. 2._________ was a media theorist who proposed the idea that the medium is the massage. 3.________is regarded as the most popular and acclaimed quiz show contestant. 4.In 1948, the FCC imposed the ___________, which called for a temporary half in issuing new licenses. 5.In 1952, the FCC endorsed a color system that had been developed by the ___________. 6._________was the program that took the ultimate step toward outright fraud.
Test Review 7. It is estimated that more than 100 contestants and producers were guilty of ____________. 8. The first game show to be publicly exposed as a fraud or rip-off was____________. 9. Many critics believe that television may ___________ (Increase or Decrease) violent or criminal behavior. 10. In which decade did the TV Quiz Show scandal occur? 11. Many critics believe that television___________ the education level of children, but ___________ the creativity and activity of children. (Increase or Decrease)
Test Review True or False 1.Patty Duke was the first contestant to admit to the deception on the witness stand. 2.Electronic TV involved moving parts such as a spinning disc. 3.Research indicates that TV directly causes criminal behavior. 4.Many critics believe that TV has produced a society only interested in qualitative results. 5.TV has effected our sexual attitudes by pushing the boundaries of what is accepted.
Test Review True or False 6. The producers of Twenty-One were fully aware that contestants were being coached. 7. Most Americans get their news from TV sources. 8. Stempel was the most acclaimed game show contestant of all time. Short Answer 1.List three reasons why TV is such a powerful medium. 2.Why was the public so shocked by the Quiz Show scandal?