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The multi-channel, multi- platform challenge The active audience.

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1 The multi-channel, multi- platform challenge The active audience

2 Estimating the TV audience BARB is a non-profit making company funded by the BBC, ITV, C4, Five, BSkyB and the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (IPA)

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4 The method BARB obtains viewing estimates for 300 itemised tv channels received in the UK, reported overnight and after 8 days BARB creates a panel of television owning households, selected to be fully representative of the viewing behaviour of all 27m television owning households in the UK and based on non-overlapping TV regions Each panel household represents about 5,000 of the population, returning data from 11,000 individuals

5 The method Measures analogue, digital, cable, terrestrial and satellite delivery Measures minute by minute viewing at normal speed Captures time-shifted viewing from some other devices if viewed either on the same day or within 7 days Households are selected from a continuous Establishment Survey involving 53,000 interviews per year

6 The Establishment Survey Measures the characteristics of television owning households Means of TV reception Social demographic Stage of life (young family, elderly etc) Produces universes for panel control and a list of addresses Ensures that changes in population are picked up and reflected in the panel makeup

7 The Lifestyle Insights Survey 2010 Analyses viewer behaviour in relation to their interests and activities Survey includes responses to attitudinal statements Eg: I often buy things on impulse Asks about holidays, newspapers, shopping habits, car, mobile phones etc So if an advertiser wishes to target a particular group, data is available to examine their viewing habits

8 The Panel Completely new panel in operation from January 2010 Better ethnic profile Improved representation of multi platform homes Better geographical balance between metropolitan, urban and rural

9 How? Once a household agrees to take part, a small black box is plugged into all the household televisions, and other equipment viewed through a television eg games consoles Electronic data includes which channel is being watched, what programme, what time, and the type of person watching

10 How? Each individual in the household, and any guests, register their presence when theyre in a room with the TV set switched on by clicking on a handset When they leave the room, they click again

11 So you always press the button, huh?

12 So youre really watching television, huh? There was a lot of sleeping, snoring, chatting, necking, wandering in and out, scrapping over the remote control Collett, P. And Lamb, R. (1986) Watching people watching television: final report to the IBA, Oxford: University of Oxford, Department of Experimental Psychology

13 The Future into View BARB, April 2006 BARB concerned it doesnt measure all viewing on all platforms Doesnt accurately pick up time shifted, out-of-home viewing, viewing on mobiles, hand held screens or on PCs

14 The Future into View BARB, January 2009 BARB concerned that the data captured 94% of all viewing By 2018 that could fall to 85% Because: Of the growth in time shifted viewing Personal Video Recorders (PVR) eg Sky+ and Video on Demand (VOD) The changes in viewing platform People watch via a PC or laptop Technology advances make broadcast-to-mobile phone more attractive

15 2010 BARB begins testing a new meter that will measure television content viewed over a laptop or PC A panel of 75 homes recruited to pilot the system from August 2010 Aims to extend reporting of a wider range of content via a wider range of devices, including games consoles

16 Television audiences… Have fragmented and segmented People watch television on average for about 30 hours each week 8.28 hours a week is taken by BBC1 and BBC 2 ITV 4.53 hours a week C4 and C5 take 3.28 hours per week Others take Source: BARB Week ending Sunday Feb

17 Source: BARB at

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19 Source: BARB Bulletin March 2009

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23 Time-shifted viewing

24 Time shifted viewing

25 Week ending February Coronation St (Mon 1930) – 10.1m (1) Eastenders (Mon) -9.75m (3) Dancing on Ice – 8.4m (8) Big Fat Gypsy Weddings – 7.49m(15) Countryfile – 6.71m (22) BBC News at Ten (Wed) – 5.16m (36)

26 Further Reading Kinsey, M. (2008) Eyes, Ears and Clicks: The Battle for an Audience in Chapman, J and Kinsey, M. (eds) Broadcast Journalism: A Critical Introduction Starkey, G. (2004) Estimating Audiences: sampling in television and radio audience research, Cultural Trends, 13 (1): 3-25 Henry, G. (1990) Practical Sampling, New York: Sage

27 Essay – choose one of four Broadcast audience measurement techniques are inadequate and/or inaccurate. Discuss in relation to EITHER television or radio.

28 Essay – choose one of four Successful newspapers reinforce the prejudice of their readers. Discuss this in the context of two national titles, first analysing what you consider to be the prejudices/attitudes/editorial mindsets of each and then illustrating how this is demonstrated in specific items taken from each paper

29 Essay – choose one of four Explain and evaluate ways in which digital technology is changing the way audiences consume radio and televisionnews. Make particular reference to trends in national and global availability of programmes

30 Essay – choose one of four Discuss the measurement of sale and audience of newspapers or magazines using published data and explaining how figures can vary depending on what is measured. Include the difference between circulation and readership and the importance of demographic data to publishers. Give specific examples

31 Next week Wednesday March 2 Peter Genower on Magazines 11-1pm Lecture Theatre 1 St Georges Note – its two hours instead of one!


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