Presentation on theme: "Ch. 4. Basic Measurements and Calculations Highlights: Method of Measurement Name of a company or organization that presents the measurement data."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 4. Basic Measurements and Calculations Highlights: Method of Measurement Name of a company or organization that presents the measurement data
I. Audience Measurement for each medium National TV: peoples meter (w/ 5,000 homes) Nielsen Media Research Who, what, how long, when Local TV: Diary in all 210 DMAs (Designated Market Areas, TV markets) Diary + meter in top 53 DMAs Arbitron and Nielsen DMAs: a group of counties that get the majority of their TV viewing from the same home market. (e.g., Baltimore DMA)
Radio: Diary in 270 radio markets Arbitron Magazines Recent-reading techniques w/ in-person interview and a long questionnaire about their product use Mediamark Research Inc. (MRI) Newspapers Yesterday reading (Which NP did you read yesterday? --- typically use circulation figures) ABC: Audit Bureau of Circulation Audits and reports the circulation of various publications
Internet Use national sample of 60,000 respondents Measure the number of visitors, how long people stay in each page, how far they go, how many times they return Nielsen/NetRatings Out-of-Home the number of cars passing each billboard on the average day (daily circulation) Traffic Audit Bureau
II. Various Concepts of Audience Measurements Actual vs. Potential audience Actual: people who actually used a medium Potential: people who have an opportunity to be exposed to a medium or have access to a medium Circulation figures? Measure Vehicle exposure: the audience for the media vehicles that carry the ads not measuring the audience who are exposed to ads Audience Accumulation: Build of total audience over time (usually a month, 4 weeks) Audience members are counted only once (reach).
II. Various Concepts of Audience Measurements (Continued) Magazine Audience Accumulations (3 ways) Successive issues of the same magazine (e.g. ?) Different magazines during the same month (e.g., ?) Pass-along audience for one issue (e.g., ?) Broadcasting Audience Accumulation Successive airings of the same program within a four-week period (e.g.?) Airing of different programs within the same four-week period (e.g. ?)
Broadcasting Ratings represents an estimate of the audience that has viewed a program or has tuned in to a program during a specific time period Percentage of TV households viewed a particular TV show or radio program Number of TV households watching a show / total TV households in the U.S. x 100 HUT (Households using Television) The total percentage of homes in a market that hare watching television at a given point Number of HUT will be the same throughout a day?
Share: The percentage of HUT (TV using homes) tuned to a particular program more accurate picture for TV viewing audience data? rating is the major criteria that the advertising and broadcasting industries use in most cases. Example: There are 10, 000 TV households. Out of 10,000, 8,000 households turned on their TV sets. 2,000 households watched Desperate H on Sunday. Rating for ER? HUT? Share?
Coverage Number of prospects delivered by a given medium. Expressed as a percentage of a market population reached by a given medium problematic, and confusing term since coverage means different things for different media forms. See Exhibit 4-2 p. 70-71. Magazine The number of prospects who read a publication divided by the size of a target market Target market: women aged 35-49 (25 million) Readers of Magazine A (2.5 million) Magazine As coverage will be 2.5/25x100=10%
High coverage vs. low composition: can be waste of $ (p. 72, Exhibit 4-3) Magazine Example: 100 college students preparing graduate schools Towson Univ: 65 college students (high coverage) Only 10 students are interested in graduate studies (low composition) Diagram on p. 73, Exhibit 4-4: Newspaper Number of circulation figures as a percentage of the number of households in an area. Newspaper coverage represents potential audience than actual exposure (readers). NP coverage level should be at least 50% in local market for media planning.
Coverage (continued) Local TV and Radio The number of homes with radio/TV sets within the signal area of a given station. All households that can receive a broadcast signal are NOT necessarily tuned to a specific radio or TV station. Exhibit 4-5, p. 75. Network TV coverage: Not that important since rating is a major criteria. Cable TV coverage: a percentage of U.S. households that can receive a cable network by any means. As of Jan. 2002, about 84% of all homes could receive cable channels.
Coverage (continued) Internet Coverage: All members of U.S. households that have access to the Internet at home, work, or college. Out-of-Home Media Coverage: percentage of the population that passes one or more of these out-of-home media in a given period of time. Exhibit 4-7 (p. 77) 100 showing: giving everybody in a target market a chance to see the ad. However, this doesnt mean that every single person in a market viewed the ad. GRP is a duplicated number. coverage exercise -- handout