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May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 1 Same starts, but different ends... Developments of broadcasting systems in the.

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Presentation on theme: "May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 1 Same starts, but different ends... Developments of broadcasting systems in the."— Presentation transcript:

1 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 1 Same starts, but different ends... Developments of broadcasting systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland after 1989 PhDr. Milan Šmíd, Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences

2 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 2 Before 1989, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary have very similar broadcasting systems, distinguished by following attributes: - state monopoly of broadcasting, e.g. - only a state broadcaster had a right to broadcast - only 2 TV channels (networks) and 3-5 radio stations in the country - management appointed by communist parties or governments - funding of state broadcasters: license fee + subsidies - the license fee was redistributed through the state budget - since the eighties: re-broadcasting of Soviet TV channels in limited extent and coverage The starting point of the transformation of broadcast media was in the CEE countries the same The transformation was triggered by political change in all the countries. However - the next developments were very different, influenced by historical, cultural, political and economic attributes, specific to the particular country

3 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 3 Czech Republic: (till January 1993 a part of Czechoslovakia) basic features of the Czech media policy in the beginning of nineties: - the effort to de-monopolize broadcasting as soon as possible ( Cabinet declaration of July 1992: "the government will promote the plurality of the mass media since competition in the information market place guarantees its quality and objectivity. The government will encourage the privatization process and support private enterprise also in the mass communication field." ) - no government interference into broadcast media, free market approach (different from Slovak part of the federation, where building of national media was a priority) milestones in development of Czech broadcasting system - May third TV channel OK3 (former rebroadcast of the Soviet TV) launched - March experimental temporary radio licenses (more than 20) awarded - October new Broadcasting Act 468/1991 passed - November Czech TV and Czech Radio established as independent public corporations regular licensing of radio stations, licensing procedure started for private TV - June first licensed TV station (local) Premiéra TV started broadcasting - February private TV Nova (CME) launched as a national channel on frequencies of former public F1 channel - September digital satellite service UPC Direct launched beginning of regular DVB-T broadcasting (public TV mux - Praha, Brno, Ostrava)

4 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 4 Czech Republic (statistical data 2007) population number of households (economic units) (in % of TVHH) cable connected 22% satellite - DTH+SMATV15% only analogue terrestrial61% national terrestrial analogue channels - public: CT1 CT2 - privateNova Prima TV

5 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 5 Czech Republic Statistics - MAVISE - European Audiovisual Observatory channels registered (not all of them are active) - country of origin: Czech Republic - 44 channels - among them - 23 free channels (FTA) - among them 13 local channels - in Czech language - 71 channels Main Czech-made free cable/satellite TV channels Ocko (music channel ) CT24 (public TV news ) CT4 Sport (public TV sport ) TV Noe (Christian channel ) Public TV (entertainment ) Nova Cinema (films ) Z1 (all-news channel ) Nova Sport (renamed in October 2008, originally Galaxie Sport form 2002) Prima COOL (entertainment ) Barrandov TV (generalist ) audience share others %, %, %, ,7%

6 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 6 Slovak Republic: (till January 1993 a part of Czechoslovakia) basic features of the Slovak media policy in the beginning of nineties: - till 1993, the effort to establish national public media independent of the Czechoslovak media, the licensing of private media has not been a priority - after independence the weak (subsidized) public broadcasters fell under influence of the government, Mečiars cabinet (till 1998) use them as a tool of its policy - private broadcasters introduced as a result of public pressure and as an emulating foreign examples (Czech Republic, Hungary) - after 1998 the main concern: independence of public STV free form state subsidies milestones in development of Slovak broadcasting system - May Slovak TV and Slovak Radio established as independent public corporations - October Broadcasting Act 468/1991 (Czechoslovak) - June regular licensing of radio stations, licensing procedure started only for the former channel OK3/TA3 - not realized - August private TV Markíza (CME) launched on frequencies of the TA3, the public TV networks were not privatized like in the Czech Republic - October new Law on Broadcasting and Retransmission 308/ September all-news cable/satellite channel TA3 - March private network TV Joj launched, built on structure of local TV Global) re-structuring of public STV organization

7 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 7 Slovak Republic population number of households , TV households (in % of TVHH) cable 41,0% satellite - DTH +SMATV17,0% terrestrial49,0% (data by Special Eurobarometer N° ) national terrestrial analogue channels: - public: STV1 STV2 - privateMarkíza Joj

8 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 8 Slovakia Statistics - MAVISE - European Audiovisual Observatory - 70 channels registered - country of origin: Slovak Republic - 28 channels - among then 26 free channels (FTA) - among them 15 local TV channels - in Slovak language - 29 channels Main Slovak-made free cable/satelliteTV channels TA3 (news channel ) Bebe TV (children) Nautic (entertainment) Music Box (music channel) TV Ring (games) audience share 2008 others - 24%

9 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 9 Hungary basic features of the Hungarian media policy in the beginning of nineties: - absence of Broadcasting Act till 2006 (two third majority necessary - impossible) - broadcast media became subject of political deals tit for tat - the public MTV faced a strong political pressures from political parties (media wars - conflict between the President and the Prime Minister) - private broadcasters were considered as a solution for de-politicization of public media, namely television, public MTV received in 2006 only one analogue terrestrial channel - MTV is of peripheral importance now, licence fee was abolished July 2002 milestones in development of Hungarian broadcasting system round-table discussions: all the media legislation needs two-third majority in the Parliament, a moratorium for frequencies declared, appointment of Radio and TV directors by Prime Minister AND President media wars concerning the state radio and television MTV ministry of education awarded licenses to local nonprofit projects, - February new Broadcasting Act (adopted 1995) came into force license for two nation-wide TV channels awarded to TV2 (SBS Broadcasting) and RTL Klub (RTL Group) televisions - since 1997 MTV operates only one terrestrial channel m1, the second one, m2, is the satellite/cable channel, TV DUNA is a satellite channel for expats

10 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 10 Hungary population number of households (in % of TVHH) cable connected 61,6% (data ArboMedia 2005) satellite - DTH 4,7% satellite - SMATV n.a. terrestrial33,6% national terrestrial analogue channels: - public: m1 - privateRTL KLub TV2 national public satellite/cable channels:m2 DUNA TV

11 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 11 Hungary Statistics - MAVISE - European Audiovisual Observatory channels registered - country of origin: Hungary - 47 channels - among them 27 free channels (FTA) - among them 9 regional local (window) TV, - in Hungarian language - 89 channels (most of them pay TV) Main Hungarian-made free cable/satelliteTV channels - TV Hír (news) - Viva (music channel) - Minimax (children) - Viasat 3, - Sport 1 - Magyar ATV audience share 2007 others - 26%, in multichannel households almost 50%

12 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 12 Poland: basic features of the Polish media policy in the beginning of nineties: - after period of chaotic circumstances in broadcasting , media were perceived as a subject of national interest (33 % limit for foreign ownership in law) - the result: the public television TVP is still a dominant player at the market, financially independent with 60 percent share in TV advertising - the size of the Polish market enabled a wide cable and satellite offer milestones in development of Polish broadcasting system - December new Broadcasting Act (in force since March 1993) - till the emergence of many officially not approved radio stations, private satellite TV channels Polonia 1 (from Italy) and Polsat (from London) re-broadcasted terrestrially till 1994 (semi-legally) - January Polsat TV launched as a terrestrial TV - with about 70 percent coverage - October TVN network launched (merge of local stations) - with about 60 percent coverage (public service TVP operates two TV channels with nearly 100 percent coverage, the third regional channels covers 75 percent area) - since 1998 start of digital satellite platforms - now three are available (Cyfra+, Cyfrowy Polsat, N-TVN) - August among many new home and foreign localized satellite and cable channels was launched the first private all-news channel TVN TVP enlarged its services by thematic channel TVP Kultura, the others followed

13 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 13 Poland population number of households (in % of TVHH) cable connected 36,5% (data ArboMedia 2005) satellite - DTH 17,4% satellite - SMATV 2,9% only terrestrial46,1% national terrestrial analogue channels: - public: TVP1 TVP2 12 reg.stationsTVP Info - private: Polsat TVN national public satellite/cable TVP Kultura TVP Sport TVP Historia TV Polonia (1992)

14 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 14 Poland Statistics - MAVISE - European Audiovisual Observatory channels registered - country of origin: Poland - 75 channels - among them 40 free channels (FTA) - among them 7 regional local (window) TV - in Polish language channels (two thirds of them pay TV) Main Polish-made cable/satelliteTV channels - TV4 (entertainment TV Puls (generalist ) - TVN24 (news ) - TVN 7 (film ) - TVN Style (lifestyle ) - TVN Meteo (2003) - Polsat 2 (generalist ) - Polsat Sport (sport ) - Polsat News - Polsat Café - Polsat Play - Mini Mini (children ) - TV Biznes (2004) audience share others - 24%

15 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 15 Comparison of TV public service broadcasters Audience share Poland - 7 channels (TVP 1-2, TVP Info, TVP Kultura -2005, TVP Sport 2006, TVP Historia Polonia sat)46 % Czech Republic - 4 channels (CT1+CT2+CT24+CT4 Sport )31% Slovak Republic - 2 channels (STV1+2) (in 2008 STV3, part time channel) 20% Hungary - 3 channels (m1, m2 + Duna TV)17% Regulation of advertising CT - 0,75%/0,5% of broadcasting time till the end of digitalization, 6 minutes in a hour STV - 3% of broadcasting time, 12 minutes in a hour MTV - 6% of broadcasting time, 6 minutes in a hour TVP - the same limit as for the private stations - 15% of broadcasting time, 12 minutes in a hour Licence fee (R+TV in year) CT Kč83 euro STV - (1680 Sk)55,68 euro MTV -no licence fee TVP - 186,7 zloty44 euro

16 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 16 Supply of TV channels (Mavise database - European Audiovisual Observatory) No. of TV channelscountryin country registeredof originlanguage Czech Republic17944 (-13 reg)71 Slovak Republic 7028 (-15 reg)29 Hungary (-9 reg)89 Poland20875 (-7 reg)131 Modes of TV reception in households - audience share of others cable HHsatellite HH share other Hungary61,6%4,7%26% Poland36,5%20,3%24% Slovak Republic41%17%24% Czech Republic22%15%12,7%

17 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 17 source : European Audiovisual Observatory / MAVISE press release:

18 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 18 Conclusions: - former monopoly state broadcasters in the CEE countries had no competitors before 1989 (with exception of trans-border overspills and of video recorders) - the starting point and initial condition of the transformation in all CEE countries was approximately the same in de-monopolization and transformation of broadcast media have generated in different countries different results, why? I found three main variables from fields of politics, economy and technology, whose influence was mutually interconnected when shaping TV media landscape: - different media policy of post-communist governments - resulted in different significance of public broadcaster as well as in different ownership conditions - different size of markets (Poland 7times larger than Slovakia) resulted in different supply of TV channels - different technical environment as to the reception of TV signal (cable TV in Hungary started already before 1989, the satellite reception of TV expanded in Poland in times of the pirate broadcasting..)

19 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 19 Same starts, but different ends... Developments of broadcasting systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland since 1989 Thank you for your attention

20 May 8, 20092nd Czech-Polish-Slovak Communication conference - BRNO/TELČ 20 Households in the Czech Republic cable available in the Czech HH (homes passed): (33%) cable TV subscribers of the UPC CR cable TV subscribers of other companies about cable connected (21%) satellite in the Czech HH (free + pay TV) about (13 %) among them subscribers of the UPC Direct (pay TV) (3,2%) Digi TV (pay TV) (2%) CS LINK about (7,8%) note: since 2008 (beginning of digital switch-off period), satellite users are on the rise Cable and Satellite Programming Services (in Czech)


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