2 “Watchability” by Millward Brown Function of ‘involvement’ and ‘enjoyment’UseHumorMusicLimited voice-oversPaceCelebritiesCute thingsMore likely to be recalled and drive sales
3 Overview of Advertising Research It’s not easy or inexpensivebut the value outweighs the drawbacks.More than 80% of advertisers and agencies pretest television commercials before airing them on a national basis.
4 What Does Advertising Research Involve? Media Effectiveness (covered later)Message ResearchTo test effectiveness of messagesPretesting ads during developmental stagesPosttesting to determine if messages achieve their established objectives
5 Four Stages At Which Ad Message Research Might Be Conducted Copy development stage (testing ideas)“Rough” stage (testing rough concepts and layouts)Final production stage (testing complete ads)After the ad has been run in the media (post testing)
6 Industry Standards for Message Research PACT PrinciplesPrinciple 1: provide measurements that are relevant to the advertising objectivesWhat question would you use to test recall?Principle 2: requires agreement about how the results will be used in advance of each specific teste.g. specify what the results of the focus group will be used for.Principle 3: provides multiple measurements because single measurements are generally inadequateThink of two ways to test brand preferences
7 Industry Standards for Message Research PACT PrinciplesPrinciple 4: based on a model of human response to communicationsReception of a stimulus > Comprehension of the stimulus > The response of the stimulusCheck whether consumers understood the ad before forming conclusions based on salesPrinciple 5: allows for consideration of whether the advertising stimulus should be exposed more than onceexternal generalizability
8 Industry Standards for Message Research PACT PrinciplesPrinciple 6: recognizes that a more finished piece of copy can be evaluated more soundlyAlternative executions be tested in the same degree of finishPrinciple 7: system provides controls to avoid the bias normally found in the exposure contextIncrease internal validity of results
9 Industry Standards for Message Research PACT PrinciplesPrinciple 8: takes into account basic considerations of sample definitionRequires that the sample be representative of the target audiencePrinciple 9: can demonstrate reliability and validityA reliable test is one that yields consistent resultsA valid test is one that is predictive of the marketplace performance
10 What Can Be Learned from Message Research? Message research is needed to diagnose an advertisement’s prospective equity-enhancing and sales-expanding potential.The ARF assessed which of 35 measures best predicts the sales effectiveness of television commercials. The only definitive conclusion of their study is that no one measure is universally appropriate or best.
11 Message Research Methods Qualitative MessageResearchQuantitative Message Research
12 Qualitative Message Research Focus GroupsIn-depth InterviewsObservationEthnographyProjective TechniquesZMETNeurological Networks
14 Advertising Research Methods MessageResearchMethodsRecognition & RecallPhysiological ArousalPersuasionSales Response
15 Message Research Methods Starch readership service (magazines)Bruzzone tests (TV)Burke day-after recall (TV)Recognition & RecallPhysiological ArousalPersuasionSales Response
16 Starch Readership Service Examines reader awareness of ads in consumer magazines and business publicationsMeasures the primary objective of a magazine ad—to be seen and readOver 75,000 ads in more than 140 publications surveying more than 100,000 people annually. Sample sizes – 100 to 150 nos. per issueInterviews in the early life of the publicationRespondents asked if they read an ad and what they remember from the adReaders are classified
17 Starch Readership Service ClassificationsNoted—percentage who remember having previously seen the ad in the issue being studiedAssociated—percentage who noted the ad and saw or read some part of it that clearly indicated the name of the brand or advertiser
18 Starch Readership Service ClassificationsRead Some—percentage who read any part of the ad’s copyRead Most—percentage who read half or more of the written material in the ad
19 Starch Readership Service Indices are developed for the four classifications.Two types of indices:1. Ad’s scores against average of all ads in the magazine issue2. ADNORM index: compares an advertisement’s scores against other ads in the same product category as well as the same size (e.g., full page) and color classifications (e.g., four-color ads)Average Adnorm index is 100. A score of 130 indicates the ad did 30% better than the comparable ads.
20 Measures of Recognition & Recall 39% of people noted the ad,37% associated it,27% read some of it, and10% read most of the body copy contained in the ad.
21 Measures of Recognition & Recall 58% of people noted the ad,54% associated it,39% read some of it, and39% read most of the body copy contained in the ad.
22 Starch Readership Service Kia Sorento ad Adnorm index scores72 (noted)74 (associated)73 (read some)59 (read most)The ad performed 28% worse than the average noted score for similar ads.Jose Cuervo Especial Tequila ad107 (noted)108 (associated)105 (read some)229 (read most)The ad performed slightly above average noted score for similar ads.
23 Problems with the Starch scores Respondents may report ads that actually never ran or may have run in another magazine / issueRespondents may report that they have not seen an ad when in fact they have.Implicit memoryEffect on attitudes in spite of lack of conscious recollection
24 Bruzzone TestsBruzzone test provides advertisers with a test of consumer recognition of television commercials. Anything identifying the brand is removed, to test whether viewers remember the name of the advertiser.
25 Bruzzone Testss 15 commercials (six frames from the commercial) to a sampleEach respondent is asked if they remember seeing the commercial on TVIf yes – more questions; If no or not sure – skip to next.Brand name references removed from the framesAlso asked how the commercial made them feel (check from a battery of adjectives); how interested they were in it, whether they liked it, etc.Finally asked if they remember the brand name
26 Measures of Recognition & Recall Bruzzone testAdvertising Response Model (ARM) links responses to the 27 descriptive adjectives to consumers’ attitudes toward both the ad and the advertised brand and to purchase interest.Budweiser “Thanking the Troops”
28 Taco Bell Carne Asada Superbowl commercial http://www. youtube
29 Advertising Response Model (ARM) for the “Carne Asada Taquitos” Commercial
30 Measures of Recognition & Recall Bruzzone testProvides valid prediction of actual marketplace performance along with being relatively inexpensiveDoesn’t provide a before-the-fact indicationTests offer important info for evaluating a commercial’s effectiveness and whether it should continue to runTests are performed online
31 Burke Day-after Recall Used to assess the effectiveness of test commercialsTested the day following the day the commercial is first airedTelephone interviewsProduct / Brand cue givenAsked if they saw the commercial and then asked to recall all they can about it.
32 Measures of Recognition & Recall Burke Day-After Recall Testing(1) Claimed-recall scores—indicate the percentage of respondents who recall seeing the ad(2) Related-recall scores—indicate the percentage of respondents who accurately describe specific advertising elements
33 Measures of Recognition & Recall Many marketers reject recall as a valid measure1) Recall simply measures whether an ad is received but not whether the message is accepted2) Recall is biased in favor of younger consumers
34 Measures of Recognition & Recall 3) Recall scores generated by ads are not predictive of sales performance4) Day-after recall testing is biased against certain types of advertising contentUnderstate the memorability of commercials that employ emotional or feeling-oriented themes and are biased in favor of rational or thought-oriented commercials
35 Message Research Methods PsychogalvanometerPupilometerRecognition & RecallPhysiological ArousalPersuasionSales Response
36 Measures of Recognition & Recall Measures of Physiological ArousalAds that are better liked are more likely to be remembered and to persuadeEfforts are now made to measure consumer’s affective and emotional reactions to ads
37 Measures of Recognition & Recall Measures of Physiological ArousalGalvanometer—measures minute levels of perspiration in response to emotional arousalPupillometric tests—measure pupil dilationAdvertising researchers use changes in physiological functions to indicate the actual, unbiased amount of arousal resulting from ads.Neuroscience – brain imaging tests
38 Message Research Methods Ipsos-ASI Next*TV methodRsc’s ARS Persuasion methodRecognition & RecallPhysiological ArousalPersuasionSales Response
39 Measures of Persuasion Used when an advertiser’s objective is to influence consumers’ attitudes toward and preference for the advertised brand.
40 Measures of Persuasion Ipsos-ASI Next*TV MethodMeasures recall and persuasion of TV commercialsPerforms ad research in more than 50 countriesTests television commercials in consumers’ homesTells consumers to evaluate a TV program, but actually evaluating the commercials within the programMails 30 minute TV programs (like a sitcom) to a national sample with embedded commercial breaks
41 Measures of Persuasion Ipsos-ASI Next*TV MethodOne day after viewing—personal contact with sampled consumers and measure their reactions to the TV program and the advertisementsMeasures message recall and persuasion
42 Measures of Persuasion Ipsos-ASI Next*TV MethodPersuasion measured by:Consumers’ attitudes toward advertised brandsShift in brand preferencesBrand-related purchase intent and frequency
43 Measures of Persuasion Ipsos-ASI Next*TV MethodTests in a natural environmentAssesses the ability of TV commercials to break through the clutterDetermines how well tested commercials are remembered after this delay periodAllows the use of a representative national sampling
44 Research Systems Company - rsc Very active in message testing – tests TV commercials in various stages of completion – rough cut to finished formARS schedules test sessions in eight metropolitan areas800 – 1000 consumers from each metro randomly invited to preview TV material with embedded ads (including test ads)Before and after research design – basket of competing productsTested over 40,000 commercials so far
45 Measures of Persuasion The ARS Persuasion Method--rscRespondents indicate what brands they prefer to receive among a “basket” of options—the pre measure.After exposure to a television program respondents again indicate what brands they would prefer to receive if their name were selected in a drawing—the post measure.ARS Persuasion Score = Post % for target brand –Pre % for target brand
46 Measures of Persuasion The ARS Persuasion Method--rscThe ARS Persuasion score simply represents the post-measure percentage of respondents preferring the target brand minus the pre-measure percentage who prefer that brandA positive score indicates a shifted preference toward the target brandA higher-scoring commercial generates greater sales volume and larger market share gains
47 Measures of Persuasion The ARS Persuasion Method--rscARS Persuasion scores are valid predictors of in-market performanceThe higher the score, the greater the likelihood that a tested commercial will produce positive sales gains when the focal brand is advertised under real-world, in-market conditions
48 Predictive Validity of ARS Persuasion Scores Tested 332 commercials in seven countries ; involving 148 brands representing 76 product categories; market shares before and after advertising commenced were compared.
49 Message Research Methods AC Nielsen’s SCANTRACKIRI’s BehaviorScanRecognition & RecallPhysiological ArousalPersuasionSales Response
50 Measures of Sales Response Single-Source SystemsGather purchase data from panels ofhouseholds using:(1) electronic television meters(2) optical laser scanning of universal product codes (UPC) at retail checkout(3) split-cable technology
51 Measures of Sales Response Nielsen’s SCANTRACKSCANTRACK collects purchase data by having panel households use handheld scannersPanelists record purchases of every bar-coded product purchased regardless of the store where purchased
52 Measures of Sales Response Nielsen’s SCANTRACKUse handheld scanners to enter:Any coupons usedRecord all store dealsRecord in-store features that influenced their purchasing decisionsTransfer data to Nielsen by calling a toll free number and holding the scanner to the phone
53 Measures of Sales Response IRI’s BehaviorScanIRI knows what items each household purchases by linking up optically scanned purchases with ID numbersMembers provide IRI with detailed demographic informationFive markets in the US – communities that depend on cable TV to get good reception – Pittsfield (MA), Eau Claire (WI), Cedar Rapids (IA), Midland (TX), Grand Junction (CO)In each market 3000 households are recruited; approx 1000 are hooked to people meters
54 Measures of Sales Response IRI’s BehaviorScanSingle source data consists of:(1) household demographic info(2) household purchase behavior(3) household exposure to new television commercials that are tested under real world test conditions
55 Measures of Sales Response IRI’s BehaviorScanSplits cable signal before it reaches panel householdsUses optically scanned purchase data to know exactly which commercial each household had the opportunity to see and how much of a brand is purchased
56 Measures of Sales Response IRI’s BehaviorScanTwo types of tests are offered: (1) weight tests and (2) copy testsWeight tests—panel households are divided into test and control groups and frequency is variedCopy tests—holds the amount of weight constant but varies commercial content
57 Conclusions from TV ads research What does it take for TV ads to enhance sales and market share performanceAd copy must be distinctiveAd weight without persuasiveness is insufficientEven good advertising wears out over timeAdvertising works quickly if at all it works
58 Conclusion 1: All Commercials Are Not Created Equal: Ad Copy Must Be Distinctive Commercials having strong selling propositions are distinctive and tend to achieve higher ARS Persuasion scores (e.g. Mentadent toothbrush with a strong USP (flexible handle for gentle brushing) scored 11.2 on ARS persuasion)Commercials for new brands tend to be most persuasive, but commercials for established brands can be made persuasive via brand differentiation.
59 Illustration of a Commercial with a Strong Selling Proposition
60 Conclusion 2—More is Not Necessarily Better: Weight Is Not Enough Ad weight means the number of gross rating points (GRP) that support an advertising campaign.An ineffective ad (not distinctive or persuasive) has no likelihood of increasing sales even if the ad weight is doubled or tripled.
61 Relations among Advertising Weight, Persuasion Scores, and Sales
62 The Relationship Between Media Weight and Creative Content 47 commercials for established brands were tested and classified as:Rational information (informative; argument based)Heuristic appeals (using celebrities, nice things like babies, puppies, etc.)Affectively based cues (ads depicting warmth, love, affection, companionship, friendship)Finding:Increased advertising weight led to significant sales increases in sales only for commercials using affective cues
63 Conclusion 3—All Good Things Must End: Advertising Eventually Wears Out Advertising ultimately wears out and must be refreshed to maintain or increase brand sales.Familiar brands have been shown to wear out more slowly than unfamiliar brands.
64 The Role of Sales-Effective Advertising for an Undisclosed Campbell Soup Brand
65 Conclusion 4—Don’t Be Stubborn: Advertising Works Quickly or Not at All Some advertisers tend to “hang in there” and wait for an ad to increase sales.Most of the sales impact occurs in the first three months of a new ad.“Sunk costs” are an issue to consider, but if an ad is not working at first, it probably never will.