Presentation on theme: "Assessing Ad Message Effectiveness. Watchability by Millward Brown Function of involvement and enjoyment Use –Humor –Music –Limited voice-overs –Pace."— Presentation transcript:
Assessing Ad Message Effectiveness
Watchability by Millward Brown Function of involvement and enjoyment Use –Humor –Music –Limited voice-overs –Pace –Celebrities –Cute things More likely to be recalled and drive sales 2
3 Overview of Advertising Research More than 80% of advertisers and agencies pretest television commercials before airing them on a national basis. Its not easy or inexpensive but the value outweighs the drawbacks.
4 What Does Advertising Research Involve? To test effectiveness of messages Pretesting ads during developmental stages Posttesting to determine if messages achieve their established objectives Media Effectiveness (covered later) Message Research
5 Four Stages At Which Ad Message Research Might Be Conducted 1.Copy development stage (testing ideas) 2.Rough stage (testing rough concepts and layouts) 3.Final production stage (testing complete ads) 4.After the ad has been run in the media (post testing)
6 Industry Standards for Message Research Principle 1: provide measurements that are relevant to the advertising objectives What question would you use to test recall? Principle 2: requires agreement about how the results will be used in advance of each specific test e.g. specify what the results of the focus group will be used for. Principle 3: provides multiple measurements because single measurements are generally inadequate Think of two ways to test brand preferences PACT Principles
7 Industry Standards for Message Research Principle 4: based on a model of human response to communications Reception of a stimulus > Comprehension of the stimulus > The response of the stimulus Check whether consumers understood the ad before forming conclusions based on sales Principle 5: allows for consideration of whether the advertising stimulus should be exposed more than once external generalizability PACT Principles
8 Industry Standards for Message Research Principle 6: recognizes that a more finished piece of copy can be evaluated more soundly Alternative executions be tested in the same degree of finish Principle 7: system provides controls to avoid the bias normally found in the exposure context Increase internal validity of results PACT Principles
9 Industry Standards for Message Research Principle 8: takes into account basic considerations of sample definition Requires that the sample be representative of the target audience Principle 9: can demonstrate reliability and validity A reliable test is one that yields consistent results A valid test is one that is predictive of the marketplace performance PACT Principles
10 What Can Be Learned from Message Research? Message research is needed to diagnose an advertisements prospective equity- enhancing and sales-expanding potential. The ARF assessed which of 35 measures best predicts the sales effectiveness of television commercials. The only definitive conclusion of their study is that no one measure is universally appropriate or best.
11 Message Research Methods Qualitative Message Research Quantitative Message Research
Qualitative Message Research Focus Groups In-depth Interviews Observation Ethnography Projective Techniques –ZMET Neurological Networks 12
13 Illustrative Message Research Methods
14 Advertising Research Methods Physiological Arousal Persuasion Recognition & Recall Sales Response Message Research Methods
16 Starch Readership Service Examines reader awareness of ads in consumer magazines and business publications Measures the primary objective of a magazine adto be seen and read Over 75,000 ads in more than 140 publications surveying more than 100,000 people annually. Sample sizes – 100 to 150 nos. per issue Interviews in the early life of the publication Respondents asked if they read an ad and what they remember from the ad Readers are classified
17 Starch Readership Service Classifications Notedpercentage who remember having previously seen the ad in the issue being studied Associatedpercentage who noted the ad and saw or read some part of it that clearly indicated the name of the brand or advertiser
18 Starch Readership Service Classifications Read Somepercentage who read any part of the ads copy Read Mostpercentage who read half or more of the written material in the ad
19 Starch Readership Service Indices are developed for the four classifications. Two types of indices: 1. Ads scores against average of all ads in the magazine issue 2. ADNORM index: compares an advertisements scores against other ads in the same product category as well as the same size (e.g., full page) and color classifications (e.g., four- color ads) Average Adnorm index is 100. A score of 130 indicates the ad did 30% better than the comparable ads.
20 Measures of Recognition & Recall 39% of people noted the ad, 37% associated it, 27% read some of it, and 10% read most of the body copy contained in the ad.
21 Measures of Recognition & Recall 58% of people noted the ad, 54% associated it, 39% read some of it, and 39% read most of the body copy contained in the ad.
22 Starch Readership Service Kia Sorento ad Adnorm index scores 72 (noted) 74 (associated) 73 (read some) 59 (read most) The ad performed 28% worse than the average noted score for similar ads. Jose Cuervo Especial Tequila ad 107 (noted) 108 (associated) 105 (read some) 229 (read most) The ad performed slightly above average noted score for similar ads.
Problems with the Starch scores Respondents may report ads that actually never ran or may have run in another magazine / issue Respondents may report that they have not seen an ad when in fact they have. –Implicit memory –Effect on attitudes in spite of lack of conscious recollection 23
24 Bruzzone Tests Bruzzone test provides advertisers with a test of consumer recognition of television commercials. Anything identifying the brand is removed, to test whether viewers remember the name of the advertiser.
Bruzzone Tests s 15 commercials (six frames from the commercial) to a sample Each respondent is asked if they remember seeing the commercial on TV If yes – more questions; If no or not sure – skip to next. Brand name references removed from the frames Also asked how the commercial made them feel (check from a battery of adjectives); how interested they were in it, whether they liked it, etc. Finally asked if they remember the brand name 25
26 Measures of Recognition & Recall Advertising Response Model (ARM) links responses to the 27 descriptive adjectives to consumers attitudes toward both the ad and the advertised brand and to purchase interest. Budweiser Thanking the Troops TM0es Bruzzone test
27 ARM for the Thanking the Troops Commercial
Taco Bell Carne Asada Superbowl commercial
29 Advertising Response Model (ARM) for the Carne Asada Taquitos Commercial
30 Measures of Recognition & Recall Provides valid prediction of actual marketplace performance along with being relatively inexpensive Doesnt provide a before-the-fact indication Tests offer important info for evaluating a commercials effectiveness and whether it should continue to run Tests are performed online Bruzzone test
Burke Day-after Recall Used to assess the effectiveness of test commercials Tested the day following the day the commercial is first aired Telephone interviews Product / Brand cue given Asked if they saw the commercial and then asked to recall all they can about it. 31
32 Measures of Recognition & Recall (1) Claimed-recall scoresindicate the percentage of respondents who recall seeing the ad (2) Related-recall scoresindicate the percentage of respondents who accurately describe specific advertising elements Burke Day-After Recall Testing
33 Measures of Recognition & Recall Many marketers reject recall as a valid measure 1) Recall simply measures whether an ad is received but not whether the message is accepted 2) Recall is biased in favor of younger consumers
34 Measures of Recognition & Recall 3) Recall scores generated by ads are not predictive of sales performance 4) Day-after recall testing is biased against certain types of advertising content Understate the memorability of commercials that employ emotional or feeling-oriented themes and are biased in favor of rational or thought-oriented commercials
36 Measures of Recognition & Recall Ads that are better liked are more likely to be remembered and to persuade Efforts are now made to measure consumers affective and emotional reactions to ads Measures of Physiological Arousal
37 Measures of Recognition & Recall Galvanometermeasures minute levels of perspiration in response to emotional arousal Pupillometric testsmeasure pupil dilation Advertising researchers use changes in physiological functions to indicate the actual, unbiased amount of arousal resulting from ads. Neuroscience – brain imaging tests Measures of Physiological Arousal
38 Message Research Methods Physiological Arousal Persuasion Recognition & Recall Sales Response Ipsos-ASI Next*TV method Rscs ARS Persuasion method
39 Measures of Persuasion Used when an advertisers objective is to influence consumers attitudes toward and preference for the advertised brand.
40 Measures of Persuasion Measures recall and persuasion of TV commercials Performs ad research in more than 50 countries Tests television commercials in consumers homes Tells consumers to evaluate a TV program, but actually evaluating the commercials within the program Mails 30 minute TV programs (like a sitcom) to a national sample with embedded commercial breaks Ipsos-ASI Next*TV Method
41 Measures of Persuasion One day after viewingpersonal contact with sampled consumers and measure their reactions to the TV program and the advertisements Measures message recall and persuasion Ipsos-ASI Next*TV Method
42 Measures of Persuasion Persuasion measured by: Consumers attitudes toward advertised brands Shift in brand preferences Brand-related purchase intent and frequency Ipsos-ASI Next*TV Method
43 Measures of Persuasion 1)Tests in a natural environment 2)Assesses the ability of TV commercials to break through the clutter 3)Determines how well tested commercials are remembered after this delay period 4)Allows the use of a representative national sampling Ipsos-ASI Next*TV Method
Research Systems Company - rsc Very active in message testing – tests TV commercials in various stages of completion – rough cut to finished form ARS schedules test sessions in eight metropolitan areas 800 – 1000 consumers from each metro randomly invited to preview TV material with embedded ads (including test ads) Before and after research design – basket of competing products Tested over 40,000 commercials so far 44
45 Measures of Persuasion 1)Respondents indicate what brands they prefer to receive among a basket of optionsthe pre measure. 2)After exposure to a television program respondents again indicate what brands they would prefer to receive if their name were selected in a drawingthe post measure. The ARS Persuasion Method--rsc ARS Persuasion Score = Post % for target brand – Pre % for target brand
46 Measures of Persuasion The ARS Persuasion score simply represents the post-measure percentage of respondents preferring the target brand minus the pre- measure percentage who prefer that brand A positive score indicates a shifted preference toward the target brand A higher-scoring commercial generates greater sales volume and larger market share gains The ARS Persuasion Method--rsc
47 Measures of Persuasion ARS Persuasion scores are valid predictors of in-market performance The higher the score, the greater the likelihood that a tested commercial will produce positive sales gains when the focal brand is advertised under real- world, in-market conditions The ARS Persuasion Method--rsc
48 Predictive Validity of ARS Persuasion Scores Tested 332 commercials in seven countries ; involving 148 brands representing 76 product categories; market shares before and after advertising commenced were compared.
49 Message Research Methods Physiological Arousal Persuasion Recognition & Recall Sales Response AC Nielsens SCANTRACK IRIs BehaviorScan
50 Measures of Sales Response Single-Source Systems Gather purchase data from panels of households using: (1) electronic television meters (2) optical laser scanning of universal product codes (UPC) at retail checkout (3) split-cable technology
51 Measures of Sales Response SCANTRACK collects purchase data by having panel households use handheld scanners Panelists record purchases of every bar-coded product purchased regardless of the store where purchased Nielsens SCANTRACK
52 Measures of Sales Response Use handheld scanners to enter: Any coupons used Record all store deals Record in-store features that influenced their purchasing decisions Transfer data to Nielsen by calling a toll free number and holding the scanner to the phone Nielsens SCANTRACK
53 Measures of Sales Response IRI knows what items each household purchases by linking up optically scanned purchases with ID numbers Members provide IRI with detailed demographic information Five markets in the US – communities that depend on cable TV to get good reception – Pittsfield (MA), Eau Claire (WI), Cedar Rapids (IA), Midland (TX), Grand Junction (CO) In each market 3000 households are recruited; approx 1000 are hooked to people meters IRIs BehaviorScan
54 Measures of Sales Response Single source data consists of: (1) household demographic info (2) household purchase behavior (3) household exposure to new television commercials that are tested under real world test conditions IRIs BehaviorScan
55 Measures of Sales Response Splits cable signal before it reaches panel households Uses optically scanned purchase data to know exactly which commercial each household had the opportunity to see and how much of a brand is purchased IRIs BehaviorScan
56 Measures of Sales Response Two types of tests are offered: (1) weight tests and (2) copy tests 1)Weight testspanel households are divided into test and control groups and frequency is varied 2)Copy testsholds the amount of weight constant but varies commercial content IRIs BehaviorScan
Conclusions from TV ads research What does it take for TV ads to enhance sales and market share performance –Ad copy must be distinctive –Ad weight without persuasiveness is insufficient –Even good advertising wears out over time –Advertising works quickly if at all it works 57
58 Conclusion 1: All Commercials Are Not Created Equal: Ad Copy Must Be Distinctive Commercials having strong selling propositions are distinctive and tend to achieve higher ARS Persuasion scores (e.g. Mentadent toothbrush with a strong USP (flexible handle for gentle brushing) scored 11.2 on ARS persuasion) Commercials for new brands tend to be most persuasive, but commercials for established brands can be made persuasive via brand differentiation.
59 Illustration of a Commercial with a Strong Selling Proposition
60 Conclusion 2More is Not Necessarily Better: Weight Is Not Enough Ad weight means the number of gross rating points (GRP) that support an advertising campaign. An ineffective ad (not distinctive or persuasive) has no likelihood of increasing sales even if the ad weight is doubled or tripled.
61 Relations among Advertising Weight, Persuasion Scores, and Sales
The Relationship Between Media Weight and Creative Content 47 commercials for established brands were tested and classified as: –Rational information (informative; argument based) –Heuristic appeals (using celebrities, nice things like babies, puppies, etc.) –Affectively based cues (ads depicting warmth, love, affection, companionship, friendship) Finding: –Increased advertising weight led to significant sales increases in sales only for commercials using affective cues 62
63 Conclusion 3All Good Things Must End: Advertising Eventually Wears Out Advertising ultimately wears out and must be refreshed to maintain or increase brand sales. Familiar brands have been shown to wear out more slowly than unfamiliar brands.
64 The Role of Sales-Effective Advertising for an Undisclosed Campbell Soup Brand
65 Conclusion 4Dont Be Stubborn: Advertising Works Quickly or Not at All Some advertisers tend to hang in there and wait for an ad to increase sales. Most of the sales impact occurs in the first three months of a new ad. Sunk costs are an issue to consider, but if an ad is not working at first, it probably never will.