Presentation on theme: "Joseph Straubhaar, University of Texas IAMCR Durban, July 2012 New BRICS, Old Connections; Empire."— Presentation transcript:
Joseph Straubhaar, University of Texas (email@example.com)firstname.lastname@example.org IAMCR Durban, July 2012 New BRICS, Old Connections; Empire Roots vs. Geographic Proximity: Brazil as an TV Exporter in the Lusophone Cultural-Linguistic Space and Latin America
Context of multiple media spaces/levels of production, flow, identification U.S. empire based on Hollywood structural & cultural power + major computer hardware, software and Internet companies Other global program producers/exporters, genres and audiences – like telenovelas, anime, Bollywood, in TV, social nets in Web– emerging powers like Brazil, India (other BRICS?) Other global format exporters – game shows, reality shows, Internet sites & services Transnational cultural-linguistic exporters (former colonies and diasporas)--like English, French, Portuguese-speaking Geo-cultural regional (common or similar languages, shared histories, geographic proximity -- like Latin America) Nationalstill primary site of production for most TV viewers/Internet users? Metro, local, regional – not viable for TV yet, but already viable for music, news, Internet (blogs, social nets, email, NGO websites)
Brazil as BRICS Rapid GNP growth Income distribution changed – 40% of population newly added to lower middle class Economic growth -> job & income growth Income transfer via family payments, bolsa escola But educational structure, access still limited From import substitution, including culture, industry To export growth – oil, agriculture, minerals, industry, culture
Growth of Brazilian middle class, reduction in the poorest
Percen- tage(%) Televi- sion Sate- llite Dish Pay TV Radi o Land- line Phone Cell Phone A10034729993100 B 3426967496 C99266884287 D/E94211751554 Brazilian Internet Coordinating Committee, 2008 - CGI Data What media people have in Brazil, by social class
CRUCIAL NATIONAL MARKET BASE, EMERGENT MEDIA POWER FROM NATIONAL POLICY, CULTURAL INDUSTRY, REGIONAL CULTURES Brazilian government used language, education, radio, TV, telephone infrastructure strategically to unify nation, create strongly imagined community Strong national private cultural industries have reinforced national identity Strong regional and local culture, partially industrialized, resources for national cultural industry Has this created dominant national and regional frame for newer media?
1930s: Vargas uses radio/samba to build or reinforce national identity 1960s: Brazilian military government created telecom infrastructure for telephony, TV, subsidized TV nets with ads, set acquisition, TV to reinforce national identity 1970s-80s: TV Globo quasi monopoly, created most of own programming, localities subsidized TV re-transmitters 1990s: Satellites extend nationally, almost all Brazilians had television Brazil: The Country of TV
Audience, station, genre development prior to export Globo emphasis on quality, high end production – Especially in telenovelas – Has focused on broad national audience But especially richest 30% who advertisers most want to reach Paraiso tropical
TV Globo today had average audience share of more than 50% and ratings above 30% on primetime, which allowed it to receive about two-thirds of the entire ad spent on open TV in Brazil. More competition since 1990s, esp. mid-2000s The cost of each (of four nightly) telenovela chapters ranges from $100,000 to $175,000, above international standards.
TV Globo today "We now have 100 to 120 actors in a telenovela, against 30 in the past. We need about 40 scenarios, including several scenario towns, three times more than before. Plot situations, which lasted months in the past, are now resolved in a week. We have five directors shooting simultaneously, against just one, maybe two, in the old days, Octavio Florisbal, Director General, TV Globo Variety, Sep. 12, 2007,
Globo Telenovela export "The Clone," one of TV Globo's big hits, was sold to 74 countries and dubbed to 17 languages. Overall, novelas sold to 140 countries.
Cultural logics of proximity Linguistic logic – cultural linguistic spaces – Lusophone vs. Hispanic Geographic logic – geocultural, geolinguistic spaces – Latin American cultural commonalities despite language Iberian colonial similarities Portuguese vs. Spanish – Idea of Luso-tropical culture
Latin American telenovela market competitive Top producers – Mexico, Brazil Second tier, rising export? – Colombia, Argentina – Venezuela, Peru Third tier, increasing prodcuction – Chile, Fourth, largely import from within region
Competing genres within Latin American telenovela Even more specific genres, like the Brazilian socially engaged or historical telenovelas, versus the romantic Mexican Cinderella story telenovela (Hernandez 2001), develop or emerge over time within those genre traditions – Dura vs. blanda
Brazilian primacy in Lusophone Globo - Brazilian telenovela export to Portugal 1976 Globo investment in SIC Portugal 1992 Globo, Record export to Lusophone Africa Major impact on Portuguese, African cultures Record expansion in Europe, Africa, Asia Portuguese competition Huge impact of Gabriela export to Portugal 1977
Challenges to TV Globo If Globo had broad, general audience, then others focus on class segments? Manchete – Aimed at elite audience High end novelas (Pantanal), news SBT (Sistema Brasileira de Televisão) – Focuses on working class reality shows, game shows, Mexican telenovelas TV Record (owned by Universal Church) – Focused on working class, similar to SBT, now refocusing to compete with TV Globo for broader audience
Record - alternative novelas? Since 2004, new novelas Aiming at Globo quality Maintaining audience focus – Some set in favelas – More Afro-Brazilians?
Competition for Brazilian primacy in Lusophone Record- Brazilian telenovela export to Portugal 1976 Record investment in Portugal 1992 Record export to Lusophone Africa TV Record owns #2 network Mozambique Gabriela
Conclusions – 1 – Brazil as TV exporter Continued export by both Globo and Record Continued export to both Latin America and Lusophone world, as well as globally Globo more prominent in Latin America, globally in dubbed versions Record more in Lusophone, per se, Central America, following IURD church growth Investment mostly by Record, Central America, Europe, Lusophone Africa
Conclusions -2 – Brazil as BRICS Brazil less rapid internal growth than China, but more equitable at bottom? – But still challenged by inadequate education Brazil more established as global cultural exporter – Primarily TV + music, film Global BRIC vs. Latin American regional and Lusophone cultural linguistic cultural power