Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Contextual Influences on Development II – Television, Computers, School, and Peers."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 16 Contextual Influences on Development II – Television, Computers, School, and Peers
THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT 98% of American homes have at least 1 TV Children 3-11 watch 3-4 hours of TV per day Boys watch more than girls Ethnic minority children living in poverty are heavy viewers In moderation, not likely to impair –Cognitive growth –Academic achievement –Peer relations
Figure Average number of hours per day that American children and adolescents spend watching television. FROM LIEBERT & SPRAFKIN, 1988.
THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Development of Television Literacy –Ones ability to understand how information is conveyed on TV –Prior to 8 or 9, process content in a piecemeal fashion Difficulty understanding chain of events Tend to focus on actions Younger than 7, difficulty with fictional nature of TV
THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Some Potentially Undesirable Effects of TV –Effects of Televised Violence Majority of programs contain repeated aggression and violence No remorse shown by, or penalty given to perpetrator Research suggests violent cartoon causes increase in aggression among peers
THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT –TV violence instigate aggression? Positive correlation is well demonstrated Experimental results show yes Longitudinal studies show the relationship is reciprocal
Figure 16.2 Relationship between boys preference for violent TV programming at age 8 and mean violence of crimes committed by age 30. ADAPTED FROM HUESSMANN, 1986.
THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT –Other effects of televised violence? Mean-world beliefs –Tendency to view world as a violent place by people who rely on aggression Desensitize children –Less upset about violence, more willing to tolerate acts in real life
THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT –Television as a Source of Social Stereotypes Gender stereotypes –Generally negative, can be a positive influence if roles are reversed Stereotyped views of minorities –Usually negative –However, if portrayals are positive, can reduce stereotyping
THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT –Childrens Reactions to Commercial Messages Average child sees 20,000 each year Prior to age 9, do not understand intent to sell products May be more serious than televised violence
THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT –Television Viewing and Childrens Health One of the strongest predictors of future obesity is the amount of time spent watching TV Also promotes poor eating habits –Snacking during TV, eat what is advertised
THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT –Reducing the Harmful Effects of Television Violence Parents need to monitor childrens TV viewing –Not only what to watch, but how to interpret what they are watching
Table 16.1 Strategies for Regulating the Effects of TV on Childrens Development. SOURCE: Adapted from: Murray, J. P., & Lonnborg, B. (2005). Children and television: Using TV sensibly. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.
THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Television as an Educational Tool –Educational Television and Childrens Prosocial Behavior Watching prosocial programming lead to more prosocial behavior –Only lasting effects if adult monitors programs and encourages actions
THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT –Television as a Contributor to Cognitive Development Limited research on very young children Preschool children – Sesame Street –Improved cognitive skills »Numbers, letters, vocabulary, classification, ordering »Beneficial for all children, regardless of SES
Figure 16.3 Relationship between amount of viewing of Sesame Street and childrens abilities: (a) improvement in total test scores for children grouped into different quartiles according to amount of viewing; (b) percentage of children who recited the alphabet correctly, grouped according to quartiles of amount of viewing; (c) percentage of children who wrote their first names correctly, grouped according to quartiles of amount of viewing. FROM LIEBERT & SPRAFKIN, 1988.
CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMPUTER AGE Computer-assisted instruction – –Learn more, enjoy school more –Discovery programs presented as games are best –Word processing programs Increases writing skills –Computer programming Facilitates cognitive and metacognitive development
CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMPUTER AGE Concerns about Video Games –Moderate correlation between playing violent video games and real-world aggression –Actively involved in performing violence –Reinforced for successful symbolic violence –May be more serious than TV violence
CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMPUTER AGE Concerns about Social Inequalities –Economically disadvantaged families may not have a computer at home –Boys were more interested in computers Gender gap has disappeared
CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMPUTER AGE Concerns about Internet Exposure –Web exposure helps with research for school topics –Chat rooms can lead to cybersexual relationships and potential exploitation –Web is a recruiting tool for cults and hate organizations
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Schools influence many aspects of development –Curricula teach academic knowledge –Promotes cognitive and metacognitive growth through rules and problem solving Appears that more is better, but not at too young an age –Informal curricula teach children skills to help them become good citizens
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Determinants of Effective Schooling –Effective schools promote Academic achievement Social skills Positive attitudes toward learning Low absenteeism Continuation of education beyond required age Acquisition of skills to find and hold jobs
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT –Factors that Contribute to Effective Schooling Composition of the student body: highly motivated and intellectually competent are best School climate: safety, support from school personnel
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Scholastic atmosphere should have –An academic emphasis –A challenging, developmentally appropriate curricula; should be something students can relate to –Effective classroom management –Authoritative discipline practices –Teamwork (faculty and principal)
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT –The Goodness of Fit between Students and Schools One teaching method will not be effective for all students –Need to take into account –Cultural backgrounds –Personal characteristics –Developmental needs
Figure 16.5 Reading achievement of ethnic Hawaiian first- through third-grade students who received traditional or culturally compatible classroom instruction. The students who received culturally compatible instruction read at grade level, whereas those receiving traditional instruction read far below grade level. ADAPTED FROM THARP & GALLIMORE, 1988.
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Do Our Schools Meet the Needs of All Our Children? –Public education arose from a need to Americanize a nation of immigrants, not to educate a workforce Public schools were majority-culture, middle-class institutions
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Educational Experiences of Ethnic Minorities –African American, Latino, and Native American students Lower grades, achievement test scores More likely to be disciplined, held back, and drop out –Asian Americans – better than European Americans academically
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Parental attitudes and involvement –Difference not due to parents undervaluing education –Less knowledgeable about and involved in school activities –If involvement is high, children tend to do well in school
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Interfacing parent and peer influences –Authoritative parenting is best for academic success in African American and European American students –Peer influences can negate this positive influence »Low-SES African American and Latino peers devalue academics
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT –Asian American parents more likely to be authoritarian, but »Have a very strong emphasis on education and achievement standards »Have supportive friends »Result is academic success
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Teacher expectancies –Largest effects in early grades –Most serious if differential treatment is ongoing
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT –Education and Developmental Transitions Elementary to junior high – –Loss of self-esteem, interest in school, declining grades »Major physical and psychological changes at time of move »Led to development of middle schools (6-8 th grades) »Still lack of fit – need support
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT How Well-Educated Are Our Children? A Cross-Cultural Comparison –Only 25% of American students are truly proficient in reading and math, and they do not write well –Skills are consistently lower than those in most other industrialized nations –Differences not due to general intelligence
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT –Classroom Instruction Asian students spend more time being educated on core subjects More time is also spent on-task
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT –Parental Involvement Asian parents are strongly committed to educational process Hold higher achievement expectancies Value homework more Communicate with teacher more frequently
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT –Student Involvement More time in class More homework More socialization is centered around academics Academic achievement contributes to social adjustment and popularity
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT –A Strong Emphasis on Effort Asian students, parents, and teachers believe all students can master material if they work hard enough –Not a function of the quality of the teacher or intelligence
SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT School reform –Necessary, and can be based on Strengthening curricula Tightening standards for teacher certification Raising standards for graduation Spending more days in school Involving parents as partners with teachers
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Who or What is a Peer and What Functions Do Peers Serve? –Peers – social equals, operating at similar levels of behavioral complexity –Peers as Equal-Status Contacts Contribute to social competencies
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Frequency of Peer Contacts –Between 2 and 12, children spend more time with peers, less with adults –Gender segregation increases with age Girls form pairs Boys prefer groups
Figure 16.7 Developmental changes in childrens companionship with adults and other children. ADAPTED FROM ELLIS, ROGOFF, & CROMER, 1981.
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION How Important Are Peer Influences? –May be more important than parental influences Being rejected by peers leads to –Increased risk of dropping out –Delinquent activities –Serious psychological difficulties
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION The Development of Peer Sociability –Sociability – willingness to engage others in social interaction and to seek their attention or approval
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION –Peer Sociability in Infancy and Toddlerhood Begin interacting in middle of 1 st year months – engaging in complex interactions 18 months – coordinated interactions and imitation months – verbal component –Complementary roles
Figure 16.8 The percentage of toddlers showing evidence of immediate imitation, delayed imitation, and playful imitation across the second year of life. FROM NEILSON & SLAUGHTER, in press.
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION –Sociability during the Preschool Period Nonsocial activities Onlooker play – watch but do not join Parallel play – play side-by-side, little interaction –All three decrease with age
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Associative play – share, but do not cooperate to achieve shared goals Cooperative play – collaborate –Both become more common with age Play also becomes more cognitively complex with age –Predicts future social competencies
Table 16.2 Changes in the Cognitive Complexity of Play Activities from Infancy through the Preschool Period. SOURCE: Adapted from Howes & Matheson, 1992.
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Functions of play in early childhood –Play in individualistic societies teaches children to be individuals –Play in collectivistic societies teaches children to keep egos under control, promotes group harmony –Teaches effective communication –Provides chances for compromise –Allows for emotional understanding
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION –Peer Sociability in Middle Childhood and Adolescence 6-10 years – like formal games Contacts occur in peer groups –Interact on a regular basis –Provide a sense of belonging –Formulate norms –Develop a hierarchical organization
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Early adolescents –Form cliques – 4-8 same-sex members sharing values Midadolescence – same-sex cliques interact forming heterosexual cliques Cliques may also merge into crowds – similar attitudes and activities –Help form an identity, pave way for dating relationships
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Peer Acceptance and Popularity –Peer acceptance – extent to which a child is viewed by peers as a worthy or likeable companion Popular – liked by many, disliked by few Rejected – disliked by many, liked by few; greatest risk of adjustment problems later in life
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Neglected – not really liked or disliked, basically invisible Controversial – liked by many, disliked by many others Average-status – liked or disliked by a moderate number of peers
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION –Why Are Children Accepted, Neglected, or Rejected by Peers? Parenting styles - warm, sensitive and authoritative parenting results in likeable children Temperamental characteristics - –Irritable, impulsive children may have negative reactions with peers, causing rejection
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Cognitive Skills –Popular children have well-developed role-taking skills –Rejected children tend to score lowest on IQ tests Social Behaviors –Popular children are warm, cooperative, and compassionate
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION –Neglected children are often shy or withdrawn, but have good social skills »Worry about their social anxiety –Rejected-aggressive children »Alienate peers by forcefully dominating them »Overestimate popularity
PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION –Rejected-withdrawn children »Socially awkward, immature, react to criticism with aggression »Withdraw when they begin to be actively excluded