Presentation on theme: "THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 16 Contextual Influences on Development II – Television, Computers, School, and Peers
2 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT 98% of American homes have at least 1 TVChildren 3-11 watch 3-4 hours of TV per dayBoys watch more than girlsEthnic minority children living in poverty are heavy viewersIn moderation, not likely to impairCognitive growthAcademic achievementPeer relations
3 Figure Average number of hours per day that American children and adolescents spend watching television. FROM LIEBERT & SPRAFKIN, 1988.
4 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Development of Television LiteracyOne’s ability to understand how information is conveyed on TVPrior to 8 or 9, process content in a piecemeal fashionDifficulty understanding chain of eventsTend to focus on actionsYounger than 7, difficulty with fictional nature of TV
5 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Some Potentially Undesirable Effects of TVEffects of Televised ViolenceMajority of programs contain repeated aggression and violenceNo remorse shown by, or penalty given to perpetratorResearch suggests violent cartoon causes increase in aggression among peers
6 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT TV violence instigate aggression?Positive correlation is well demonstratedExperimental results show “yes”Longitudinal studies show the relationship is reciprocal
7 Figure 16.2 Relationship between boys’ preference for violent TV programming at age 8 and mean violence of crimes committed by age 30. ADAPTED FROM HUESSMANN, 1986.
8 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Other effects of televised violence?Mean-world beliefsTendency to view world as a violent place by people who rely on aggressionDesensitize childrenLess upset about violence, more willing to tolerate acts in real life
9 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Television as a Source of Social StereotypesGender stereotypesGenerally negative, can be a positive influence if roles are reversedStereotyped views of minoritiesUsually negativeHowever, if portrayals are positive, can reduce stereotyping
10 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Children’s Reactions to Commercial MessagesAverage child sees 20,000 each yearPrior to age 9, do not understand intent to sell productsMay be more serious than televised violence
11 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Television Viewing and Children’s HealthOne of the strongest predictors of future obesity is the amount of time spent watching TVAlso promotes poor eating habitsSnacking during TV, eat what is advertised
12 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Reducing the Harmful Effects of Television ViolenceParents need to monitor children’s TV viewingNot only what to watch, but how to interpret what they are watching
13 Table 16.1 Strategies for Regulating the Effects of TV on Children’s Development. SOURCE: Adapted from: Murray, J. P., & Lonnborg, B. (2005). Children and television: Using TV sensibly. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.
14 Table 16.1 Strategies for Regulating the Effects of TV on Children’s Development. SOURCE: Adapted from: Murray, J. P., & Lonnborg, B. (2005). Children and television: Using TV sensibly. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.
15 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Television as an Educational ToolEducational Television and Children’s Prosocial BehaviorWatching prosocial programming lead to more prosocial behaviorOnly lasting effects if adult monitors programs and encourages actions
16 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Television as a Contributor to Cognitive DevelopmentLimited research on very young childrenPreschool children – Sesame StreetImproved cognitive skillsNumbers, letters, vocabulary, classification, orderingBeneficial for all children, regardless of SES
17 Figure Relationship between amount of viewing of Sesame Street and children’s abilities: (a) improvement in total test scores for children grouped into different quartiles according to amount of viewing; (b) percentage of children who recited the alphabet correctly, grouped according to quartiles of amount of viewing; (c) percentage of children who wrote their first names correctly, grouped according to quartiles of amount of viewing. FROM LIEBERT & SPRAFKIN, 1988.
18 CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMPUTER AGE Computer-assisted instruction –Learn more, enjoy school moreDiscovery programs presented as games are bestWord processing programsIncreases writing skillsComputer programmingFacilitates cognitive and metacognitive development
19 CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMPUTER AGE Concerns about Video GamesModerate correlation between playing violent video games and real-world aggressionActively involved in performing violenceReinforced for successful symbolic violenceMay be more serious than TV violence
20 CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMPUTER AGE Concerns about Social InequalitiesEconomically disadvantaged families may not have a computer at homeBoys were more interested in computersGender gap has disappeared
21 CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMPUTER AGE Concerns about Internet ExposureWeb exposure helps with research for school topicsChat rooms can lead to cybersexual relationships and potential exploitationWeb is a recruiting tool for cults and hate organizations
22 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Schools influence many aspects of developmentCurricula teach academic knowledgePromotes cognitive and metacognitive growth through rules and problem solvingAppears that more is better, but not at too young an ageInformal curricula teach children skills to help them become good citizens
23 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Determinants of Effective SchoolingEffective schools promoteAcademic achievementSocial skillsPositive attitudes toward learningLow absenteeismContinuation of education beyond required ageAcquisition of skills to find and hold jobs
24 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Factors that Contribute to Effective SchoolingComposition of the student body: highly motivated and intellectually competent are bestSchool climate: safety, support from school personnel
25 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Scholastic atmosphere should haveAn academic emphasisA challenging, developmentally appropriate curricula; should be something students can relate toEffective classroom managementAuthoritative discipline practicesTeamwork (faculty and principal)
26 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT The “Goodness of Fit” between Students and SchoolsOne teaching method will not be effective for all studentsNeed to take into accountCultural backgroundsPersonal characteristicsDevelopmental needs
27 Figure 16.5 Reading achievement of ethnic Hawaiian first- through third-grade students who received traditional or culturally compatible classroom instruction. The students who received culturally compatible instruction read at grade level, whereas those receiving traditional instruction read far below grade level. ADAPTED FROM THARP & GALLIMORE, 1988.
28 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Do Our Schools Meet the Needs of All Our Children?Public education arose from a need to Americanize a nation of immigrants, not to educate a workforcePublic schools were majority-culture, middle-class institutions
29 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Educational Experiences of Ethnic MinoritiesAfrican American, Latino, and Native American studentsLower grades, achievement test scoresMore likely to be disciplined, held back, and drop outAsian Americans – better than European Americans academically
30 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Parental attitudes and involvementDifference not due to parents undervaluing educationLess knowledgeable about and involved in school activitiesIf involvement is high, children tend to do well in school
31 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Interfacing parent and peer influencesAuthoritative parenting is best for academic success in African American and European American studentsPeer influences can negate this positive influenceLow-SES African American and Latino peers devalue academics
32 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Asian American parents more likely to be authoritarian, butHave a very strong emphasis on education and achievement standardsHave supportive friendsResult is academic success
33 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Teacher expectanciesLargest effects in early gradesMost serious if differential treatment is ongoing
34 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Education and Developmental TransitionsElementary to junior high –Loss of self-esteem, interest in school, declining gradesMajor physical and psychological changes at time of moveLed to development of middle schools (6-8th grades)Still lack of fit – need support
35 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT How Well-Educated Are Our Children? A Cross-Cultural ComparisonOnly 25% of American students are truly proficient in reading and math, and they do not write wellSkills are consistently lower than those in most other industrialized nationsDifferences not due to general intelligence
36 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Classroom InstructionAsian students spend more time being educated on core subjectsMore time is also spent “on-task”
37 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Parental InvolvementAsian parents are strongly committed to educational processHold higher achievement expectanciesValue homework moreCommunicate with teacher more frequently
38 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT Student InvolvementMore time in classMore homeworkMore socialization is centered around academicsAcademic achievement contributes to social adjustment and popularity
39 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT A Strong Emphasis on EffortAsian students, parents, and teachers believe all students can master material if they work hard enoughNot a function of the quality of the teacher or intelligence
40 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT School reformNecessary, and can be based onStrengthening curriculaTightening standards for teacher certificationRaising standards for graduationSpending more days in schoolInvolving parents as partners with teachers
41 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Who or What is a Peer and What Functions Do Peers Serve?Peers – social equals, operating at similar levels of behavioral complexityPeers as Equal-Status ContactsContribute to social competencies
42 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Frequency of Peer ContactsBetween 2 and 12, children spend more time with peers, less with adultsGender segregation increases with ageGirls form pairsBoys prefer groups
43 Figure 16.7 Developmental changes in children’s companionship with adults and other children. ADAPTED FROM ELLIS, ROGOFF, & CROMER, 1981.
44 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION How Important Are Peer Influences?May be more important than parental influencesBeing rejected by peers leads toIncreased risk of dropping outDelinquent activitiesSerious psychological difficulties
45 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION The Development of Peer SociabilitySociability – willingness to engage others in social interaction and to seek their attention or approval
46 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Peer Sociability in Infancy and ToddlerhoodBegin interacting in middle of 1st year12-18 months – engaging in complex interactions18 months – coordinated interactions and imitation20-24 months – verbal componentComplementary roles
47 Figure 16.8 The percentage of toddlers showing evidence of immediate imitation, delayed imitation, and playful imitation across the second year of life. FROM NEILSON & SLAUGHTER, in press.
48 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Sociability during the Preschool PeriodNonsocial activitiesOnlooker play – watch but do not joinParallel play – play side-by-side, little interactionAll three decrease with age
49 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Associative play – share, but do not cooperate to achieve shared goalsCooperative play – collaborateBoth become more common with agePlay also becomes more cognitively complex with agePredicts future social competencies
50 Table 16.2 Changes in the Cognitive Complexity of Play Activities from Infancy through the Preschool Period. SOURCE: Adapted from Howes & Matheson, 1992.
51 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Functions of play in early childhoodPlay in individualistic societies teaches children to be individualsPlay in collectivistic societies teaches children to keep egos under control, promotes group harmonyTeaches effective communicationProvides chances for compromiseAllows for emotional understanding
52 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Peer Sociability in Middle Childhood and Adolescence6-10 years – like formal gamesContacts occur in peer groupsInteract on a regular basisProvide a sense of belongingFormulate normsDevelop a hierarchical organization
53 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Early adolescentsForm cliques – 4-8 same-sex members sharing valuesMidadolescence – same-sex cliques interact forming heterosexual cliquesCliques may also merge into crowds – similar attitudes and activitiesHelp form an identity, pave way for dating relationships
54 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Peer Acceptance and PopularityPeer acceptance – extent to which a child is viewed by peers as a worthy or likeable companionPopular – liked by many, disliked by fewRejected – disliked by many, liked by few; greatest risk of adjustment problems later in life
55 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Neglected – not really liked or disliked, basically invisibleControversial – liked by many, disliked by many othersAverage-status – liked or disliked by a moderate number of peers
56 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Why Are Children Accepted, Neglected, or Rejected by Peers?Parenting styles - warm, sensitive and authoritative parenting results in likeable childrenTemperamental characteristics -Irritable, impulsive children may have negative reactions with peers, causing rejection
57 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Cognitive SkillsPopular children have well-developed role-taking skillsRejected children tend to score lowest on IQ testsSocial BehaviorsPopular children are warm, cooperative, and compassionate
58 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Neglected children are often shy or withdrawn, but have good social skillsWorry about their social anxietyRejected-aggressive childrenAlienate peers by forcefully dominating themOverestimate popularity
59 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Rejected-withdrawn childrenSocially awkward, immature, react to criticism with aggressionWithdraw when they begin to be actively excluded