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THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT

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Presentation on theme: "THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Contextual Influences on Development II – Television, Computers, School, and Peers

2 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT
98% of American homes have at least 1 TV Children 3-11 watch 3-4 hours of TV per day Boys watch more than girls Ethnic minority children living in poverty are heavy viewers In moderation, not likely to impair Cognitive growth Academic achievement Peer relations

3 Figure Average number of hours per day that American children and adolescents spend watching television. FROM LIEBERT & SPRAFKIN, 1988.

4 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Development of Television Literacy One’s ability to understand how information is conveyed on TV Prior to 8 or 9, process content in a piecemeal fashion Difficulty understanding chain of events Tend to focus on actions Younger than 7, difficulty with fictional nature of TV

5 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Some Potentially Undesirable Effects of TV Effects of Televised Violence Majority of programs contain repeated aggression and violence No remorse shown by, or penalty given to perpetrator Research suggests violent cartoon causes increase in aggression among peers

6 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT
TV violence instigate aggression? Positive correlation is well demonstrated Experimental results show “yes” Longitudinal studies show the relationship is reciprocal

7 Figure 16.2 Relationship between boys’ preference for violent TV programming at age 8 and mean violence of crimes committed by age 30. ADAPTED FROM HUESSMANN, 1986.

8 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Other effects of televised violence? Mean-world beliefs Tendency to view world as a violent place by people who rely on aggression Desensitize children Less upset about violence, more willing to tolerate acts in real life

9 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Television as a Source of Social Stereotypes Gender stereotypes Generally negative, can be a positive influence if roles are reversed Stereotyped views of minorities Usually negative However, if portrayals are positive, can reduce stereotyping

10 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Children’s Reactions to Commercial Messages Average child sees 20,000 each year Prior to age 9, do not understand intent to sell products May be more serious than televised violence

11 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Television Viewing and Children’s Health One of the strongest predictors of future obesity is the amount of time spent watching TV Also promotes poor eating habits Snacking during TV, eat what is advertised

12 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Reducing the Harmful Effects of Television Violence Parents need to monitor children’s TV viewing Not only what to watch, but how to interpret what they are watching

13 Table 16.1 Strategies for Regulating the Effects of TV on Children’s Development. SOURCE: Adapted from: Murray, J. P., & Lonnborg, B. (2005). Children and television: Using TV sensibly. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.

14 Table 16.1 Strategies for Regulating the Effects of TV on Children’s Development. SOURCE: Adapted from: Murray, J. P., & Lonnborg, B. (2005). Children and television: Using TV sensibly. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.

15 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Television as an Educational Tool Educational Television and Children’s Prosocial Behavior Watching prosocial programming lead to more prosocial behavior Only lasting effects if adult monitors programs and encourages actions

16 THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Television as a Contributor to Cognitive Development Limited research on very young children Preschool children – Sesame Street Improved cognitive skills Numbers, letters, vocabulary, classification, ordering Beneficial for all children, regardless of SES

17 Figure Relationship between amount of viewing of Sesame Street and children’s abilities: (a) improvement in total test scores for children grouped into different quartiles according to amount of viewing; (b) percentage of children who recited the alphabet correctly, grouped according to quartiles of amount of viewing; (c) percentage of children who wrote their first names correctly, grouped according to quartiles of amount of viewing. FROM LIEBERT & SPRAFKIN, 1988.

18 CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMPUTER AGE
Computer-assisted instruction – Learn more, enjoy school more Discovery programs presented as games are best Word processing programs Increases writing skills Computer programming Facilitates cognitive and metacognitive development

19 CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMPUTER AGE
Concerns about Video Games Moderate correlation between playing violent video games and real-world aggression Actively involved in performing violence Reinforced for successful symbolic violence May be more serious than TV violence

20 CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMPUTER AGE
Concerns about Social Inequalities Economically disadvantaged families may not have a computer at home Boys were more interested in computers Gender gap has disappeared

21 CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMPUTER AGE
Concerns about Internet Exposure Web exposure helps with research for school topics Chat rooms can lead to cybersexual relationships and potential exploitation Web is a recruiting tool for cults and hate organizations

22 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Schools influence many aspects of development Curricula teach academic knowledge Promotes cognitive and metacognitive growth through rules and problem solving Appears that more is better, but not at too young an age Informal curricula teach children skills to help them become good citizens

23 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Determinants of Effective Schooling Effective schools promote Academic achievement Social skills Positive attitudes toward learning Low absenteeism Continuation of education beyond required age Acquisition of skills to find and hold jobs

24 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Factors that Contribute to Effective Schooling Composition of the student body: highly motivated and intellectually competent are best School climate: safety, support from school personnel

25 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Scholastic atmosphere should have An academic emphasis A challenging, developmentally appropriate curricula; should be something students can relate to Effective classroom management Authoritative discipline practices Teamwork (faculty and principal)

26 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
The “Goodness of Fit” between Students and Schools One teaching method will not be effective for all students Need to take into account Cultural backgrounds Personal characteristics Developmental needs

27 Figure 16.5 Reading achievement of ethnic Hawaiian first- through third-grade students who received traditional or culturally compatible classroom instruction. The students who received culturally compatible instruction read at grade level, whereas those receiving traditional instruction read far below grade level. ADAPTED FROM THARP & GALLIMORE, 1988.

28 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Do Our Schools Meet the Needs of All Our Children? Public education arose from a need to Americanize a nation of immigrants, not to educate a workforce Public schools were majority-culture, middle-class institutions

29 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Educational Experiences of Ethnic Minorities African American, Latino, and Native American students Lower grades, achievement test scores More likely to be disciplined, held back, and drop out Asian Americans – better than European Americans academically

30 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Parental attitudes and involvement Difference not due to parents undervaluing education Less knowledgeable about and involved in school activities If involvement is high, children tend to do well in school

31 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Interfacing parent and peer influences Authoritative parenting is best for academic success in African American and European American students Peer influences can negate this positive influence Low-SES African American and Latino peers devalue academics

32 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Asian American parents more likely to be authoritarian, but Have a very strong emphasis on education and achievement standards Have supportive friends Result is academic success

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Teacher expectancies Largest effects in early grades Most serious if differential treatment is ongoing

34 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Education and Developmental Transitions Elementary to junior high – Loss of self-esteem, interest in school, declining grades Major physical and psychological changes at time of move Led to development of middle schools (6-8th grades) Still lack of fit – need support

35 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
How Well-Educated Are Our Children? A Cross-Cultural Comparison Only 25% of American students are truly proficient in reading and math, and they do not write well Skills are consistently lower than those in most other industrialized nations Differences not due to general intelligence

36 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Classroom Instruction Asian students spend more time being educated on core subjects More time is also spent “on-task”

37 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Parental Involvement Asian parents are strongly committed to educational process Hold higher achievement expectancies Value homework more Communicate with teacher more frequently

38 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
Student Involvement More time in class More homework More socialization is centered around academics Academic achievement contributes to social adjustment and popularity

39 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
A Strong Emphasis on Effort Asian students, parents, and teachers believe all students can master material if they work hard enough Not a function of the quality of the teacher or intelligence

40 SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT
School reform Necessary, and can be based on Strengthening curricula Tightening standards for teacher certification Raising standards for graduation Spending more days in school Involving parents as partners with teachers

41 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Who or What is a Peer and What Functions Do Peers Serve? Peers – social equals, operating at similar levels of behavioral complexity Peers as Equal-Status Contacts Contribute to social competencies

42 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Frequency of Peer Contacts Between 2 and 12, children spend more time with peers, less with adults Gender segregation increases with age Girls form pairs Boys prefer groups

43 Figure 16.7 Developmental changes in children’s companionship with adults and other children. ADAPTED FROM ELLIS, ROGOFF, & CROMER, 1981.

44 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
How Important Are Peer Influences? May be more important than parental influences Being rejected by peers leads to Increased risk of dropping out Delinquent activities Serious psychological difficulties

45 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
The Development of Peer Sociability Sociability – willingness to engage others in social interaction and to seek their attention or approval

46 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Peer Sociability in Infancy and Toddlerhood Begin interacting in middle of 1st year 12-18 months – engaging in complex interactions 18 months – coordinated interactions and imitation 20-24 months – verbal component Complementary roles

47 Figure 16.8 The percentage of toddlers showing evidence of immediate imitation, delayed imitation, and playful imitation across the second year of life. FROM NEILSON & SLAUGHTER, in press.

48 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Sociability during the Preschool Period Nonsocial activities Onlooker play – watch but do not join Parallel play – play side-by-side, little interaction All three decrease with age

49 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Associative play – share, but do not cooperate to achieve shared goals Cooperative play – collaborate Both become more common with age Play also becomes more cognitively complex with age Predicts future social competencies

50 Table 16.2 Changes in the Cognitive Complexity of Play Activities from Infancy through the Preschool Period. SOURCE: Adapted from Howes & Matheson, 1992.

51 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Functions of play in early childhood Play in individualistic societies teaches children to be individuals Play in collectivistic societies teaches children to keep egos under control, promotes group harmony Teaches effective communication Provides chances for compromise Allows for emotional understanding

52 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Peer Sociability in Middle Childhood and Adolescence 6-10 years – like formal games Contacts occur in peer groups Interact on a regular basis Provide a sense of belonging Formulate norms Develop a hierarchical organization

53 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Early adolescents Form cliques – 4-8 same-sex members sharing values Midadolescence – same-sex cliques interact forming heterosexual cliques Cliques may also merge into crowds – similar attitudes and activities Help form an identity, pave way for dating relationships

54 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Peer Acceptance and Popularity Peer acceptance – extent to which a child is viewed by peers as a worthy or likeable companion Popular – liked by many, disliked by few Rejected – disliked by many, liked by few; greatest risk of adjustment problems later in life

55 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Neglected – not really liked or disliked, basically invisible Controversial – liked by many, disliked by many others Average-status – liked or disliked by a moderate number of peers

56 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Why Are Children Accepted, Neglected, or Rejected by Peers? Parenting styles - warm, sensitive and authoritative parenting results in likeable children Temperamental characteristics - Irritable, impulsive children may have negative reactions with peers, causing rejection

57 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Cognitive Skills Popular children have well-developed role-taking skills Rejected children tend to score lowest on IQ tests Social Behaviors Popular children are warm, cooperative, and compassionate

58 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Neglected children are often shy or withdrawn, but have good social skills Worry about their social anxiety Rejected-aggressive children Alienate peers by forcefully dominating them Overestimate popularity

59 PEERS AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Rejected-withdrawn children Socially awkward, immature, react to criticism with aggression Withdraw when they begin to be actively excluded


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