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Subject Consumer Electronics (CE)

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1 Subject Consumer Electronics (CE)
ECE 5th SEMESTER Subject Consumer Electronics (CE) Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

2 Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar
Picture Tubes Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

3 Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar
Picture Tubes Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

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Picture Tubes Introduction Picture Tube Monochrome Tube Color picture tube Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

5 Monochrome Picture Tube
Akshay Jilowa GPCG Jalandhar Punjab EDUSAT Society

6 Picture Tube The picture tube is very similar to the cathode-ray tube used in an oscilloscope. The glass envelope contains an electron Gun structure that produces a beam of electrons aimed at the fluorescent screen. When the electron beam strikes the screen, light is emitted. Akshay Jilowa GPCG Jalandhar Punjab EDUSAT Society

7 The Picture Tube A monochrome picture tube has one electron gun and a continuous phosphor coating that produces a picture in black and white. For colour picture tubes the screen is formed of three different phosphors and there are three electron beams, one for each colour phosphor. The three colours are red, green and blue produced by three phosphors combined to produce different colours.

The electric field due to the positive potential at the accelerating grid extends through the opening the of the control grid right to the cathode surface. The orientation of this field is such that besides accelerating electrons down the tube. It also brings all the electrons in the stream into a tiny spot called the cross over. This is known as the first electrostatic lens action. The electrode voltages are so chosen or the electric field is so varied that the second point where all the electrons get focused is the screen of the picture tube. Electrostatic focusing is preferred over magnetic focusing because it is not affected very much by changes in the line voltage.

9 BEAM VELOCITY In order to give the electrons stream sufficient velocity to reach the screen material with proper energy to cause it to fluoresce, a second anode is included within the tube. This is a conductive coating with colloidal graphite on the inside of the wide bell of the tube. This coating called aquadag usually extends from almost half way into the narrow neck to within 3 cm of the fluorescent screen.

10 DEFLECTION YOKE It may be noted that a perpendicular displacement results because the magnetic field due to each coil reacts with the magnetic field of the electron beam to produce a force that deflects the electrons at right angles to both the beam axis and the deflection field.

11 Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar
Deflection Yoke Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

12 BEAM DEFLECTION As already stated the electron beam must attain a very high velocity to deliver enough energy to the atoms of the phosphor coating. Because of this the electrons of the beam remain under the influence of the deflecting field for a very short time. This necessitates application of high deflecting fields to achieve the desired deflection. It is very difficult to generate such high voltages at the deflection frequencies. On the other hand with magnetic deflection it is a large current that would be necessary to achieve the same deflection.

13 BEAM DEFLECTION Since it is more convenient to generate large currents than high voltages. All picture tubes employ electromagnetic deflection. With electrostatic deflection the beam electros gain energy. Thus, larger deflection angles tend to defocus the beam. The deflection plates need to be placed further apart as a deflection angle is made larger. Thus requiring higher voltages to produce the same deflection fields. Magnetic deflection is free from both these shortcomings and much larger deflection angles can be achieved without defocusing or nonlinearities with these consequent saving in tube length and cabinet size.

14 Picture Tube The beam is deflected by a pair of deflecting
coils mounted on the neck of the picture tube in the same way and rate as the beam scans the target in the camera tube. The amplitudes of the currents in the horizontal and vertical deflecting coils are so adjusted that the entire screen, called raster, gets illuminated because of the fast rate of scanning. Akshay Jilowa GPCG Jalandhar Punjab EDUSAT Society

15 Scanning The scene is scanned rapidly both in the horizontal and vertical directions simultaneously to provide sufficient number of complete pictures or frames per second to give the illusion of continuous motion. Akshay Jilowa GPCG Jalandhar Punjab EDUSAT Society

16 Scanning The scanning is process performed in picture tube to convert optical information into electrical signal. The fine and sharp electronic beam is used to scan the focused image and beam convert optical information to electrical signal ,element by element and line after line , till entire picture/image is scanned. Akshay Jilowa GPCG Jalandhar Punjab EDUSAT Society

17 Scanning of the element is done at a very fast rate and this process is repeated a large number of times per second to create an illusion of simultaneously pick up & transmission of picture detail Akshay Jilowa GPCG Jalandhar Punjab EDUSAT Society

18 Scanning may be identified as a particular process which permits the conversion of information existing in space and time coordinates into time variations only. The electrical information obtained from the TV camera tube is generally referred to as video signal Akshay Jilowa GPCG Jalandhar Punjab EDUSAT Society

19 Horizontal Scanning Akshay Jilowa GPCG Jalandhar Punjab EDUSAT Society

20 Vertical Scanning Akshay Jilowa GPCG Jalandhar Punjab EDUSAT Society

21 Horizontal and Vertical Scanning
Akshay Jilowa GPCG Jalandhar Punjab EDUSAT Society

22 Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar
Compatibility Compatibility means that 1) The color television signal must produce a normal black and white picture on a monochrome receiver without any modification of the receiver circuitry. 2) A color receiver must be able to produce a black and white picture from a normal monochrome signal. This is referred to as reverse compatibility Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

23 Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar
Compatibility To achieve this, that is , to make the system fully compatible the composite color signal must meet the following requirements: It should occupy the same bandwidth as the corresponding monochrome signal . The location and spacing of picture and sound carrier frequencies should remain the same . The color signal should have the same luminance (brightness) information as would a monochrome signal have , transmitting the same scene . Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

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Compatibility The composite color signal should contain color information together with the ancillary signal needed to allow this to be decoded. The color information should be carried in such a way that it does not affect the picture reproduced on the screen of a monochrome receiver. The system must employ the same deflection frequencies and synch signals as used for monochrome transmission and reception. Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

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Compatibility In order to meet the above requirements it becomes necessary to encode the colour information of the scene in such a way that it can be transmitted within the same channel bandwidth of 7 MHz and without disturbing the brightness signal. Similarly at the receiving end a decoder must be used to recover the colour signal back in its original form for feeding it to the tricolour picture tube. Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

The colour television picture tube screen is coated with three different phosphors, one for each of the chosen red, green and blue primaries. The three phosphors are physically separate from one another and each is energized by an electron beam of intensity that is proportional to the respective colour voltage reproduced in the television receiver. Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

The object is to produce three coincident rasters with produce the red, green and blue contents of the transmitted picture. While seeing from a normal viewing distance the eye integrates the three colour information to convey the sensation of the hue at each part of the picture. Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

Based on the gun configuration and the manner in which phosphors are arranged on the screen, three different types of colour picture tubes have been developed. These are:- 1. Delta-gun 2. Guns-in-line or Precision-in-line (P-I-L) 3. Trintron Colour Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

29 Delta-gun colour picture tube
(a) guns viewed from the base (b) electron beams, shadow mask and dot-triad phosphor screen (c) showing application of ‘Y’ and colour difference signals between the cathodes and control grids Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

This tube was developed by Radio Corporation on America (R.C.A). It employs three separate guns on for each phosphor. The guns are equally spaced at 120 degree interval with respect to each other and tilted inwards in relation to the axis of the tube. They form an equilateral triangular configuration.

31 Drawbacks of the Delta-gun Tube
Convergence is difficult and involves considerable circuit complexity and service adjustments. In most delta-gun tubes, four static convergence magnets and a dynamic convergence assembly are employed. The focus cannot be sharp over the entire screen because the focus and convergence planes cannot remain coincident for the three beams which emanate from guns positioned at 120° with respect to each other around the tube axis. The electron transparency of the mask is very low since it intercepts over 80 percent of the beam currents. Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

(a) in-line guns (b) electron beams, aperture grille and striped three colour phosphor screen(c) mountings on neck and bowl of the tube. Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

This tube as the name suggests has three guns which are aligned precisely in a horizontal line. The gun and mask structure of the P.I.L tube together with yoke mounting. The inline gun configuration helps in simplifying conversions adjustments. The color phosphors are deposited on the screen in the form of vertical strips in triads which are repeated along the breadth of the tube. To obtain the same color, finest as in a delta gun tube the horizontal spacing between the strips of the same color in adjacent traids is made equal to that between the dots of the same color in the delta gun tube.

34 Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar
Coma Effect Due to nonuniformity of the deflection field all the beams are not deflected by the same amount. As shown in Fig. the central beam (green) deflects by a smaller amount as compared to the other two beams. For a different nonuniformity of the deflection field, the effect could be just opposite producing too large a displacement of the central beam. Such a distortion is known as coma and results in misconvergence of the beams. Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

35 Trintron (cathodes in-line) colour picture tube
(a) gun structure(b) electron beams, vertical-striped three colour phosphor screen (c) constructional, focus and convergence details Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

36 Interleaving of the colour signal
Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

37 frequency interleaving
Frequency interleaving in TV transmission is possible because of the relationship of the video signal to the scanning frequencies which are used to develop it It has been determined that the energy content of the video signal is contained in a individual energy bundles which occur at harmonics of the line frequency ( , Khz) Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

38 frequency interleaving
The components of each bundle being separated by a multiplier of the field frequency. The shape of each energy bundle show peak at the exact harmonic of the horizontal scanning frequency The vertical side band contain less energy Note that the energy content progressively decrease with increase in the order of harmonics and is very small beyond 3.5 Mhz from picture Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

39 frequency interleaving
Therefore it is found that part of bandwidth of monochrome TV is goes unused because of spacing in energy bundle . This suggest that available space could be occupied by another signal It is here where color is located by modulating the color difference signal with color sub carrier The carrier is so selected that side band fall exact mid way between the harmonic of the line frequency Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

40 frequency interleaving
To avoid cross talk sub carrier is chosen at high side of channel bandwidth For PAL ( Channel BW 7Mhz) (2*283+1)15625/2= 4.43Mhz For NTSC ( Channel BW 6Mhz) ( 2*227+1)15750/2=3.58Mhz Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

41 Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar
THANKS Akshay Jilowa G.P.C.G. Jalandhar

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