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6/10/20141 Top-Down Clustering Method Based On TV-Tree Zbigniew W. Ras

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6/10/20142 Heuristic TV-Tree Construction Heuristic method A random attribute a is selected from system S=(X,A,V) to decompose S into systems S 1 =(X 1,A 1,V 1 ) and S 2 =(X 2,A 2,V 2 ) based on certain value from Dom(a) called a split point for S. v a Dom(a) is an optimal split point for S if it maximizes the total number of active dimensions in S 1 and S 2 [{S 1, S 2 } is a balanced set]. Active Dimension: If the distance between any two objects in S with respect to attribute a is less than λ a, the attribute a is considered an active dimension for S. –Definition: S 1 is a - active if | max a – min a | a where max a = max{a(x): x X}, min a = min{a(x): x X}, a is a user given threshold for attribute a to be active.

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6/10/20143 Heuristic TV-Tree Construction Heuristic method Middle Value is calculated for each active dimension. S 1, S 2 equally weighted: Constructed TV-Tree has to satisfy so called weighted threshold defined as [(card(X 1 ) / card(X)) and (card(X 2 ) / card(X)) ]. Then, TV-Tree is called -balanced. Repeat the same process for S 1 and S 2 by picking another random attribute from S 1 and next from S 2. This recursive process will end once all dimensions in the smallest decomposed systems are active. Optimal structure of TV-Tree depends on the random attribute selected. –If the random attribute selected is strongly related to other non-active attributes, we may get more dimensions close to the top of tree.

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6/10/20144 Heuristic TV-Tree Construction

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6/10/20145 In Search For Optimal Split Point

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6/10/20146 Layout of TV-Tree

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6/10/20147 TV-Tree Construction

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6/10/20148 TV-Tree Construction

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6/10/20149 TV-Tree Construction

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6/10/201410 Non-Heuristic TV-Tree Construction Non-Heuristic method Search through all attributes in A to look for the best split point for S to decompose it into S 1 and S 2 in a way to maximize the overall number of active dimensions in S 1, S 2 additionally assuming that {S 1, S 2 } is a well-balanced set. The remaining steps are similar to heuristic method. This method is more expensive than heuristic method but may produce more optimal TV-trees and therefore more efficient QAS. It works well if information system S does not have a large number of attributes.

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6/10/201411 TV-Tree Based Query Answering Exact match query User specifies attributes and their values. –Example query: q=[a=5]. Range query User specifies attributes, their values, and tolerance α a for each specified attribute a (if α is a tolerance value for attribute a, then α a ). –Example query: q=[a=5,2].

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6/10/201412 TV-Tree Based Query Answering Q=[a=5][b=3] [c=7,1] a=4, λ a =2 b=10, λ b =3c=6, λ c =2 b=6, λ b =2 b=4, λ b =2 Root

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6/10/201413 TV-Tree Based Query Answering a=4, λ a =2 b=10, λ b =3c=6, λ c =2 b=6, λ b =2 b=4, λ b =2 TV-Tree can be built further from a leaf node by reducing system thresholds at the leaf node if most of queries reaching that leaf node require scanning large amount of data. Q=[a=5,1][b=3,1] [c=7,1] 2 Root a=4,λ a =2 b=4,λ b =2 c=6,λ c =2 [a, λ a =1] [b,λ b =1] [c,λ c =1]

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