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Protists Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Microscopic Critters Abound!

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Presentation on theme: "Protists Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Microscopic Critters Abound!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Protists Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Microscopic Critters Abound!

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3 Characteristics of Kingdom Protista Heterogeneous assemblage of unicellular, colonial and multicellular Eukaryotes that do not have the distinctive characters of plants, animals or fungi Contains a number of organisms previously classified as plants, animals or fungi. Classification based on movement and pigment (our text) Cells typically 1 μm to 50 μm, up to 60 meters (seaweed)

4 Importance Important components of food chains. E.g. kelp beds are among the most productive ecosystems on earth Unicellular aquatic Protista (plankton) form an important component of the food chain. The photosynthetic ones are called phytoplankton and the heterotrophic ones are called zooplankton (which also includes many animal larvae or tiny crustaceans)

5 Motility Motility – the ability to move spontaneously and independently Some are motile, some are NOT motile Some move using: cilia flagella streaming (amoeba use arms" called a pseudopod )

6 Domain Eucarya Kingdom Protista Phylum Sarcodina

7 Unicellular Unicellular Move by pseudopodia Move by pseudopodia Some surrounded by a calcium "shell" Some surrounded by a calcium "shell" Amoeba has no definite shape Amoeba has no definite shape Shape is constantly changing Shape is constantly changing Food is surrounded by pseudopods and stored in a food vacuole Food is surrounded by pseudopods and stored in a food vacuole Amoeba proteus

8 Sarcodina Reproduction Asexual–only known method! Asexual–only known method!

9 Phylum Ciliaphora Unicellular Unicellular Nuclear dimorphism : two functionally distinct kinds of nucleii Nuclear dimorphism : two functionally distinct kinds of nucleii Micronucleus is specialized for sexual exchange Micronucleus is specialized for sexual exchange Macronucleus is specialized for transcription Macronucleus is specialized for transcription Move by cilia in a spiral path Move by cilia in a spiral path

10 Paramecium Anatomy

11 Paramecium Reproduction Asexual – binary fission Asexual – binary fission Sexual - conjugation Sexual - conjugation Under certain conditions, such as overcrowding or environmental stress, Paramecium turns from strictly asexual reproduction to sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction involves the exchange of genetic material between two individuals of different 'mating strains'. Involves meiosis.

12 Reproductive Cycle And now for a pleasant review of mitosis and meiosis!

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14 Phylum Zoomastigina Move by flagellum or flagella Move by flagellum or flagella Other zooflagellates may live inside as parasites Other zooflagellates may live inside as parasites Some diseases caused by flagellates are transmitted by insects Some diseases caused by flagellates are transmitted by insects Can become infected by contaminated water Can become infected by contaminated water Some live in the digestive tracts of termites and assist in the digestion of cellulose. Some live in the digestive tracts of termites and assist in the digestion of cellulose. The Flagellates

15 Pathogenic examples of Zooflagellates Giardia lamblia – Hikers disease Giardia lamblia – Hikers disease

16 Trypanosoma cruzi Trypanosoma cruzi Transmitted by insects-Reduviid insect Transmitted by insects-Reduviid insect Causes Chagas disease Causes Chagas disease Mainly in Latin America: 18 million are infected each year; 50,000 die yearly. Affects major organs: Heart Liver G.I. tract Brain

17 Vector -

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19 Phylum Sporozoa Unicellular Unicellular All Parasitic! All Parasitic! Responsible for malaria Responsible for malaria Move by gliding motion in some stages Move by gliding motion in some stages Plasmodium

20 Plasmodium Lifecycle

21 Domain Eucarya The Algae KingdomProtista

22 All algae provide food for microorganisms which larger animals and fish can eat All algae provide food for microorganisms which larger animals and fish can eat Surface and hair algae provide food for fish directly Surface and hair algae provide food for fish directly All algae absorb excess pond nutrients like ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate All algae absorb excess pond nutrients like ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate Suspended algae provides some shade to pond animals and plants in the spring Suspended algae provides some shade to pond animals and plants in the spring All algae provide oxygen during the day (but use it at night) All algae provide oxygen during the day (but use it at night) Hair algae provides a soft spawning site for fish. Hair algae provides a soft spawning site for fish. Benefits of Algae

23 Phylum Euglenaphyta 800 to 1000 species 800 to 1000 species Photosynthetic when light available Photosynthetic when light available Heterotrophic when light unavailable Heterotrophic when light unavailable Resemble protozoans due to flagella Resemble protozoans due to flagella Freshwater and brackish water inhabitants Freshwater and brackish water inhabitants Algae Classification

24 Euglenaphyta Euglena

25 Euglena Reproduction Binary Fission

26 Euglena rubra

27 E. sanguinea This is due to the pigment called astaxanthin

28 7,000 species 7,000 species Most freshwater, but some terrestrial; a few marine Most freshwater, but some terrestrial; a few marine Contain chlorophylls a, b, and carotenoids Contain chlorophylls a, b, and carotenoids Unicellular, colonial, and multicellular Unicellular, colonial, and multicellular Phylum Chlorophyta

29 Spirogyra Spirogyra Hair algae Hair algae

30 Phylum Chrysophyta 850 species 850 species Store food as oils Store food as oils Most unicellular, some colonial Most unicellular, some colonial Cell walls made of cellulose Cell walls made of cellulose

31 Chrysophyta Vaucheria

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33 Phylum Bacillariophyta Supply more oxygen than all other organisms Supply more oxygen than all other organisms 1150 species 1150 species Store food as oil Store food as oil Silica walls contain silica used for filters, insulate boilers, abrasive factor in toothpaste Silica walls contain silica used for filters, insulate boilers, abrasive factor in toothpaste

34 Bacillariophyta Diatoms Diatoms

35 Phylum Phaeophyta All multicellular All multicellular Almost all marine Almost all marine Brown algae Brown algae Contain chlorophyll a, c, and fucozanthin Contain chlorophyll a, c, and fucozanthin Provides algin – thickener in cheap ice cream Provides algin – thickener in cheap ice cream Stem-like structure has air bladders that allow it to float near surface of water Stem-like structure has air bladders that allow it to float near surface of water

36 Phaeophyta Fucus Fucus

37 Phylum Rhodophyta Mostly marine Mostly marine Multicellular Multicellular Color derived from phycobilins Color derived from phycobilins Less than 30 cm long Less than 30 cm long Important in building reefs from calcium deposition Important in building reefs from calcium deposition Products: agar, gelatin shells of drug capsules Products: agar, gelatin shells of drug capsules

38 Rhodophyta Gelidium pulchrum Gelidium pulchrum

39 Phylum Dinoflagellata Unicellular Unicellular Possess two flagella Possess two flagella Cell walls composed of cellulose Cell walls composed of cellulose Mostly marine Mostly marine Some bioluminescent Some bioluminescent Responsible for red tides! Responsible for red tides!

40 Dinoflagellates Ceratium sp. Protoperidinium sp.rotoperidinium sp.

41 RED TIDE!

42 Disadvantages of Algae Suspended algae reduces clarity so that animals and plants cannot be seen in the pond Suspended algae reduces clarity so that animals and plants cannot be seen in the pond All algae reduce oxygen levels at night All algae reduce oxygen levels at night All algae may cause pH fluctuations All algae may cause pH fluctuations All algae may cause the death of submerged plants, water lilies, etc. due to either reduced light levels or strangulation in the case of hair algae All algae may cause the death of submerged plants, water lilies, etc. due to either reduced light levels or strangulation in the case of hair algae Hair algae can clog filters, pumps, etc Hair algae can clog filters, pumps, etc Finally, many people find algae ugly Finally, many people find algae ugly

43 Eutrophication Can occur naturally or induced


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