3Characteristics of Kingdom Protista Heterogeneous assemblage of unicellular, colonial and multicellular Eukaryotes that do not have the distinctive characters of plants, animals or fungiContains a number of organisms previously classified as plants, animals or fungi.Classification based on movement and pigment (our text)Cells typically 1 μm to 50 μm, up to 60 meters (seaweed)
4ImportanceImportant components of food chains. E.g. kelp beds are among the most productive ecosystems on earthUnicellular aquatic Protista (plankton) form an important component of the food chain. The photosynthetic ones are called phytoplankton and the heterotrophic ones are called zooplankton (which also includes many animal larvae or tiny crustaceans)
5MotilityMotility – the ability to move spontaneously and independentlySome are motile, some are NOT motileSome move using:ciliaflagellastreaming (amoeba use “arms" called a pseudopod)
7Phylum Sarcodina Amoeba proteus Unicellular Move by pseudopodia Some surrounded by a calcium "shell"Amoeba has no definite shapeShape is constantly changingFood is surrounded by pseudopods and stored in a food vacuoleAmoeba proteus
8Sarcodina Reproduction Asexual–only known method!
9Phylum Ciliaphora Move by cilia in a spiral path Unicellular Nuclear dimorphism : two functionally distinct kinds of nucleiiMicronucleus is specialized for sexual exchangeMacronucleus is specialized for transcription
11Paramecium Reproduction Asexual – binary fissionSexual - conjugationUnder certain conditions, such as overcrowding or environmental stress, Parameciumturns from strictly asexual reproductionto sexual reproduction. Sexualreproduction involves the exchange ofgenetic material between twoindividuals of different 'mating strains'.Involves meiosis.
12And now for a pleasant review of mitosis and meiosis! Reproductive CycleAnd now for a pleasant review of mitosis and meiosis!
14Phylum Zoomastigina The Flagellates Move by flagellum or flagella Other zooflagellates may live inside as parasitesSome diseases caused by flagellates are transmitted by insectsCan become infected by contaminated waterSome live in the digestive tracts of termites and assist in the digestion of cellulose.
15Pathogenic examples of Zooflagellates Giardia lamblia – “Hiker’s disease”
16Transmitted by insects-Reduviid insect Trypanosoma cruziTransmitted by insects-Reduviid insectCauses Chagas’ diseaseMainly in Latin America:18 million are infected each year; 50,000 die yearly.Affects major organs:HeartLiverG.I. tractBrainOccurrence primarily in Latin America. Spread by reduviid
17Vector - <L. vehere to carry Metacyclic – infective stageTrypomastigotes flagelatted form of parasite that lives in the blood.Amastigotes or mastigotes - Unflagelatted form that lives in cells
22Benefits of AlgaeAll algae provide food for microorganisms which larger animals and fish can eatSurface and hair algae provide food for fish directlyAll algae absorb excess pond nutrients like ammonia, nitrate, and phosphateSuspended algae provides some shade to pond animals and plants in the springAll algae provide oxygen during the day (but use it at night)Hair algae provides a soft spawning site for fish.
23Algae Classification Phylum Euglenaphyta 800 to 1000 species Photosynthetic when light availableHeterotrophic when light unavailableResemble protozoans due to flagellaFreshwater and brackish water inhabitants
35Phylum Phaeophyta All multicellular Almost all marine Brown algae Contain chlorophyll a, c, and fucozanthinProvides algin – thickener in cheap ice creamStem-like structure has air bladders that allow it to float near surface of water
42Disadvantages of Algae Suspended algae reduces clarity so that animals and plants cannot be seen in the pondAll algae reduce oxygen levels at nightAll algae may cause pH fluctuationsAll algae may cause the death of submerged plants, water lilies, etc. due to either reduced light levels or strangulation in the case of hair algaeHair algae can clog filters, pumps, etcFinally, many people find algae ugly