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CRed carbon reduction Energy Science Director: HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia Master.

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Presentation on theme: "CRed carbon reduction Energy Science Director: HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia Master."— Presentation transcript:

1 CRed carbon reduction Energy Science Director: HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia Master Class: 25 th February 2009 Keith Tovey ( ) M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv CRed Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal 5 th October 2007 Presentation available at: www2.env.uea.ac.uk/cred/creduea.htm 1 Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia

2 Low Energy Buildings and their Management Low Carbon Energy Provision –Photovoltaics –CHP –Adsorption chilling –Biomass Gasification Awareness issues Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia Low Energy Buildings and their Management 2

3 Original buildings Teaching wall Library Student residences 3

4 Nelson Court Constable Terrace 4

5 Low Energy Educational Buildings Elizabeth Fry Building ZICER Nursing and Midwifery School Medical School Medical School Phase 2 2 5

6 6 Elizabeth Fry Binası Cost ~6% more but has heating requirement ~20% of average building at time. Significantly outperforms even latest Building Regulations. Runs on a single domestic sized central heating boiler. Maliyeti ~%6 daha fazla olsada, ısınma ihtiyacı zamanın ortalama binalarının ~%20si. En son Bina Yönetmeliklerini bile büyük ölçüde aşmaktadır. Tek bir ev tipi merkezi ısıtma kazanı ile çalışmaktadır. The Elizabeth Fry Building 1994

7 7 Conservation: management improvements Koruma: yönetimde iyileştirmeler Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption. Dikkatli İzleme ve Analiz, enerji tüketimini azaltabilir..

8 Conservation: management improvements Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption. 8

9 ZICER Building Heating Energy consumption as new in 2003 was reduced by further 57% by careful record keeping, management techniques and an adaptive approach to control. Incorporates 34 kW of Solar Panels on top floor Won the Low Energy Building of the Year Award

10 The ground floor open plan office The first floor open plan office The first floor cellular offices 10

11 The ZICER Building – Main part of the building High in thermal mass Air tight High insulation standards Triple glazing with low emissivity ~ equivalent to quintuple glazing 11

12 Operation of Main Building Mechanically ventilated that utilizes hollow core ceiling slabs as supply air ducts to the space Regenerative heat exchanger Incoming air into the AHU 12

13 Air enters the internal occupied space Operation of Main Building Air passes through hollow cores in the ceiling slabs Filter Heater 13

14 Operation of Main Building Recovers 87% of Ventilation Heat Requirement. Space for future chilling Out of the building Return stale air is extracted from each floor The return air passes through the heat exchanger 14

15 Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs store heat from appliances and body heat. Winter Day Air Temperature is same as building fabric leading to a more pleasant working environment Warm air 15

16 Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs also radiate heat back into room Winter Night In late afternoon heating is turned off. Cold air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 16

17 Draws out the heat accumulated during the day Cools the slabs to act as a cool store the following day Summer night night ventilation/ free cooling Cool air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 17

18 Slabs pre-cool the air before entering the occupied space concrete absorbs and stores heat less/no need for air-conditioning / Summer day Warm air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 18

19 Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements Space Heating Consumption reduced by 57% kWh/ 19

20 209441GJ GJ GJ Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER compared to other buildings ZICER Materials Production Materials Transport On site construction energy Workforce Transport Intrinsic Heating / Cooling energy / Functional Energy Refurbishment Energy Demolition Energy 28% 54% 34% 51% 61% 29% 20

21 Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER compared to other buildings Compared to the Air-conditioned office, ZICER as built recovers extra energy required in construction in under 1 year. 21

22 Low Energy Buildings and their Management Low Carbon Energy Provision –Photovoltaics –CHP –Adsorption chilling –Biomass Gasification Awareness issues Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia 22

23 Mono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 kW in 10 arrays Poly- crystalline on façade ~ 6.7 kW in 3 arrays ZICER Building Photo shows only part of top Floor 23

24 24 Arrangement of Cells on Facade Individual cells are connected horizontally As shadow covers one column all cells are inactive If individual cells are connected vertically, only those cells actually in shadow are affected. Cells active Cells inactive even though not covered by shadow 24

25 Use of PV generated energy Sometimes electricity is exported Inverters are only 91% efficient Most use is for computers DC power packs are inefficient typically less than 60% efficient Need an integrated approach Peak output is 34 kW 34 kW 25

26 Engine Generator 36% Electricity 50% Heat Gas Heat Exchanger Exhaust Heat Exchanger 11% Flue Losses3% Radiation Losses 86% Localised generation makes use of waste heat. Reduces conversion losses significantly Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP 61% Flue Losses 36% 26

27 UEAs Combined Heat and Power 3 units each generating up to 1.0 MW electricity and 1.4 MW heat 27

28 28 Conversion efficiency improvements 1997/98 electricitygas oilTotal MWh Emission factorkg/kWh Carbon dioxideTonnes ElectricityHeat 1999/ 2000 Total site CHP generation exportimportboilersCHPoiltotal MWh Emission factor kg/kWh CO 2 Tonnes Before installation After installation This represents a 33% saving in carbon dioxide 28

29 29 Conversion efficiency improvements Load Factor of CHP Plant at UEA Demand for Heat is low in summer: plant cannot be used effectively More electricity could be generated in summer 29

30 A typical Air conditioning/Refrigeration Unit Throttle Valve Condenser Heat rejected Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Compressor 30

31 Absorption Heat Pump Adsorption Heat pump reduces electricity demand and increases electricity generated Throttle Valve Condenser Heat rejected Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Heat from external source W ~ 0 Absorber Desorber Heat Exchanger 31

32 A 1 MW Adsorption chiller 1 MW Reduces electricity demand in summer Increases electricity generated locally Saves ~500 tonnes Carbon Dioxide annually Uses Waste Heat from CHP provides most of chilling requirements in summer 32

33 The Future: Biomass Advanced Gasifier/ Combined Heat and Power Addresses increasing demand for energy as University expands Will provide an extra 1.4MW of electrical energy and 2MWth heat Will have under 7 year payback Will use sustainable local wood fuel mostly from waste from saw mills Will reduce Carbon Emissions of UEA by ~ 25% despite increasing student numbers by 250% 33

34 – ,047 students (239% INCREASE) –138, ,000 sq.m (49% INCREASE) –19, ,652 T of CO 2 (10% INCREASE) – kg/student (53% reduction) – kg/CO 2 /sq.m (25%reduction) 2009 with Biomass in operation –24.5% reduction in CO 2 over 1990 levels despite increases in students and building area –More than 70% reduction in emission per student The Future: Biomass Advanced Gasifier/ Combined Heat and Power 34

35 Low Energy Buildings and their Management Low Carbon Energy Provision –Photovoltaics –CHP –Adsorption chilling –Biomass Gasification Awareness issues Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia 35

36 Target Day Results of the Big Switch-Off With a concerted effort savings of 25% or more are possible How can these be translated into long term savings? 36

37 37 Conclusions Hard Choices face us in the next 20 years Effective adaptive energy management can reduce heating energy requirements in a low energy building by 50% or more. Heavy weight buildings can be used to effectively control energy consumption Photovoltaic cells need to take account of intended use of electricity use in building to get the optimum value. Building scale CHP can reduce carbon emissions significantly Adsorption chilling should be included to ensure optimum utilisation of CHP plant, to reduce electricity demand, and allow increased generation of electricity locally. Promoting Awareness can result in up to 25% savings The Future for UEA: Biomass CHP Wind Turbines? Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading."


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