Activities in the Environmental Department Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Auditing Thermal and Biological Treatment of Oil Base Mud Environmental Monitoring and Measurements SLIDE NO. 3
P E T R O S A F E NORM Measurements NORM Decontamination Environmental Register Environmental Management System Waste Management Plans SLIDE NO. 4 Activities in the Environmental Department
EIA Definition Environmental Impact ; is any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from the organizations activities, products or services. SLIDE NO. 6
P E T R O S A F E EIA Definition Environmental Impact Assessment ; or EIA for short, is a formal study process used to predict the environmental consequences of a proposed major development project. SLIDE NO. 7
P E T R O S A F E EIA Definition An EIA concentrates on Problems, conflicts or natural resources constraints that could affect the validity of a project. SLIDE NO. 8
EIA Main Steps EIA Main Steps Report with Recommendations Report with Recommendations Determination of Mitigation Measures Determination of Mitigation Measures Site Survey & Environmental Survey Site Survey & Environmental Survey Analysis of Results & Prediction of Impacts Analysis of Results & Prediction of Impacts SLIDE NO. 9 P E T R O S A F E
Benefits of EIA More environmentally sustainable design. Better compliance with standards. Savings in capital and operating costs. Reduced time and costs for approvals. Avoids later plant adaptations. Reduced health costs. Increased project acceptance SLIDE NO. 10
Environmental Auditing Environmental auditing Environmental auditing is a systematic review and evaluation of a facility s operations with regard to environment. SLIDE NO. 12
P E T R O S A F E Comply with relevant regulations. Needs to identify environmental risks for minimization or containment. Company reputation. Continual improvement. Environmental Protection. SLIDE NO. 13 Benefits of Environmental Auditing
Indirect Thermal Desorption Indirect Thermal Desorption applies heat to the contaminated soil while isolating the flame from the material. The contaminant vapor is isolated, so it can be recovered, condensed, and recycled, eliminating long- term liability. SLIDE NO. 15
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 16 The cuttings are heated up indirectly in a large diameter, rotating dryer, with the contaminants being vaporized, as the cuttings move forward through the dryer to discharge. Indirect Thermal Desorption
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 17 The vapors are pulled from the dryer and filtered, to remove the dust particulate. Vapors are then condensed to a liquid phase and are processed through an oil/water separation system. Indirect Thermal Desorption
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 18 Recovered water is used to rehydrate the cleaned cuttings while the recovered oil is used in new mud or fuel in the burners. Indirect Thermal Desorption
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 19 Post Treatment (clean) Soil Uses Fill material oilfield pit closures landfills Filler that is used in concrete and cement Blended with stabilization material, then used as a road base
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 20 Post Treatment (clean) Soil Uses Made into bricks for construction projects Value added product / possible sale Fertilized and seeded
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 21 Post Treatment Oil Uses Use as base oil for drilling fluids Send to pipeline for re-use Use in burners to fuel the thermal process
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 22 Post Treatment Oil Uses Fuel for other industrial processes Diesel engine fuel Kilns/ovens Oil/water separators (heater treater) Oil treaters Asphalt plants Steam generation
P E T R O S A F E Benefits of Thermal Desorption Complete remediation and recycling of cuttings eliminates future liability to owner meets or exceeds all discharge criteria The fluid phases can be recovered no measurable degradation recycled into new drilling fluids or, fuel for thermal or other processes
P E T R O S A F E Benefits of Thermal Desorption Mobile units can be operated on location reducing the cuttings storage volume & reducing transportation costs and risks Allows operators to drill with oil base drilling fluid in environmentally sensitive areas Eliminates long-term liability
P E T R O S A F E Biological Treatment of the OBM (Bioremediation) The concept of the bioremediation is similar to that of the indirect thermal treatment. However, the function of the bioremediation depends on exposing the OBM to the action of specific Bacteria digest the oil content in the mud converting it to simpler constitutes which are safe to the environment. SLIDE NO. 25
SLIDE NO. 27 Environmental Monitoring & Measurements Environmental Monitoring Environmental Monitoring is the measurements of air pollutant and waste water effluents, where it defined as the main indicator of the environmental management system and considered as the main help meter to the management review concerning the environment.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 28 Environmental Monitoring & Measurements Environmental monitoring includes measurements for the gas emissions, effluents, waste quantification and disposal, etc.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 29 Air Pollutants Measurements. Working environment measurements Surrounding environment measurements Boilers and combustions equipment exhaust measurements Noise level. Environmental Monitoring & Measurements
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 30 Exhaust Stack Emissions Heat stress Illumination Water Pollutants. Industrial wastewater Domestic wastewater Laboratory Instruments calibration. Environmental Monitoring & Measurements
P E T R O S A F E Benefits of Environmental Monitoring Improving the working and surrounding Improving combustions efficiency Helping the management in tackling the right decision. SLIDE NO. 31
P E T R O S A F E Benefits of Environmental Monitoring Playing main indicator to Environmental Quality. Conserving the energy and fuel consumption Helping the facility to be comply with the environmental laws. SLIDE NO. 32
SLIDE NO. 34 NORM Measurements NORM; or Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials is found almost everywhere. It is found in the air, in the soil, and even in radioactive potassium in our own bodies. It is found in public water supplies and foods.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 35 NORM Measurements The radioactive materials associated with the Oil and Gas industry comes from the radioactive isotopes.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 36 NORM Measurements Uranium and Thorium are highly insoluble and therefore are not removed from the formation during the production process. However, Radium is relatively soluble element and material associated with produced water.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 37 NORM Measurements Radium is often found in significant concentrations in areas where large pressure and temperature changes occur. Specifically: Heat Treaters, Separators, Tubing, Flow Lines, Pumps, Filters, Etc.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 38 NORM Hazards Health risks from exposure to low levels of NORM are low. However, activities involving the extraction, mining, beneficiating, processing, use, transfer, transport, storage, disposal, and/or recycling of NORM-containing or NORM- contaminated materials may increase exposure levels to workers and other individuals to levels of concern.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 39 NORM Hazards Individuals to levels of concern. Radium emits both Gamma wave radiation and Alpha particles radiation. Gamma radiation is a whole body hazard, meaning it can travel great distances and has high penetrating ability.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 40 NORM Hazards Alpha particle emissions are considered to be an internal hazard, meaning the travel distance and penetrating ability of the emitted particles are both very low, however, the alpha particles ability to cause significant damage to cells in soft tissue such as the lungs or stomach lining, are far greater than the hazard from gamma radiation.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 41 NORM Hazards Radium is considered a bone-seeking element, meaning the element Radium often migrates to the major blood producing organs such as the bone marrow. This has resulted in a direct link between chronic Radium exposure and bone cancer, leukemia, and other disorders.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 42 Benefits of NORM Measurements Comply with the Egyptian and International regulations like, the Egyptian law No 4 of the year 1994 concerning protection of the environment, and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP).
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 43 Benefits of NORM Measurements Determine the areas that exceeded the radiation permissible limits, and give the recommendations for avoiding their hazard, and how to decontaminate them in a safe way.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 44 Benefits of NORM Measurements Determine the areas that may exceed the radiation permissible limits in the future, and give the recommendations for keeping them within the safe limits. Increase the efficiency of the workers by increasing the awareness, and assuring safe work environment.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 45 Benefits of NORM Measurements Increase the efficiency of the workers by increasing the awareness, and assuring safe work environment. Decrease health assurance costs, and protect the health of workers from radiation exposure hazard.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 46 Benefits of NORM Measurements Be able to detect the radiation level trend with time by making periodical (NORM) measurements.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 47 Benefits of NORM Measurements Protect the surrounding environment by making periodical (NORM) survey on the surrounding environment to avoid sudden increase in radiation levels which may affect the biological diversity and may lead to environmental catastrophes.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 48 Benefits of NORM Measurements (NORM) measurements leading to a good reputation for the company (the site owner), then a competitive advantage in the market will be developed.
NORM Decontamination Some oil reservoirs may contain alpha particles in the formations layers. These particles, although existing in low levels, they accumulate by time on the internal surfaces of the drilling equipments, pipelines and storage tanks in the form of scales. SLIDE NO. 50
P E T R O S A F E NORM Decontamination These NORM contaminated- equipments become a headache for the companies, particularly in the maintenance periods. So, they obliged to convert them to scrap metal as they value becomes zero. SLIDE NO. 51
P E T R O S A F E NORM Decontamination Level NORM in the accumulated places cannot be guessed which resemble another problem. However, these NORM contaminated equipments may be de-contaminated and safely reused or even sell in a scrap metal form. SLIDE NO. 52
P E T R O S A F E The process of NORM decontamination takes the following stages: Disassembly of the NORM contaminated- equipments and subjecting them to a strong water stream to remove the accumulated radiating scales. Resulting from this stage completely clean and safe equipments. SLIDE NO. 53 NORM Decontamination
P E T R O S A F E The resulting water from the cleaning process which contains the radiating waste pass through a series of filters of pores sizes less that those pf alpha particles. These filters trap the particles and the water passed from the other side clean and can be reused in the cleaning process. SLIDE NO. 54 NORM Decontamination
P E T R O S A F E The problem now is restricted in the filter which contain the radiation waste, this filter is being disposed of by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Agency. SLIDE NO. 55 NORM Decontamination
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 56 Direct economic benefits: Reuse of the NORM decontaminated equipments. Utilization of the old stored equipments by selling them in the form of scrap metal. Benefits of NORM Decontamination
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 57 Increase the awareness and assure the safety of the work environment. Saving money, by saving the expense of medical insurance for workers from the hazards of radiation. Benefits of NORM Decontamination
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 58 Protecting the soil and underground water from contamination by the accumulated equipments which suffer from NORM. Benefits of NORM Decontamination
SLIDE NO. 60 Environmental Register Environmental Register The Environmental Register is the document that an establishment must keep to record the impact of its activities on the environment. In this register, the name of the establishment, its activities, the harmful emissions arising from the establishment must be recorded. Also, the monitoring plan for these emissions which control the periodic measurements for these emissions, sampling and analyses rates and tests results must be included in the register. The environmental register is a mandatory requirement by law No. 4 for the year of 1994, for all industrial enterprise and projects including oil and gas sector projects.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 61 Mandatory requirements by Law No.4/94 Environmental quality logbook. Improving environmental quality. Improving utility and material consumption. Benefits of the Environmental Register
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 62 Helping the management in tackling the right decision. Conserving the energy, fuel, utility, and material consumptions Helping the facility to be comply with the environmental laws. Benefits of the Environmental Register
SLIDE NO. 64 Environmental Management System EMS Environmental Management System, EMS for short, is the part of the overall management system that includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy. Environmental Management System
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 65 Objectives of EMS The main objectives of an EMS are to: Establish a sound environmental policy, Identify and control major environmental impacts, Identify relevant environmental regulatory requirements,
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 66 Objectives of EMS Identify environmental opportunities, Set priorities, determine objectives and work toward their achievement; and Monitor performance and evaluate the effectiveness of the system.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 67 Benefits of EMS Financial benefits: Reduced raw material / resource usage. Reduced energy consumption. Improved process efficiency. Reduced waste generation and disposal costs. Reduced effluent costs. Recoverable resource utilization.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 68 Benefits of EMS Legislative and regulatory advantages: Improved public relations. Assist in the identification of operational cost saving. Can lead to improvement in health and safety at the site.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 69 Benefits of EMS Registration benefits: Improved company profile & credibility. Competitive advantages in the market place. Potentially lower levels of regulatory reporting and/or auditing. Meeting present or future anticipated demands of customers. Employee motivation and pride.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 70 Benefits of EMS Competitive benefit: Company that denoted comprehensive EMS may be complied to the international standards (ISO 14001) which give it competitive border in the market.
SLIDE NO. 72 Waste Management Waste Waste is something that somebody no longer wants or needs and hence wishes to discard. Since there is no away, this means putting that waste someplace out of sight and out of mind, where it will not interfere with the daily living that produces still more waste.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 73 Waste Management Waste management; Waste management; collecting, transporting, recycling and disposing of wastes.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 74 Waste Management Waste disposal; Waste disposal; The process that do not extract or recycle wastes such as composting probing discharge into surface water, biological treatment, physical – chemical treatment, permanent storage or incineration.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 75 Types of Waste Waste has a lot of types according to how it is classified. Waste can be classified into categories regarding the following aspects: Phase Phase: waste may be gas, liquid & solid. Degree of hazard Degree of hazard: waste is either hazardous or non-hazardous.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 76 Types of Waste Source Source: waste may be Industrial or municipal; and Segregation Segregation: waste may be reusable, recoverable and/or disposable.
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 77 Waste Management Hierarchy 4Rs A sound approach to bring about effective minimization is by applying the rule of the 4Rs R educe, R euse, R ecycle, R ecover
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 78 Reducemeans reduction at source. It can be achieved by either generating less waste through more efficient practices or by replacing hazardous materials with benign or less harmful materials thus improving the quality of waste. Waste Management Hierarchy
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 79 Reusemeans re-using materials in their original forms; such as chemical containers which may be used for water. Waste Management Hierarchy
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 80 Recyclemeans converting waste back into a usable materials; examples are made for solvents and batteries Waste Management Hierarchy
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 81 Recovermeans extracting materials or energy from waste for other uses; such as vapor recovery systems. Waste Management Hierarchy
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 82 Comply with the environment law 4/94. Disposal of hazardous waste. Environment Conservation. Waste Management Hierarchy
P E T R O S A F E SLIDE NO. 83 Utilization of waste by reuse, and saving the natural resources. Comply with the requirements of ISO 14001/9001. Waste Management Hierarchy