2Table of Contents What is it electrical energy? Electrical energy from the EarthElectrical energy from waterElectrical energy from fireElectrical energy from airElectric Power in PodkarpacieFriendly and less friendly ways of obtaining electrical energy from the elementsExample of electrical energy from the elements in TarnobrzegTrivia
3What is it electrical energy? Electrical energy - it kind of energy, which can readily be converted to other types of energy using appliances.Energy electrical current:E=UItU - tension electrical currentI - intensity electrical currentt - flow time electrical currentE- energy electrical current
4Electrical energy from the Earth Electrical energy can be caused by processing of nuclear energy (nuclear).
5Nuclear energyNuclear energy – part of the binding energy of atomic nuclei in the process of liberating the fission of heavy nuclei and the merger (fusion) of light nuclei.Formula for energy :E=mc2
6Nuclear power stationNuclear power station– the object of industry and energy (heat and power plant), producing electricity by using energy from fission of nuclei of atoms, mostly of uranium (natural uranium or slightly enriched in the isotope U-235), in which heat is necessary to obtain the pair, is obtained from nuclear reactor.
7Construction of nuclear power station The general principle of a nuclear power plant (for example, circulation PWR):In a nuclear reactor by the reaction of fission of atomic nuclei emit large amounts of heat that is picked up by a working medium (usually water under high pressure in the so-called primary circuit - PWR and WWER reactors). Factor flows to the steam generator, which supplies heat to the boiling water re-circulation of a lower pressure, and then returns to reactor. Water vapor (steam wet, which is dried before reaching the turbine - the water molecules in a pair of wet, high pressure turbine have destroyed, so first couple passes wet from the steam generator systems drying before it reaches the turbine) then drives the steam turbine combined generator. Separation of circuits is more secure in case of leakage from the steam turbine.
8Nuclear power station in Poland In Poland hasn’t nuclear power plants, the only operating nuclear reactor is a research reactor, Maria, now managed by the Institute of Atomic Energy.Unfinished main building power Żarnowiec
9PetroleumPetroleum (rock oil, black gold) - liquid fossil, consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons of natural gas, liquid and solid (bitumen), with minor additions of nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and impurities. Has a fundamental significance for the world economy as a raw material of chemical industry, especially as one of the most important energy resources.
10Electrical energy from water Electrical energy from water is given by:water wheelswater power stationwater turbines
11Water wheelsWater wheels - circle with a circumference of the blades or divisions, raised a force of water pressure, water turbines predecessor. Frequently used to drive water mills and tools used for example in mills or forges.Skansen exhibit steam engines and locomotives at the mine in the historic Tarnowskie Góry
12Water wheels Nadsiębierne Śródsiębierne Podsiębierne uses the potential energy of waterfor maximum productivityŚródsiębierneuses the potential energy and kinetic waterPodsiębierneuses the kinetic energy of water
13Water power station Small Big Power below 5 MW Unconventional, renewable and clean resource1 GW power reachingConventional energy sources
14Water power stationPower Station Flowproduces the plantPower Station Pumped Storagestores electrical energyThe first hydropower plant was built in 1882 in Appleton (two years after the demonstration of electric light by Thomas Alva Edison)
15Water power station in Poland Currently, Poland is using its hydropower resources, only 12%, representing 7.3% of installed capacity in the national power system. Norwegians get the energy drop of 98% water for electricity.
16Water power station in Włocławek The beginnings of a hydropower plant Włocławek year , to build a dam in Włocławek. Power passed successively through different organizational forms under: Department of Energy in Toruń as a structure called the Water Power Station in Włocławek, since June ENERGA Hydropower Plant Company o.o. in Straszyn (Currently ENERGA Power Straszyn)Water power station in Włocławek
17DamAfter the construction of barrage and the entire plant operation in 1970, the dam is scheduled for 10 years. At that time in the lower reaches of the Vistula River were built another dam (hydro).Water Dam in Włocławek
18SCHEME OF POWER WATER PRZYZAPOROWEJ PRZEPŁYWOWEJ
19Water turbinesWater Turbine (turbine hydraulic) - water processing engine mechanical energy of water into rotation with the rotor blades. Used mainly in hydroelectric power plants to drive generators. This includes: hydrodynamic engines, engine flow.
22Principles of operation individual water turbines Equity turbineIn equity turbine energy of water pressure at the inlet to turbine is converted to energy in the jet velocity, which then is transferred to the rotor, where a conversion of kinetic energy to mechanical energy of water.Reaction turbineIn reaction turbine water pressure at the inlet to the turbine turn the steering wheel is only a certain part of the speed. The rotor followed by pressure reduction and speed associated with replacing the energy pressure and energy kinetic water energy into mechanical energy.
23Electrical energy from fire Distribution of solar globe, taking into account the impact of Earth's atmosphereElectrical energy from fire can be produced using solar energy.Solar Power - a branch of industry, dealing with the use of solar energy is already counted as renewable energy sources.
24Solar radiationFor the solar radiation reaching the Earth spectrally similar to the blackbody radiation at a temperature of about 5700 K. Before entering into the atmosphere radiation power is equal to 1367 W / m² perpendicular to solar radiation. Part of this energy is reflected and absorbed by the atmosphere, the Earth's surface on a sunny day it reaches about 1000 W / m².
25Methods for conversion of solar radiation Photovoltaic cellApplication of photovoltaic cellsPolymer LinksConversion fototermical
26Photovoltaic cellPhotovoltaic cell (or photovoltaics, solar, or solar cell) is a device for direct conversion of solar energy into electricity, through the use of semiconductor pn-type connectors, which under the influence of photons of energy greater than the width of the interruption of semiconductors, electrons move to area n, and holes (charge carriers) to the area Mr The displacement of electric charge causes the appearance of potential difference, or voltage.The most sunny places in Poland
27Application of photovoltaic cells Solar cells can be a cheap source of energy for low-power portable devices: calculators, clocks and lamps (equipped with a rechargeable energy storage accumulated during the day). They are also indispensable in space, because any other way would require the generation of transport fuels, and solar energy is constantly available.
28In some places in the world, photovoltaic cells are used to power telephones, and motion-activated cameras and measuring devices.In the caravan, putting photovoltaic panel on the roof camper van allows you to recharge the battery power, despite the use of energy from his receivers, such as portable radios or TVs. Similarly, the photovoltaic cells used in sailing where battery power is required for navigational and radio communications.
29Polymer LinksWork on this method of production such as solar panels ran New Jersey Institute of Technology. These cells consist of nanotubes, then they are covered with a protective layer.
30Conversion fototermical Conversion fototermical is the direct conversion of solar energy radiation to energy heat.
31Conversion fototermical Passivethe possible flow of heat carrier is only by convectionActivepowered pumps are used for additional energy sources
32Conversion fototermical passive is mainly used in small installations such as the passive heating of buildingsConversion fototermical enabled is mainly used to heat water. Popular applications are both detached houses and large facilities providing hot water to multifamily buildings, districts or towns.
33Electrical energy from air Electrical energy from air we can generate using wind energyWind energy is one of the renewable energy sources. Currently used wind turbines convert it into mechanical energy, which further is converted to electricity.Wind energy is dependent on its velocity v in the third power and thus locations for wind energy are selected carefully for the incidence of severe (7-20 m / s) winds.
34Wind energy, we obtain with WindmillsWind motors
35WindmillsWindmill - oldest wind motors . Wind energy converts into kinetic energy of rotation.Windmill in Lednogórze at route Poznan - Gniezno
36The entire mill was built of wood, and mostly covered with shingles outside. Windmill Kozłowy had three floors - the bottom was occupied by stabilizing the structure goat, and two were higher for the production of flour. Shingled walls initially did not extend nearly to the ground and visible from afar revealed the buck.Schematic diagram of the internal fan
37Wind motorsThey are designed to process the kinetic energy of wind to mechanical energy, which is then used to generate electricity.Wind motorsVertical axis turbinesHorizontal axis turbines
38Wind motors The wind turbine is equipped with such in: impeller (rotor), which translates the energy of wind energy into mechanical energy.generator - using the supplied mechanical energy to generate electricity and transmit it to the network.Wind motorsSpeedhave less starting torque of the motor coaster, are equipped with 1-3 blades. Can achieve high aerodynamic efficiency.Low-speedThey are characterized by a high torque to boot and blades from 12 to 40Middle-speedhave blades 4-7
39Wind motor diagramHere form the rotor blades, the hub through which are embedded in the shaft. Shaft turns in bearings contained in a casing, which houses a gear drive for transferring the vertical shaft. This shaft drives the machine working normally generator, is often placed at the bottom. Together with the shaft and the rotor is mounted directional rudder. It provides a setting to the engine, "the wind", so that the rotor plane is perpendicular to the wind speed through the revolving rotor and casing clamping against the tower.Rotor bladeRudder area codeShaftHousingVertical ShaftWind motor diagram
40Electric Power in Podkarpacie Power Plant MielecPower Plant RzeszówHydropower Team Solina-MyczkowcePower station Stalowa Wola
41Power Plant MielecPower Plant Mielec Sp z o.o. to power plant located in Mielec in Podkarpackie province in the Special Economic Zone EURO-PARK Mielec.Currently, power plant supplies heat and electricity mainly for the city of Mielec and local industry.Power Plant in Mielec
42Technical Data POWER PLANT mielec Power Plant Mielec is licensed URE to :heat production,transmission and distribution of heat,electricity generation.EC Mielec now has :the total installed thermal power - 228,5 MWt,total installed electrical power - 30,44 MWe,
43Power Plant RzeszówPower Plant Rzeszów S.A. - major producer of heat and Electrotechnical for the city of Rzeszów and its environs. Public Limited Company since 1 January Currently (2009) PGE Rzeszów SA, owned by PGEPower plant in Rzeszów
44Hydropower Team Solina-Myczkowce Hydropower team Solina-Myczkowce S.A. a team of two hydroelectric power stations on artificial water reservoirs on the river in the municipality of San Solina in Podkarpackie province. These are Power station Solina (49°23'44″N 22°27'13″E) and Power station Myczkowce (49°25'52″N 22°24'30″E).Dam power station in Solina
45Technical Data Hydropower Solina-Myczkowce In fall Hydropower team Solina-Myczkowce composition :Tank Top –Lake SolińskieHydroelectric SolinaZbiornik dolny - Lake MyczkowieckieHydroelectric Myczkowce
46Power station Stalowa Wola Technical DataPower station Stalowa Wola has a maximum production capacity 450 MW of electricity and 875 MW capacity. According to the concession of the President of URE, the total electric power attainable is 341 MW and total power of 341 MW thermal attainable.Power station in Stalowa Wola
47of obtaining electrical energy from the elements Friendly and less friendly waysof obtaining electrical energy from the elementsFriendly:renewable energy sourcesLess friendly:coal combustionpetroleumnuclear energy (already mentioned)burning of fossil fuels
48Renewable energy sources Renewable energy sources are energy sources, whose use is not associated with their long-term deficit - the resource renews in a short time.The most important renewable energy is a drop of water. Other renewable sources include:solar power (mentioned earlier),wind energy (already mentioned)biomass,biogas,geothermal energy ,hydropower.Renewable energy should not be confused with energy environmentally friendly because its production facilities may (but need not) cause environmental damage.
49Biomass or the entire biosphere. Biomass - mass of matter contained in the organisms. Biomass is given in relation to the surface (per square meter or kilometer) or volume (eg in the aquatic environment - per cubic meter). Biomass is expressed in terms of fresh weight (living organisms or natural mass of living organisms) and dry mass (weight of living organisms after drying or evaporation of water). Biomass is expressed in units of weight (eg gram or kilogram) and also in terms of organic carbon, or in units of energy (calorie, joule). Measurement of biomass can calculate the biological production (see productivity) of the individual units of biological organization: individual, population, biocenosis ecosystem, biomor the entire biosphere.
50timber of low technological quality and waste animal faeces sludge Through photosynthesis solar energy is accumulated in the biomass, plant organisms initially, and later in the food chain and animal. Energy contained in the biomass can be used for human purposes. This involves the processing of other forms of energy by biomass burning or incineration of its degradation products. As a result of heat of combustion is obtained, which can be processed into other forms of energy such as electricity. For the purposes of energy is used most often :timber of low technological quality and wasteanimal faecessludgestraw, oil cake and other wastes of agricultural productionseaweed grown specifically for energy purposesorganic waste such as beet pulp, corn stalks, grass, alfalfavegetable oils and animal fats.
51esterification – biodiesel. Biomass energy is achieved inter alia through :gasification - producer gas (mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) resulting from gasification of biomass in closed reactors (so-called gazogeneratorach) - it is burned in a boiler or directly drives a gas turbine or internal combustion engine can also be a raw material for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.by fermentation of biomass derived biogas, methanol, ethanol, butanol and other compounds that can be used as fuel.esterification – biodiesel.
52BiogasBiogas, landfill gas - a combustible gas, the product of anaerobic fermentation of organic compounds (eg sewage, including waste water, sugar, municipal waste, manure, slurry, waste, agri-food industry, biomass) and partly also to their decay resulting in a biogas plant . As a result of combustion of biogas formed contrary beliefs as much nitrogen oxides, which in case of combustion of fossil fuels.
53Composition of biogasThe crude biogas consists of approximately 65% (between 50-75%) of methane and 35% of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas admixture (such as hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide), its calorific value ranges from 1917 to 1927 MJ / m3 (megajoules per cubic meter of biogas, in normal conditions, ie 0 ° C and 105 Pa), depending mainly on the content of methane.Composition of biogasComponent %methane, CH455-75carbon dioxide, CO225-45nitrogen, N20-0,3hydrogen, H21-5hydrogen sulphide, H2S0-3oxygen, O20,1-0,5
54BIOGAS PRODUCTION METHODS At the landfill biogas is produced automatically, hence the name of landfill gas.Biogas also arises naturally eg peat bogs (mainly cellulose), we call it when gas or gas rotting mud.
55Using biogas Biogas in Poland Biogas is widely used: it is used mainly in India, China, Switzerland, France, Germany and the United States as fuel for electric generators (with 100m ³ of biogas can produce approximately kWh of electricity), as an energy source for heating water, and after purification and compression as fuel for the propulsion engines (CNG).Biogas in PolandUntil 2013, Poland plans to produce a biogas including mld3 for heating buildings. According to Ministry of Agriculture to implement these measures will improve energy security and the environment.
56Geothermal energyGeothermal energy - a type of renewable energy sources. It is based on the use of thermal energy of the interior, particularly in the areas of volcanic and seismic activity. Runoff water infiltrates into the ground, where in contact with the young or active outbreaks intruzjami magma, heats up to substantial temperatures. As a result of that goes to the earth's surface as hot water or steam.
57Geothermal energyGeothermal energy is the energy extracted to the surface geothermal waters. This energy includes renewable energy, because its source - the hot interior of the globe - is virtually inexhaustible. In order to extract geothermal waters to the surface drilling done to a depth of water retention.At some distance from the hole czerpalnego performed the second hole, where the geothermal water after receiving the heat from it, is injected back into the reservoir. Geothermal waters are usually heavily salted, it is a reason for a particularly difficult working conditions, heat exchangers, valves and other components, geothermal.
58Geothermal energy is used for central heating as the primary source of heat. The second use of geothermal energy is the production of electricity. Is worthwhile only in cases of particularly hot sources. The threat posed by the production of geothermal energy is a pollution of groundwater, the release of radon, hydrogen sulphide and other gases.The hot springs so-called Geysers are a characteristic element of the landscape of Iceland, which uses them as a source of heating and hot water. This does not affect negatively on the environment.
59Geothermal energy in Poland Poland has a very good conditions for geothermal, since 80% of the country is covered by three provinces geothermal: centralnoeuropejską, przedkarpacką and Carpathian. The water temperature for these areas ranged from ° C (locally up to 200 ° C), and the depth of the sedimentary rocks from 1 to 10 km. The natural flow is very rare (Sudetes - Teplice, Ladek Spa). The possibility of using geothermal water concern 40% of the country (mining is profitable only if the depth of 2 km the temperature reaches 65 ° C, salinity does not exceed 30 g / if the source is adequate performance.)
60Currently operating in eight Polish geothermal district heating companies: Bańska NiżnaPyrzyceStargard SzczecińskiMszczonówUniejówSłomnikiLasekKlikuszowa
61Energy waterEnergy water – used economically mechanical energy of flowing water. Today, hydropower is usually processed into electrical energy (hydropower, often based on the resulting spiętrzeniach zaporom water). It can also be used directly to drive machines - there are many solutions, in which flowing water drives a turbine or water wheel.
62Types of renewable energy water The kinetic energy of sea currentsTidal powerEnergy wave
63The kinetic energy of sea currents The power of sea currents is estimated at 7 TW (it is almost two times more than the power possible to receive from the estate of inland waters). However, its use is close to zero due to technical problems and concerns before the disturbance of natural balance. Many researchers believe that ocean currents are fundamental to the climate and the depletion of their energy, though small, could lead to unpredictable climate change.
64Tidal powerTides are the source of lower potential energy (it is estimated that it is possible to use the 200 GW) than ocean currents, but it is safer and better they met. The first tidal power plant built in 1967, the French in Saint-Malo. This station has a maximum power of 550 MW and operates from 4 to 8 hours a day, producing an average of 600 GWh of electricity annually. Currently, such plants are also in Russia and Britain, but none of them currently (January 2007) does not work on an industrial scale due to technical problems and the danger of storms and hurricanes.
65Energy waveWave power is estimated at 3 TW, but the use of this energy causes some difficulties, although many of the theoretical methods for converting wave energy into electricity. The biggest problem is the variability of wave height and strength of the plant.
66The most important ways of converting wave energy into electrical inductive power plants - use the movement of floats to generate electricity by using moving coils with floats in a magnetic fieldmechanical power plants - which use buoyancy to move perpendicular to the floor, causing the rotation of the rotor connected to the generatorhydraulic power - in which the immovable wall of the tank overflow, only the peaks of the waves, and the water flowing from the tank drives a turbinepneumatic power– waves stimulate movement of air in them, which drives a turbine
67Coal combustionCoal burning is the most common way of obtaining energy. This is the cheapest way, but the most to contribute to environmental pollution. Its combustion leads to excessive pollution, contamination of the ecosystem, including groundwater and soil itself. Mere coal burning causes carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere, which in turn leads to the so-called. greenhouse effect, which leads to severe climate change on our planet. Another harmful effect, is also a way of extracting coal that is mined by people. His exploration leads to the creation of these various diseases, of which pneumoconiosis is the most dangerous.
68PetroleumAt its base are created all the liquid fuel to propel various types of internal combustion engines. But this is a very dangerous material to the environment. Often there are sad disaster, the transportation of natural gas. These disasters lead to contamination of the environment and often to the death of many animals. Its operation is carried out on a large scale, which is forced a huge global demand. But this will not drag on forever. Crude oil man out only a hundred years, and already it is estimated that for about 30 years, it may completely fail.
69Burning of fossil fuels Burning fossil fuels has a major impact on our environment, adverse effects. It is impossible not to draw attention to such a great problem which are products of fuel combustion, because it concerns us all. For these products include: gas containing fly ash (dust), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and dioxide, slag from the boilers, waste and waste water from flue gas desulphurization system. During the process of combustion of fossil fuels also comes the release of such elements as whether the circuit boards. In addition, coal is used in Poland is considered to be particularly burdensome to the fuel environment.
70Air pollution affects human health, wildlife alive, climate, water and soil. The degree of harmfulness of pollutants determines their nature, concentration and dwell time. Gaseous and particulate air pollution increases the incidence of respiratory diseases and forest dieback, and substantial economic losses. In addition to the burning of fossil fuels causes global warming and pollution by sulfur compounds, nitrogen and dust.Another side-effect of coal combustion is the emission of large quantities of fly ash, which emerge from the chimneys of furnaces. They not only pollute the environment, but also damage the heating equipment. Mineral particles contained in the ashes go along with them through the steel boiler tubes.
71Example electrical energy of the elements in Tarnobrzeg Solar collectors
72Solar collectorsThe solar collectors are installed elements that mediate the conversion of solar energy in heat. Intermediary factor in the exchange of heat may be air or liquid, which involves the distribution of collectors on the air (rarely used because of the low efficiency of heat exchange) and the liquid.
73Breakdown of solar collectors Breakdown of liquid collectors due to constructionflat - they have the simplest structure - consists of an absorber of sunlight and connected to the copper tube through which fluid receives heat from the absorber, the whole is enclosed in an insulated housingvacuum - may be to direct the flow of working medium or with heat pipes
74The principle of working solar collector Measure the collector is as follows:The sun heats the collector placed in the absorber, which absorbs sunlight and converts it into heat. The effectiveness of absorption depends on the absorber. Plain, black absorber large part of the radiation is reflected. Better is called. selective absorber - it absorbs 95% of the radiation incident on it.Since the absorber is heated heating agent (which may be liquid water or freeze), which flows through the collector.Heated fluid flows into the tray.There it gives off the heat heated water utility, located in the tray, and cooled back to affect the drain.
75Trivia The oldest power station in Poland The youngest power station in PolandPower PlantPower station
76The oldest power station in Poland FC Power Plant Zabrze is located in Silesia Province.The beginnings of a power plant construction begun by AEG in 1896, owned since 1900 Schlesische Elektrizitäts und Gas Aktien Gesellschaft. Nationalized after the war, from July 1, 1990 as a state power in Zabrze. November 9, 1993 was converted into a state power plant Zabrze located in Zabrze a sole joint-stock company called the Treasury and Power Joint Stock Company FC.
77Specifications Power Plant Zabrze Parameters of power generation equipment are:achievable thermal power 475 MWachievable thermal power 254 MW combinedElectricity generation capacity is 106 MW turbineattainable electrical power 98 MWtotal power rating of 139 MW boiler waterattainable total power steam boilers 374 MWrated output of steam boilers 520 t / hachievable performance of steam boilers 560 t / h
78The youngest power station in Poland Power in Polaniec (Power Połaniec SA - Electrabel Group), Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship Vistula River, about 100 km from Krakow, with an installed power of 1800 MW, is the fifth largest energy producer in Poland. Design work on this year celebrates the 25th anniversary of the plant began in the 70s Twentieth century, in 1979 the first block was put into operation. She is currently working eight power units, and 225 MW each. Power is in Polaniec conventional steam power plant that uses coal. Is the youngest and the first privatized power plant in Poland - privatization agreement signed in 2000.
79Power PlantPower Plant - an industrial plant producing a single technological process in a manner associated electricity and heat in a medium (usually water) at a high temperature for the district heating system or industry.CHP is the most conventional thermal power plants with extraction-condensing steam turbine and the extraction-przeciwprężnymi. Both types of turbines are equipped with heating discounts, which supplies superheated steam heat exchangers heat water instantly giving network utilities supplied to the installation of central heating (a) and hot water (DHW).
80Example scheme of power plant Scheme of Power Plant Zakrzów
81Power stationPower - an industrial plant producing electricity by the processing of other types of energy.Breakdown because of the use of waste heat:condensing power plantCHPBreakdown due to the primary energy source:thermal power stationNPPHydropumped storagesolar power plantWindpower maretermicznapower maremotorycznageothermal power plant