2 ZYDEX COMMITMENTS TO GREEN EARTH Eco- Production technologiesEco-products - Specialty polymers & chemicals
3 WHY ARE WE HERE & WHY THIS TECHNOLOGY Global WarmingEstimated 150 million ton heavy fuel burn / yearRise in CO2 emissions - Green house effectPollution – carbon particulate matter, CO, NOx, SO3, etcEnvironment : Weather ChangesMelting of ice caps / thinning of glaciersExtreme conditions (flood / hurricanes / draught)Kyoto Protocol160 countries pledged to reduce CO2 levelReduction of 5.2% from level in 1990 by 2010Leads to Carbon trading / CDM technologies
4 RECENT SCENARIO ON GREEEN HOUSE LEVEL (data from “NEW SCIENTIST” (10 Nov 2005)Growth Rate of CO2 level: 0.8% / year: 3.2 % / year (400 % rise in just last 5 year)China Position1990 : Very low & reduced level2005 : Became the 2nd largest emitter of green house gases after U.S.A.With same rising trendsBy 2009 China will be world’s top emitterOther developing countries India & Brazil - also fast becoming large emittersNew Technology will surely help worldMaintaining global leadership in manufacturing facilities(by economizing the production cost )Reducing & Maintaining its level of green house gassesThus help in achieving GLOBAL ECONOMY & BETTER ENVIRONMENT
5 ZYCRYL - 15 & ZYCRYL - 20 INTROCUCTION To follow Kyoto Protocol & in view of consequences of Global Warming5- 10 % saving would lead toSaved burning of 7.5 – 15 million tons of fuelReduced CO2 level by million tons / yearEven a small efforts will bring big resultsThis was the starting point for the development ofZYCRYL - 15 & ZYCRYL - 20
6 ZYCRYL-15 (Patented) A New generation Fuel Efficiency Enhancer For Furnace Oil , Heavy / Residual Fuel Oil, Bunker FuelF E A T U R E SImproves combustion efficiency of fuel oilEnsures 8-10% Fuel SavingBy adding % water as stable micron size emulsion in Fuel OilUsing low shear / pressure emulsification techniqueAt low capital investment ( $ 500 – 1000 ) .
8 ATOMIZATION PROCESS IN INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION At bar pressure pumping, burner atomizer producesa spray of fuel, resulting droplets size 100 to 200 microns (approx.) depending on the followingFuel ViscosityTemperatureAtomizer design
9 COMBUSTION REACTION Petroleum Fuel contains chiefly Carbon & Hydrogen (small quantity Sulfur)Complete combustions givesFuel Oil Air(C H S) (O2 + N2)CO2 + H2O + SO2 +N2 + Heat EnergyBut large droplet size of the fuel oil leads to Incomplete combustionHow ?
10 INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION PROCESS HEATInitial size micronFUELDROPLETHEATHEATHEAT
11 INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION PROCESS Final unburnst particleHEATHEATHEATHEAT
12 HOW & WHY ? Large size droplets have low surface area Results Burning will starts at outer surface of fuel dropInitially only low boiling fraction will burnContinual depletion of this lower viscosity fraction increases the droplet viscosity This leads to the formation of some fine very hard, difficult to burn particleResultsSoot formation (Un-burnt fuel particle)Black smokeHigher SPMHigh Carbon deposit buildup around burner nozzle & heat transfer surfaceIncomplete combustion also leads toCO : Indicates low heat energy releaseHigh SO3, : Corrosion due to acid formationHigh NOx : Environmental problem
13 LOSS IN ENERGY GENERATION (1st Step ) C + O → CO ,430 K cal / kg. of Carbon(2nd Step) CO + O → CO ,654 K cal / kg. of CarbonTotal C O2 → CO ,084 K cal / kg. of CarbonComplete combustion : both the steps take placeC + O2 → CO ,084 K cal / kg. of CarbonIncomplete combustion : only Step-1 takes placeC + O → CO ,430 K cal / kg. of CarbonLoss of energy from II step means ~ K cal/ kg of carbon
14 HOW TO IMPROVE COMBUSTION ? Reduce the particle size of fuel oilEither by Reduce Surface Tension – Add Wetting AgentOr by Secondary Atomization – Thru Emulsion TechnologyIn surface tension reductionAdding wetting agentMaximum reduction possible from microns to micronsResults in Saving (increase in efficiency ) upto % onlyIdeal option-Secondary atomization through water emulsionAdopt Emulsion TechnologyInduce explosive vaporizationResults in fragmentation of larger fuel droplet.15 – 20 micron particle size
15 SECONDARY ATOMIZATION through CONVENTIONAL EmulsifierThese areLow molecular weight surfactantPoor surface stabilityLeads to premature burst non- uniform / large size dropletsSaving Fuels ( efficiency increase) are not much (2 -3 % )Next generation polymersto overcome above problem of interface stability10 time reduction of particle size to increase combustion
16 ZYCRYL-15 A Novel Polymer composition Helps in making very stable emulsion (1-2 years)8-12% fuel savings at low capital investmentAdvantage of polymer based interface filmForms a viscous & polymeric interface film (oil/water interface)The interface film has better elasticity / stretchingBetter tolerance to expansion of particleBetter interface stabilityNo premature burst of oil dropletUniform & smaller size particleBetter enhancement of efficiency /saving ( 8-12%)
17 PROCESS OF COMPLETE COMBUSTION WITH ZYCRYL-15 EMULSION Oil droplet size100 micronsOil droplet size15-20 micronsWaterdropletWater-Oil emulsionBelow 100 degree C.Water-Oil emulsion100 – 250 degree C.
18 HOW THIS EMULSION HELPS By inducing SECONDARY ATOMIZATIONThis Emulsion is 5-6 % water content in fuel oil with uniform particle sizeFuel droplet size to 200 micronWater droplet size - 4 to 6 micron (inside fuel droplet)This emulsified fuel droplets, due to high temperature zone inside the furnace /boiler, convert within micro-second in to steam vapor.Rapid expansion of water vapor within Fuel droplet results in the burst / fragmentation of micron in to very small size particles (around micron).Larger surface area large air interface better combustion enhanced efficiencySmaller the particle - Burning more rapidly in smaller areaReduction in flame length.
19 COMBUSTION WITHOUT ZYCRYL-15 Revised diagram of Furnaceshowing particle incomplete combustion
20 Shorter burnout dwell time COMBUSTION WITH ZYCRYL-15Revised diagram of Furnaceshowing particle complete combustionLow stack temperatureNoSootShorter burnout dwell timePre-atomized fuel
21 NOVEL PROPERTIES OF EMULSION WITH ZYCRYL-15 Conventional surfactant vs Polymeric compositionsBetter & uniform SECONDARY ATOMISATIONViscous , elastic , expandable polymeric interface filmBetter interface stability No premature burst of oil dropletUniform & smaller size particleMuch better enhancement of efficiency /saving ( 8-12%)Easy emulsification Lower shear Low power Low capital investmentStable emulsion Emulsion is stable for 1-2 yearsShort flame - how it helpsHigher flame temperature ( same fuel burnt in smaller area )Majority of heat transfer is through radiation,It is substantially improved due to T4 dependence of radiation heat transfer
22 WHAT IS HAPPENING EXACTLY Explosive vaporization of water droplets leads to the reduction in size of fuel particles. Combustion results inFlame length Reduced & become sharpHeat transfer due to radiant heat will be higher than convection /conduction heat transferReduced stack temperatureAlmost elimination of CO generation.Substantially reduced deposits of Carbon buildup on burner frequency of cleaning reduced & also cleaner heat transfer surfaces.Practically eliminates the black smoke.Reduction in air to fuel ratio.Reduces SO3 concentration.Improves CO2 generation i.e. efficient burning.All these give 8-12% average saving & efficiency improvement at low capital investment.
23 HOW TO SET UP PLANT PFD For emulsion preparation using Zycryl-15 RETURN LINESuggested RatioMaking EmulsionFO(49) : Water(49) : Zycryl-15 (2)Mixing EmulsionF.O (88-90) : EMULSION (10-12)WATERLINEEMULSIONMAKINGTANKMAINSTORAGETANKFORMIXING &New lines (Red color)Existing line (Black color)V3V2V1V5PV6V4PUMP TO BURNER / BOILER /FURNACE DIRECTLYTHROUGH DAY TANKDuplex FiltermeshFOR TANKER UNLOADPUMP– Gear Pump, 5-6 kg pressure, Capacity time of Emulsion volume per hour
24 MAKE & MIX EMULSION Emulsion preparation using Zycryl-15 Take 49 kg. heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) at OC and 2 kg. Zycryl-15Mix (re-circulate) for 5 minutes with the help of gear pumpRecirculation flow (Pump capacity ) should ensure entire emulsion volume rotation (turning) at least time per hourAdd 49 kg. water (of ambient temperature) slowly over a period (minimum 90 minutesAfter complete addition of water, continue mixing further for 30 minutesTest for emulsion (mechanical stability etc)The emulsion is now ready to be mixed with FO (to be mixed with main FO)Transfer a pre-calculated quantity of emulsion to the Main storage tank / day tank .(Mixing ratio- 10 part of emulsion with 90 part FO)Mix it properly. This final mixed (emulsified FO) is now ready to be fed to the burner
25 CONCLUSION Eco friendly ZYCRYL-15 increases your profit level and helps in reducing pollution & global warming