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PM 10 AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION (ARI) AMONG CHILDREN IN KLANG VALLEY : GIS MAPPING 1 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty.

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Presentation on theme: "PM 10 AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION (ARI) AMONG CHILDREN IN KLANG VALLEY : GIS MAPPING 1 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty."— Presentation transcript:

1 PM 10 AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION (ARI) AMONG CHILDREN IN KLANG VALLEY : GIS MAPPING 1 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UPM 2 School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, UKM 3 Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environment Studies, UPM 4 Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Siti Rahmah A. R. 1, Sharifah Norkhadijah S. I. 1, Muhammad Firuz R. 2, Mohd Talib L. 3, Mazrura S. 4

2 INTRODUCTION Rapid urban population growth and physical development has given significant pressure to the environment. 2 Worsened air pollution Source: Department of Statistic, Malaysia 2010

3 3 Source: Malaysia Air Pollution Index and Environmental Quality Report 2010

4 4 Source: The Acute Respiratory Infection Atlas, First Edition 2010

5 5

6 AIR POLLUTION INDEX INDEXCOLOR CODECATEGORY 0-50GOOD MODERATE UNHEALTHY VERY UNHEALTHY 301HAZARDOUS 6

7 7 Source: Environmental Quality Report 2010 Source of Ozone: - industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical Source of CO: - incomplete combustion like cigarette smoking and car exhausts Source of NO2: - Motor vehicles exhaust, electric utilities and industrial boilers Source of SO2: - Generation of electricity from coal, oil or gas that contain sulphur, fuel combustion Source of PM10: - bushfires, unpaved roads, motor vehicles emission, industrial process

8 Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) Particles smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), can travel deeper into the lungs. Particles, which are between 2.5 and 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5-PM10),

9 OBJECTIVE To determine distribution pattern of PM 10 and ARI among children age between 0 to 14 years old in Klang Valley.

10 Data analysis 10 Air pollution data with the coordinate of each monitoring station will be input in the GIS software to build a pattern of air pollution These two pattern will be overlaid to explore the association between ARI and PM 10. ARI data with the coordinate will be input in the GIS software to build a pattern of ARI cases

11 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

12 PM 10 concentration with ARI cases in 2007

13 PM 10 concentration with ARI cases in 2008

14 PM 10 concentration with ARI cases in 2009

15 PM 10 concentration with ARI cases in 2010

16 Annual mean of PM 10 concentration and ARI cases

17 CONCLUSION Highest PM10 was observed in Klang. High PM10 can increase ARI incidence. Integrated usage of geostatistical methods, and spatial analysis can introduce valuable information to identify, visualize and explore the relationship between incidence on ARI and environmental pollution.

18 STUDY LIMITATION Limited air quality station numbers in Klang Valley to get more accurate data in certain places. ARI data may not cover other respiratory registry in some private health sector.

19 REFERENCES Statistics, D. o. (2012). Economic Census Malaysia: Department of Statistics. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (2006). Childrens Environmental Health: 2006 Report. United States: Environmental Protection Agency Environment, D. o. (2010). Malaysia Environmental Quality Report Malaysia: Department of Environment. Wong, S. L., Hussain, I. M. I. (2008). A Study on Under Five Deaths In Malaysia in the Year Clinical Research Centre. Leh, O. L. H., Shaharuddin, A., Kadaruddin, A., Yaakob, M. J., Hwa, T. K., (2011). Urban environmental health: Respiratory illness and urban factors in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Asia 4(1), The Acute Respiratory Infection Atlas, First Edition 2010 Zailina, H., Juliana, J., Jamal, H. H. (2004). Comparison of Lung Functions Among Asthmatic Children in Malaysia. Pertanika J. Sci. & Techno. 12(1), II – 20. Brauer, M., Hoek, G., Vliet, P. V., & Meliefste, K. (2002 (166)). Air Pollution from Traffic and the Development of Respiratory Infections and Asthmatic and Allergic Symptoms in Children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, Jalaludin, B. B., O'Toole, B. I., & Leeder, S. R. (2004). Acute effects of urban ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for astma in a cohort of Australian children. Environmental Research 95,

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