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Opportunities in the Forest based Sector

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Presentation on theme: "Opportunities in the Forest based Sector"— Presentation transcript:

1 Opportunities in the Forest based Sector
Source: M. Mensink, FTP-conference Lahti, Nov 2006 CG Beckeman, Int. Biorefinery conference, Helsinki, Oct 2006 FTP Biorefinery Task Force Annita Westenbroek – KCPK (NL) Klaus Niemela – KCL (F) Peter Axegard – STFI (S)

2 Forest based biorefinery initiatives
1. Annita Westenbroek: FTP Biorefinery Taskforce 2. Klaus Niemela: biorefinery activities in Finland 3. Peter Axegard: biorefinery activities in Sweden

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5 FTP started a biorefinery taskforce
Bringing the experts in the field together. To define the key projects that need to take place in the field of biorefinery, that will increase the competitiveness of our sector in the next decade. Mapping existing projects, reaching out to the other technology platforms (Sustainable chemistry, Biofuels and Plants for the future) and collect information from the incredible number of conferences on this subject….. A Vision Paper will be ready in March 2007

6 Why biorefinery in the forest
Climate change and energy policy will create a new reality, a new balance between within our sector and between sectors, soon! The forest based sector is probably the only sector able to have a neutral contribution to climate change, when all aspects are taken into account and much is done. All aspects = carbon emissions, carbon storage, transport, landfill, forestry, etc. Much to be done: Energy efficiency, CHP, Biorefinery, bio-energy, etc. The forest sector can lead! And should lead the developments. Focusing on biorefinery is a strong step in that direction.

7 Biorefinery defined by the taskforce
Biorefinery has the aim to create more value our of the bio-based raw material of the pulp and paper/forest based sectors. This can be in the form of current products, chemicals and energy, biomass, biofuels. Biorefinery is seen as an opportunity, creating more value for the existing players in the field. Therefore biorefinery is defined as: “Efficient use of the entire potential of raw materials and by-streams of the pulp and paper industry towards a broad range of high added value products (by cooperation in and between chains.

8 Biorefinery Task Force
Peter Axegard, STFI Markku Karlsson, UPM-Kymmene Paterson McKeough, VTT Annita Westenbroek, KCPK Michel Petit-Conil, Afocel/CTP Ludger Eltrop, IER University Stuttgart Klaus Niemelä, KCL Marco Mensink, CEPI (chairman)

9 Key priorities defined by the taskforce
Selective and efficient separation and conversion processes – R&D into technology. Above sector synergies with the agricultural and chemical sector. Bio-refineries as a source of wood-derived energy carriers, adding our knowledge and expertise. Recycled fibre biorefinery – using residues, providing products. The socio-economic impact of biorefinery development – an integrated vision of added value.

10 The Dutch approach More efficient use of fibre raw materials and by-streams Utilizing own by-streams (raw material, energy source) Fibre cascading (fibre containing by-stream of one mill is valuable raw material of another mill) New products from by-streams Exchange of by-streams / raw materials with other sectors Energy from by-streams Above sector synergies! Clustering the agro and forest based biorefineries

11 Forest based biorefinery initiatives
1. Annita Westenbroek: FTP Biorefinery Taskforce 2. Klaus Niemela: biorefinery activities in Finland 3. Peter Axegard: biorefinery activities in Sweden

12 Opportunities in the Forest-based Sector
2. Forest-based biorefinery research in Finland Klaus Niemelä

13 Outline Background, history
Pulp production, pulp mill as a biorefinery Examples of current or planned research areas or programmes New COST action on biorefineries Klaus Niemelä

14 Wood as a chemical raw material – long history
Isolation of naval stores Production of charcoal and tar Manufacture of methanol, acetic acid, calcium acetate, acetone... Alkali fusion of wood (sawdust) to oxalic acid Klaus Niemelä

15 Pulping: production of fiber, chemicals and energy
Acidic sulfite pulping Alkaline kraft pulping Semichemical pulping Mechanical pulping Klaus Niemelä

16 Klaus Niemelä

17 Sulfite pulping by-products
Lignosulfonates (> 1 million tons) Ethanol Xylose Torula yeast Vanillin Furfural, acetic acid In the past: p-cymene, pekilo protein, oxalic acid, methanol, etc. Klaus Niemelä

18 Klaus Niemelä

19 Kraft pulping by-products
Tall oil (1.5 million tons) Turpentine (200,000 tons) Lignin (100,000 tons) DMS, DMSO, DMSO2 (pulping spent liquor oxidation) In the past: methanol, pyrolysis oils, kraft-prehydrolysis products, etc. Klaus Niemelä

20 Examples of current or planned research programmes (1)
Sustainable Production and Products: Research programme by Academy of Finland Runs from 2006 to 2010 Three research themes: - Industrial ecology - Green chemistry and engineering - Chemicas in industrial production Several biorefinery-related projects funded Klaus Niemelä

21 Examples of current or planned research programmes (2)
BioRefine: Technology programme by Tekes (Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation) Under planning, final decision during spring Integration of forest, energy and chemical industry and biotechnology to find new biomass-based business potential Klaus Niemelä

22 Examples of current or planned research programmes (3)
SymBio, Industrial Biotechnology: Technology Programme by Tekes Runs from 2006 to 2011 The focus areas for the R&D projects are: - Development and intensification of biotechnological production and processing - Applications in environmental biotechnology - Supporting technologies; e.g. measurements, modelling and the development of enzymes and production organisms Klaus Niemelä

23 Examples of current or planned research programmes (4)
Sustainable Energy: Research programme by Academy of Finland The objective is to strengthen basic research in the energy field and to harmonise research on environmentally friendly energy production with economic factors even at the early stages of research. The main themes are new technology for energy production, an effective energy system, and energy use efficiency. Klaus Niemelä

24 Projects or research areas - examples
Isolation of lignans from softwood knots (Prof. B. Holmbom, Åbo Akademi University) Production of transportation fuels from biomass at pulp and paper mills (P. McKeough, VTT) Aliphatic hydroxy acids as pulping by-products Klaus Niemelä

25 Klaus Niemelä

26 Klaus Niemelä

27 Klaus Niemelä

28 (Presentation by P. McKeough avail. at www.blackliquor.com)
Klaus Niemelä

29 Klaus Niemelä

30 Hydroxy acids as pulping by-products
Background: During kraft pulping, nearly 10% of the wood raw material is converted to a mixture of aliphatic hydroxy acids (total "production" in Europe is millions of tons annually). They are currently burnt in the recovery boilers (together with lignin and other compounds), although they could offer an abundant source of platform and specialty chemicals for chemical industry. Problems: 1. The acids form a complex mixture, with several main compounds. 2. Their isolation and purification has not yet been fully solved. 3. Properties or potential uses of some compounds are poorly known. Klaus Niemelä

31 Hydroxy acids as pulping by-products
The main acids: COOH l CH2OH CHOH CH3 CH2 C OH 1 2 3 5 4 6 1, glycolic acid 2, lactic acid 3, 2-hydroxybutanoic acid 4, 2,5-dihydroxypentanoic acid 5, xyloisosaccharinic acid 6, glucoisosaccharinic acids (2 stereoisomers) Klaus Niemelä

32 New COST action: biotechnology for lignocellulose biorefineries
Chair: Dr. Liisa Viikari, VTT, Finland The main objective: to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective biotechnical tools and pro- duction technologies to be exploited in the production of fibres, chemicals, and bioenergy. (Intererested in? Klaus Niemelä

33 Forest based biorefinery initiatives
1. Annita Westenbroek: FTP Biorefinery Taskforce 2. Klaus Niemela: biorefinery activities in Finland 3. Peter Axegard: biorefinery activities in Sweden

34 Opportunities in the forest based sector part 3
Opportunities in the forest based sector part 3. Biorefinery Research Activities in Sweden in the Forest Based Sector Presentation by Peter Axegård, STFI-Packforsk AB Brokery Event 18th and 19th of January 2007 International Research on Biorefinery with Biofuels

35 Use of Pulp Mill By-products and Forestry Residues
Integrated Energy System Fibre processing Pulpwood Pulp or paper Black liquor Electricity Primary treat-ment Conver-sion Chemicals Forestry/agri residues and used recycled fibres Conver-sion Biofuels

36 Outline Ex 1. Birch bark Ex 2. Glucomannan from TMP white water
Ex 3. New process for soap removal Ex 4. Xylan from black liquor Ex 5. Lignin from kraft black liquor Ex 6. Gasification Conclusions

37 The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex1. Birch Bark
Fatty acids – polyesters Betulin – skin protection                                  

38 The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex. 2 Glucomananns from TMP
Glucomannans from spruce has a unique ability to form barriers with low oxygen permeability

39 The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex 3
The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex 3. New process for removal of soap from black liquor In operation spring 2006 Capacity tons of raw extractives (tall soap) per year Decreased use of sulfuric acid Final products Resins for binders formulations Fatty acid ester (biodiesel) β - sitosterol

40 The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex 4. Xylan from kraft black liquor
150 kg /tonne wood dissolved into black liquor can be removed efficiently and purified can be sorbed onto fiber surfaces results in less refining demand

41 Xylan from Black Liquor
Digester Pulp Xylan Spent liquor Impregnation Wood chips Membrane filtration

42 O-Acetyl-4-O-methylglucuronoxylan
Xylan ─ Main Hardwood Hemicellulose O-Acetyl-4-O-methylglucuronoxylan Ac Ac Birch ~30 % Eucalyptus ~15 %

43 The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex 5. Lignin from black liquor
FRAM2 program Demonstration plant

44 Lignin from Kraft Black Liquor
Recovery boiler Lignin IN Replacement of fossil fuel 50 L mineral oil can be saved ptp Lignin OUT Evaporation Digester Wood chips Wood Bleaching Pulp/paper

45 Lignin Applications Energy Materials Chemicals
Heat value of 1 tonne of lignin equals 0.65 tonne of mineral oil Fuel for lime kilns, heat and power, oil replacement, syngas Materials Carbon fibre for composites, porous carbon structures Chemicals Phenols, binders, dispersants, sequestering

46 Lignin from the LignoBoost Process

47 Properties of LignoBoost Lignin Before Drying
C % O % H % Na % Ash % Dry solids % Heat value 26 GJ/t

48 Demonstration of Lignin Production Start-Up January 2007
Wermland Paper, the Bäckhammar mill LignoBoost Demonstration plant

49 Demo For Lignin Removal
To commercialize the process Through demonstrating the process through a demo plant Demo plant starts late 2006 Annual capacity 4000 tonnes Lignin will be used in lime kilns and other incinerators

50 The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex 6.Gasification
Swedish Black Liquor Gasification ETC, STFI. Chalmers, Umeå Univ., ETC, Luleå Technical Univ., Corrosion Institute Pilot plant and related R&D

51 Two Promising Biorefining Alternatives
Pulp & paper production Pulp wood Paper Spent liquor Lignin removal Lignin Biomass gasification Electricity Forestry residues Methanol/DME FT-fuels

52 STFI-VTT Scheme: Integrating Biomass Gasification with Lignin Removal
Pulp & paper production Pulp wood Paper Spent liquor Lignin removal Lignin To CO2 sink CO2 Fuel gas Biomass gasification Electricity Forestry residues Methanol/DME FT-fuels

53 Other Opportunities - Integrating Bio- mass Gasification with Lignin Removal
No principal limitation in removal of valuable components from black liquor Unit kg/t pulp Spruce Birch Eucalypt Lignin 510 340 Xylan 30 100 40

54 The Future Pulp Mill is a Wood Biorefinery Producing
Fibers for future paper and fibre based composites

55 The Future Pulp Mill is a Wood Biorefinery Producing
Fibers for future paper and fibre based composites Value added by-products from hemicelluloses

56 The Future Pulp Mill is a Wood Biorefinery Producing
Fibers for future paper and fibre based composites Value added by-products from hemicelluloses Solid fuels, liquid fuels and electricity from black liquor, forestry residues and agro residues


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