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Opportunities in the Forest based Sector FTP Biorefinery Task Force Annita Westenbroek – KCPK (NL) Klaus Niemela – KCL (F) Peter Axegard – STFI (S) Source:

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Presentation on theme: "Opportunities in the Forest based Sector FTP Biorefinery Task Force Annita Westenbroek – KCPK (NL) Klaus Niemela – KCL (F) Peter Axegard – STFI (S) Source:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Opportunities in the Forest based Sector FTP Biorefinery Task Force Annita Westenbroek – KCPK (NL) Klaus Niemela – KCL (F) Peter Axegard – STFI (S) Source: M. Mensink, FTP-conference Lahti, Nov 2006 CG Beckeman, Int. Biorefinery conference, Helsinki, Oct 2006

2 Forest based biorefinery initiatives 1. Annita Westenbroek: FTP Biorefinery Taskforce 2. Klaus Niemela: biorefinery activities in Finland 3. Peter Axegard: biorefinery activities in Sweden

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5 5 FTP started a biorefinery taskforce Bringing the experts in the field together. To define the key projects that need to take place in the field of biorefinery, that will increase the competitiveness of our sector in the next decade. Mapping existing projects, reaching out to the other technology platforms (Sustainable chemistry, Biofuels and Plants for the future) and collect information from the incredible number of conferences on this subject….. A Vision Paper will be ready in March 2007

6 Why biorefinery in the forest Climate change and energy policy will create a new reality, a new balance between within our sector and between sectors, soon! The forest based sector is probably the only sector able to have a neutral contribution to climate change, when all aspects are taken into account and much is done. All aspects = carbon emissions, carbon storage, transport, landfill, forestry, etc. Much to be done: Energy efficiency, CHP, Biorefinery, bio- energy, etc. The forest sector can lead! And should lead the developments. Focusing on biorefinery is a strong step in that direction.

7 Biorefinery defined by the taskforce Biorefinery has the aim to create more value our of the bio-based raw material of the pulp and paper/forest based sectors. This can be in the form of current products, chemicals and energy, biomass, biofuels. Biorefinery is seen as an opportunity, creating more value for the existing players in the field. Therefore biorefinery is defined as: Efficient use of the entire potential of raw materials and by-streams of the pulp and paper industry towards a broad range of high added value products (by cooperation in and between chains.

8 Biorefinery Task Force Peter Axegard, STFI Markku Karlsson, UPM-Kymmene Paterson McKeough, VTT Annita Westenbroek, KCPK Michel Petit-Conil, Afocel/CTP Ludger Eltrop, IER University Stuttgart Klaus Niemelä, KCL Marco Mensink, CEPI (chairman)

9 Key priorities defined by the taskforce 1.Selective and efficient separation and conversion processes – R&D into technology. 2.Above sector synergies with the agricultural and chemical sector. 3.Bio-refineries as a source of wood-derived energy carriers, adding our knowledge and expertise. 4.Recycled fibre biorefinery – using residues, providing products. 5.The socio-economic impact of biorefinery development – an integrated vision of added value.

10 The Dutch approach More efficient use of fibre raw materials and by-streams Utilizing own by-streams (raw material, energy source) Fibre cascading (fibre containing by-stream of one mill is valuable raw material of another mill) New products from by-streams Exchange of by-streams / raw materials with other sectors Energy from by-streams Above sector synergies! Clustering the agro and forest based biorefineries

11 Forest based biorefinery initiatives 1. Annita Westenbroek: FTP Biorefinery Taskforce 2. Klaus Niemela: biorefinery activities in Finland 3. Peter Axegard: biorefinery activities in Sweden

12 Opportunities in the Forest- based Sector 2. Forest-based biorefinery research in Finland Klaus Niemelä

13 Klaus Niemelä13 Outline Background, history Pulp production, pulp mill as a biorefinery Examples of current or planned research areas or programmes New COST action on biorefineries

14 Klaus Niemelä14 Wood as a chemical raw material – long history Isolation of naval stores Production of charcoal and tar Manufacture of methanol, acetic acid, calcium acetate, acetone... Alkali fusion of wood (sawdust) to oxalic acid

15 Klaus Niemelä15 Pulping: production of fiber, chemicals and energy Acidic sulfite pulping Alkaline kraft pulping Semichemical pulping Mechanical pulping

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17 Klaus Niemelä17 Sulfite pulping by-products Lignosulfonates (> 1 million tons) Ethanol Xylose Torula yeast Vanillin Furfural, acetic acid In the past: p-cymene, pekilo protein, oxalic acid, methanol, etc.

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19 Klaus Niemelä19 Kraft pulping by-products Tall oil (1.5 million tons) Turpentine (200,000 tons) Lignin (100,000 tons) DMS, DMSO, DMSO 2 (pulping spent liquor oxidation) In the past: methanol, pyrolysis oils, kraft- prehydrolysis products, etc.

20 Klaus Niemelä20 Examples of current or planned research programmes (1) Sustainable Production and Products: Research programme by Academy of Finland Runs from 2006 to 2010 Three research themes: - Industrial ecology - Green chemistry and engineering - Chemicas in industrial production Several biorefinery-related projects funded

21 Klaus Niemelä21 Examples of current or planned research programmes (2) BioRefine: Technology programme by Tekes (Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation) Under planning, final decision during spring Integration of forest, energy and chemical industry and biotechnology to find new biomass- based business potential

22 Klaus Niemelä22 Examples of current or planned research programmes (3) SymBio, Industrial Biotechnology: Technology Programme by Tekes Runs from 2006 to 2011 The focus areas for the R&D projects are: - Development and intensification of biotechnological production and processing - Applications in environmental biotechnology - Supporting technologies; e.g. measurements, modelling and the development of enzymes and production organisms

23 Klaus Niemelä23 Examples of current or planned research programmes (4) Sustainable Energy: Research programme by Academy of Finland The objective is to strengthen basic research in the energy field and to harmonise research on environmentally friendly energy production with economic factors even at the early stages of research. The main themes are new technology for energy production, an effective energy system, and energy use efficiency.

24 Klaus Niemelä24 Projects or research areas - examples Isolation of lignans from softwood knots (Prof. B. Holmbom, Åbo Akademi University) Production of transportation fuels from biomass at pulp and paper mills (P. McKeough, VTT) Aliphatic hydroxy acids as pulping by-products

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28 Klaus Niemelä28 (Presentation by P. McKeough avail. at

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30 Klaus Niemelä30 Hydroxy acids as pulping by-products Background: During kraft pulping, nearly 10% of the wood raw material is converted to a mixture of aliphatic hydroxy acids (total "production" in Europe is millions of tons annually). They are currently burnt in the recovery boilers (together with lignin and other compounds), although they could offer an abundant source of platform and specialty chemicals for chemical industry. Problems: 1. The acids form a complex mixture, with several main compounds. 2. Their isolation and purification has not yet been fully solved. 3. Properties or potential uses of some compounds are poorly known.

31 Klaus Niemelä31 Hydroxy acids as pulping by-products COOH l CH 2 OH COOH l CHOH l CH 3 COOH l CHOH l CH 2 l CH 3 COOH l CHOH l CH 2 l CH 2 l CH 2 OH COOH l C l CH 2 l CH 2 OH OH COOH l C l CH 2 l CHOH l CH 2 OH OH 1, glycolic acid 2, lactic acid 3, 2-hydroxybutanoic acid 4, 2,5-dihydroxypentanoic acid 5, xyloisosaccharinic acid 6, glucoisosaccharinic acids (2 stereoisomers) The main acids:

32 Klaus Niemelä32 New COST action: biotechnology for lignocellulose biorefineries Chair: Dr. Liisa Viikari, VTT, Finland The main objective: to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective biotechnical tools and pro- duction technologies to be exploited in the production of fibres, chemicals, and bioenergy. (Intererested in?

33 Forest based biorefinery initiatives 1. Annita Westenbroek: FTP Biorefinery Taskforce 2. Klaus Niemela: biorefinery activities in Finland 3. Peter Axegard: biorefinery activities in Sweden

34 turning science into reality Opportunities in the forest based sector part 3. Biorefinery Research Activities in Sweden in the Forest Based Sector Presentation by Peter Axegård, STFI-Packforsk AB Brokery Event 18th and 19th of January 2007 International Research on Biorefinery with Biofuels

35 turning science into reality Biofuels Integrated Energy System Fibre processing Primary treat- ment Pu lpwood Forestry/agri residues and used recycled fibres Pulp or paper Chemicals Use of Pulp Mill By-products and Forestry Residues Conver- sion Black liquor Electricity

36 turning science into reality Outline Ex 1. Birch bark Ex 2. Glucomannan from TMP white water Ex 3. New process for soap removal Ex 4. Xylan from black liquor Ex 5. Lignin from kraft black liquor Ex 6. Gasification Conclusions

37 turning science into reality The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex1. Birch Bark Fatty acids – polyesters Betulin – skin protection

38 turning science into reality The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex. 2 Glucomananns from TMP Glucomannans from spruce has a unique ability to form barriers with low oxygen permeability

39 turning science into reality The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex 3. New process for removal of soap from black liquor In operation spring 2006 Capacity tons of raw extractives (tall soap) per year Decreased use of sulfuric acid Final products –Resins for binders formulations –Fatty acid ester (biodiesel) –β - sitosterol

40 turning science into reality The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex 4. Xylan from kraft black liquor 150 kg /tonne wood dissolved into black liquor can be removed efficiently and purified can be sorbed onto fiber surfaces results in less refining demand

41 turning science into reality Xylan from Black Liquor Digester Pul p Xyla n Spent liquor Impregnatio n Wood chips Membrane filtration

42 turning science into reality Xylan Main Hardwood Hemicellulose Ac O-Acetyl-4-O-methylglucuronoxylan Birch ~30 % Eucalyptus ~15 %

43 turning science into reality The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex 5. Lignin from black liquor FRAM2 program Demonstration plant

44 turning science into reality Lignin from Kraft Black Liquor Lignin OUT Recovery boiler Digester Evaporation Bleaching Wood chips Pulp/paper Lignin IN Replacement of fossil fuel 50 L mineral oil can be saved ptp Woo d

45 turning science into reality Energy –Heat value of 1 tonne of lignin equals 0.65 tonne of mineral oil –Fuel for lime kilns, heat and power, oil replacement, syngas Materials –Carbon fibre for composites, porous carbon structures Chemicals –Phenols, binders, dispersants, sequestering Lignin Applications

46 turning science into reality Lignin from the LignoBoost Process

47 turning science into reality C 64.0 % O26.4 % H 5.7 % Na 0.03 % Ash 0.2 % Dry solids65-70 % Heat value 26 GJ/t Properties of LignoBoost Lignin Before Drying

48 turning science into reality Demonstration of Lignin Production Start-Up January 2007 Wermland Paper, the Bäckhammar mill LignoBoost Demonstration plant

49 turning science into reality Demo For Lignin Removal To commercialize the process Through demonstrating the process through a demo plant Demo plant starts late 2006 Annual capacity 4000 tonnes Lignin will be used in lime kilns and other incinerators

50 turning science into reality The Pulp Mill Biorefinery- Ex 6.Gasification Swedish Black Liquor Gasification ETC, STFI. Chalmers, Umeå Univ., ETC, Luleå Technical Univ., Corrosion Institute Pilot plant and related R&D

51 turning science into reality Pulp wood Pulp & paper production Paper Forestry residues Electricity Two Promising Biorefining Alternatives Spent liquor Biomass gasification Methanol/DME FT-fuels Lignin removal Lignin

52 turning science into reality Fuel gas Pulp & paper production STFI-VTT Scheme: Integrating Biomass Gasification with Lignin Removal Spent liquor Biomass gasification Lignin removal Pulp wood Paper Forestry residues Electricity Methanol/DME FT-fuels Lignin To CO 2 sink CO 2

53 turning science into reality Other Opportunities - Integrating Bio- mass Gasification with Lignin Removal No principal limitation in removal of valuable components from black liquor Unit kg/t pulp SpruceBirchEucalypt Lignin Xylan

54 turning science into reality The Future Pulp Mill is a Wood Biorefinery Producing Fibers for future paper and fibre based composites

55 turning science into reality The Future Pulp Mill is a Wood Biorefinery Producing Fibers for future paper and fibre based composites Value added by-products from hemicelluloses

56 turning science into reality The Future Pulp Mill is a Wood Biorefinery Producing Fibers for future paper and fibre based composites Value added by-products from hemicelluloses Solid fuels, liquid fuels and electricity from black liquor, forestry residues and agro residues


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