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Presentations May 23 – 25, 2005 Portland, Maine For related information visit:

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1 Presentations May 23 – 25, 2005 Portland, Maine For related information visit:

2 Mercury in Wastes & Products Hugh Davis US EPA, OSW May 23, 2005

3 Activities National Partnership for Environmental Priorities (NPEP) NPEP Mercury Challenge Auto Switches Universal Waste Rule Dental Gray Bags Lamps: Drum Top Crushing Schools Cleanout Campaign Disposal/Storage Study Surplus Mercury Mining Releases

4 National Partnership for Environmental Priorities (NPEP) Partners set voluntary goals for reducing priority chemicals in waste – Formerly Waste Minimization Partnership Program. Examples of mercury partners: – Bowling Green University – Navy Dentists

5 NPEP, Continued Recent Initiative: Eliminating/reducing mercury in products Working w/Regions and States – Spreadsheets: info on companies, contacts, mercury volume, product categories – Seeking NPEP partners to: substitute or increase market share of mercury-free alternatives, reduce mercury use, initiate take-back programs, educate/outreach to consumers – Also seeking retailers as partners Primary focus: switches, relays, thermostats, thermometers

6 NPEP Mercury Challenge Promotes replacing mercury-containing equipment in a plant with non-mercury alternatives – About 2000 metric tons in use in equipment in US Modeled after EPA Region 5 Examples – Bethlehem Steel & US Steel – Consumers Energy Company – We Energies

7 Auto Switch Project Goal: reduce mercury emitted from electric arc furnaces that melt auto scrap. Seeking multi-stakeholder national switch collection partnership In 2005, propose standards for air pollutants, including mercury, from electric arc furnaces Amending CWA Best Management Practices for storm water pollution prevention plans to prevent potential mercury releases at auto dismantlers and scrap recyclers Developing website to consolidate information on state mercury switch programs to aid states that are developing programs

8 Universal Waste Rule Final rule to add mercury-containing equipment (MCE) to the federal Universal Waste Rule. Examples of MCE: manometers, barometers, flow meters, mercury light switches, mercury regulators, pressure relief gauges, water treatment gauges, and gas safety relays Facilitates entry into the waste management system, encourages recovery and recycling, and keeps wastes out of the municipal wastestream. Just cleared OMB, will go to the Administrator for signature next.

9 Dental Gray Bag Project Goal: promote safe recycling of dental amalgam waste in approx. 100,000 dentist offices across the country Develop voluntary consensus standard for storage/shipping of waste amalgam Partnerships under NPEP Program Build on state/local programs

10 Lamps: Drum Top Crushing Shipping crushed lamps is much cheaper than whole lamps EPA Region 3 conducted study of crushers; currently in peer review When the study report is completed, we expect to issue guidance on DTC

11 Schools Chemical Cleanout Campaign (SC3) Summer 2004 – EPA launched SC3 to: – Remove dangerous chemicals from K-12 schools; – Prevent future stockpiles and reduce accidents through best management practices – Raise national awareness of the problem. Pilots are taking place in 10 EPA Regions

12 Market-Based Approach for Environmental Gain Change customer-supplier relationship – Typical: profit based on units sold - customer-supplier goals differ – Servicizing: profit based on quality of services – goals align – Benefits: reduced chemical use, less toxic products, reduced waste, enhanced recycling Pilot – combining chemical management services and resource management services – Pilot is with the Lansing Public School District – Currently creating baseline to use in developing business case – Expect findings July/August 05

13 Disposal/Storage Study For Elemental Mercury Study evaluates three treatment technologies with monofill disposal vs. storage of elemental mercury Numerous treatment/disposal technology and cost criteria evaluated using Expert Choice software Results: More cost effective to store elemental mercury until improved treatment technologies are developed Final Report has been peer reviewed by EPA

14 Surplus Mercury EPA is planning, with other Agencies, to initiate a process with technical experts and interested parties to: – Better understand policy and economic issues – Discuss options for addressing expected mercury surpluses

15 Mining Releases Mercury contamination is associated with several mining practices 2002 TRI data show that 45 mines released 2034 metric tons of mercury to land These releases are primarily waste rock piles and tailings ponds EPA is starting a project to further investigate these releases

16 How to Reach me Hugh Davis Chief, Waste Treatment Branch Office of Solid Waste USEPA (703) 306-0206

17 Presentations May 23 – 25, 2005 Portland, Maine

18 U.S. EPA Rules and other Actions to Reduce Mercury Air Emissions by Charles French U.S. E.P.A. Office of Air Quality Planning & Standards May 23, 2005 Portland, Maine

19 Framework for Establishing Rules to Reduce/Limit Mercury Emissions Clean Air Act (Sections 112 and 129) National regulations based primarily on Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Section 129 – for Solid Waste Incineration Covers 9 pollutants, including mercury Section 112 – for other source categories Covers 188 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), including mercury

20 Source Category Year 1990 Year 1999 % Decrease Municipal Waste Combustors 57591% Medical Waste Incinerators 501.697% Coal-fired Power Plants 51486% Industrial/Commercial Boilers 12 0% Chlor-alkali Plants 106.530% Hazardous Waste Incinerators 770% Other Categories* 23216% Total (minus gold-mining) 210101.1~50% U.S. Mercury Emissions Estimates (tons per year)* * Estimates based on EPAs National Emissions Inventory (NEI) ** Other Categories includes Portland Cement, Pulp & Paper, and many other categories, but does not include Gold Mining.

21 Alaska Hawaii Facilities Emitting Mercury in 1999 Based on 1999 NEI data

22 Mercury Point Sources - 1999 Note: There are 21,365 facilities in the 1999 NEI that emit mercury. This map shows the 3,600 facilities that emit > 0.0001 tons/year. Alaska Hawaii

23 Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) Rules issued in year 1995 for large MWCs, and in 2000 for small MWCs Large MWCs completed compliance in 2000, small MWCs must comply by 12/2005 For large MWCs, mercury emissions reduced from about 45 tons per year (tpy) in 1990 to 2 tpy in 2000 (95% reduction) For small MWCs, expect emissions will be reduced from about 12 tpy in 1990 to 0.4 tpy by end of 2005 (96% reduction)

24 Medical Waste Incineration Rule issued in 1997 for new & existing facilities Compliance was required by 2002 Emissions reduced from about 50 tons in 1990 to 1.6 tons in 1999 (97% reduction) Preliminary 2002 NEI data indicate total emissions for 2002 = about 0.2 tons (~99% reduction from 1990) Significant number of MWIs have closed About 2400 facilities in 1997 About 100 facilities remain in 2004

25 Trends in Mercury Air Emissions (tpy) for MWIs & MWCs based on NEI 50 1.60.2 57 54

26 Chlor-alkali Production Using the Mercury-Cell Technology Initial Rule for mercury emissions published in 1973 Due to the initial Rule and other actions (including the US/Canada Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy) industry has made significant progress reducing mercury use and emissions Industry reduced use by about 69% since 1990, under a voluntary agreement; and Emissions decreased by about 30% from 1990 to 1999

27 Chlor-alkali Production (continued) New Rule published in December 2003 Prohibits mercury emissions from new or reconstructed mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants Existing plants are subject to emission limits on process vents Stringent workplace standards are required to reduce fugitive emissions from cell rooms

28 Chlor-alkali Production (continued) In February 2004, NRDC filed a petition for reconsideration of the final rule NRDC stated that EPA should have established more stringent requirements for cell room fugitive emissions In April 2004 EPA granted NRDCs petition for reconsideration of the rule EPA is conducting a monitoring study to better quantify fugitive emissions from cell rooms

29 Industrial Gold Mining Mostly in Nevada Process ores using various techniques (crushing, roasting, cyanide leaching...) to extract gold Mercury is present in ores in levels ranging from about 1 to 200 ppm Mercury is released during process

30 Industrial Gold Mining (cont) Emissions data became available in 1998 About 11.5 tons mercury emitted in 1999 Majority (about 10 tons) were from 5 biggest mines in Nevada Voluntary Agreement (EPA Region 9, Nevada, & Industry) signed in 2002, to reduce emissions from these 5 mines MACT equivalent track Process modification track Emissions reduced to about 3 tons by 2003 (based on data reported to Voluntary Program)

31 Industrial Gold Mining (cont) January 2005, EPA received an intent to suit letter and petition from Idaho Conservation League, Earthworks, & Great Basin Mine Watch Stated that EPA should list this category for regulation under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Have not yet filed suit EPA is evaluating industry further to gain a better understanding of sources, processes, emissions and controls, and to determine whether or not additional action(s) might be warranted…

32 Industrial/Commercial Boilers Burn coal (or other substances) to generate electricity or heat for factories, institutions, malls, etc. MACT Rule Promulgated in 2004, compliance due by 2007 Includes emission limits for mercury (and other HAPs) Expect to reduce mercury emissions from 11 tpy (baseline) to about 9 tpy by 2007

33 Hazardous Waste Combustor MACT Rule 5 industry sectors that combust hazardous waste will be subjected to MACT standards incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, industrial boilers, and hydrochloric acid production furnaces Will regulate mercury, and other pollutants EPA plans to sign final rule by 9/14/05, a court-enforced deadline

34 Steel Manufacturing - Electric Arc Furnaces (EAFs) About 94 small steel mills (minimills) that melt steel scrap in 143 electric arc furnaces (EAF) Minimills account for roughly half of US steel production (~50 million tons per year) Mercury emissions from this industry are about 10 tpy (based on test data collected between 1998-2002) Mercury comes from components containing mercury that are not removed from the scrap

35 Steel EAFs (continued) Much of the mercury is from components containing mercury found in automobile scrap (e.g., convenience light switches and anti-lock brake systems) Automobile manufacturers no longer use mercury in convenience light switches Best control is to remove components containing mercury from scrap before it is shredded/melted EPA is developing a rule for proposal that will limit HAP emissions (including mercury)

36 Coal-Fired Power Plants – Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) CAMR will build on EPAs Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) to significantly reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants. Federal rule to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. When fully implemented, mercury emissions will be reduced from 48 to 15 tpy (nearly 70%). CAMR creates a market-based cap-and-trade program that will reduce emissions of mercury in two phases.

37 CAMR (continued) First phase cap = 38 tons by year 2010 Emissions reduced through co-benefit achieved by reducing SO 2 & NOx under CAIR In 2018, plants will be subject to a second phase cap, which will reduce emissions to 15 tons. Modeling indicates that CAIR will significantly reduce emissions that deposit in the U.S. The CAMR will further reduce mercury emissions that are transported regionally or globally

38 CAMR (continued) New plants will have to meet new source performance standards in addition to being subject to the caps. CAMR provides an emission allocation to each State and Indian country with coal-fired generation in 1999. Allows States flexibility on how to achieve the required reductions.

39 Projected Trends in NEI Air Emissions - CAMR 210 tpy 112 tpy 78 tpy tpy

40 Where to get more information and references For general EPA information visit: For air emissions inventory information: For air toxics regulations: References: Menne, D. M. 1998, Mercury in Gold Processing – Volume I: Metallurgy. Booz Allen & Hamilton, Inc., Mercury Mass Balance and Emissions Factor Estimates for Gold Ore Processing Facilities. Draft Report. January 14, 2001

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