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Coal in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities Presented at the Electricity 2020 Forum Grand Rapids, MN Dr. Michael L. Jones Senior Research Advisor.

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Presentation on theme: "Coal in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities Presented at the Electricity 2020 Forum Grand Rapids, MN Dr. Michael L. Jones Senior Research Advisor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Coal in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities Presented at the Electricity 2020 Forum Grand Rapids, MN Dr. Michael L. Jones Senior Research Advisor Energy & Environmental Research Center Grand Forks, ND February 14, 2007

2 Humanitys Top Ten Problems for the Next 50 Years 1. ENERGY 2. WATER 3. FOOD 4. ENVIRONMENT 5. POVERTY 6. TERRORISM AND WAR 7. DISEASE 8. EDUCATION 9. DEMOCRACY 10. POPULATION billion People billion People Richard Smalley, 2003 (1996 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry)

3 Colin J. Campbell, 2004

4 Hubberts Peak by Kenneth Deffeyes (2001) M. King Hubbert predicted U.S. oil production would peak in –It did. The same approach predicts world oil production will peak within this decade. –It will. The days of cheap energy from oil will then be gone.

5 Richard Smalley, 2003 (1996 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry)

6 Richard Smalley, 2003

7 Source: U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Energy Resources

8 Bottom Line – New Middle East Source: U.S. Department of Defense

9 Opportunities for Coal Production of transportation fuels –Liquids –Hydrogen Electricity production

10 Transportation Fuels -- Challenges Oil resources – finite resource Alternative fuels (including electricity) Hydrogen –Production –Storage –Distribution –Coal – production of hydrogen, liquid fuels and electricity CO 2 sequestration

11 Electricity Generation – Challenges Zero-emission power plants that produce electricity, chemicals, and liquid fuels cheaply Massive long distance electricity transmission Electrical storage

12 Coals Resurgence in Electric Power Generation

13 Generation Options Conventional combustion Coal gasification (IGCC) Indirectly fired combined cycle

14 Conventional Combustion Operational issues Environmental performance –NO x –Particulate –SO x –Metals –CO 2

15 Ash Deposition Phenomena in Utility Boilers 1. Coal Particles 2. Combustion 3. Early Combustion Products 4. Slag Deposit Formation 5. High-Temperature Fouling Deposit Formation 6. Low-Temperature Fouling Deposit Formation Coal + Air Coal + Air 1800°– 2400°F 1200°– 1800°F 2000°– 3000°F Slag -

16 Environmental Issues SO x NO x Particulate Metals (Hg) CO 2

17 Coal Gasification

18 IGCC Diagram Source: National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy

19 Opportunities for Low-Rank Coal Gasification High reactivity – Lower temperature gasification processes – transport reactor High sodium and calcium – Catalyzes gasification rates High moisture – Water for steam gasification, shift reaction, increased gas flow

20 What Is the Best Conversion Technology? Key Fuel Properties Moisture content Coal reactivity Caking properties Inorganic materials – Ash/slag and trace elements Sulfur levels Oxygen content

21 Lignite Gasification to Produce Liquid Fuels, Hydrogen, Electricity, and Carbon Dioxide Modified after Gray and others, 2004.

22 Coal/Biomass/Pet Coke Coal Preparation and Upgrading/Slurry Gasifier Recycle Syngas Cooler Hot Gas Filter Cyclone Fuel Prep and Upgrading Slurry Prep Drying Mineral Removal Blending Gas Purification and Separation Sulfur Removal And Ammonia Removal Gasification Fuel Reactivity Partitioning (Vapor, Liquid, Solid) Slag Flow Bed/Ash Reaction Deposition Gas Processing/ Cooling Condensation Transport Deposition Growth and Removal Hot Gas Cleanup Particulate Hg Na Trace elements Halogens Sulfur Removal H 2 S --Metal Oxide Impact of Na, K Trace elements Hg Halogens Gas Purification and Separation Shift Reactions Separation and Purification Na+ Ca++ Quartz Pyrite Calcite Fate and Impacts of Impurities on Gasification and Gas Cleanup

23 Examples of Current Experience Eastman Chemical Company's coal gasification plant –High-sulfur Appalachian bituminous – 1300 ton/day –Acetyl chemicals –Over 22 years of operation Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station –GE Energy (Texaco) gasifier – slurry-fed, single-stage, entrained flow –Pittsburgh Basin and Appalachian coals, petcoke, and biomass – 2200 ton/day –Medium-Btu syngas fired to produce electricity – 250 MW e –DOE Clean Coal Project – 4- to 5-year demonstration –Commercial operation began in 1995 SG Solutions – Wabash River –E-gas (ConocoPhillips) slurry-fed, two-stage, entrained-flow gasifier –Illinois Basin coal, petroleum coke –262 MW e (net) of electricity –DOE Clean Coal Project – 4- to 5-year demonstration –Commercial operation began in 1995 –GE Energy (Texaco) gasifiers – slurry-fed, single-stage, entrained-flow quench gasifier

24 Examples of Current Experience (cont.) Shell Gasification (Nuon) Buggenum – Netherlands –Shell gasifier – entrained flow with dry fuel feeding and recycled syngas cooling –Range of bituminous coals –253 MW e of electricity –Operation since 1998 Elcogas – Puertollano, Spain –Prenflo gasifier entrained-flow system with dry fuel feeding –Coal and petroleum coke –298 MW of electricity –Began operating in 1998 Schwarze Pumpe Gmbh –Future Energy Gmbh – entrained flow with dry dry feeding cooling screen design –130 MW th brown coal before 1992; waste oil slurries after –Operation since 1984

25 Examples of Current Experience (cont.) Piñon Pine IGCC Power Project (Sierra Pacific) –KRW fluidized-bed gasifier –Utah bituminous, 0.5%–0.9% sulfur coal – 90 MW –DOE Clean Coal Project – Problems during start-up and project was not completed HTW Demonstration Berrenrath, Germany –High-temperature Winkler fluidized bed with dry feed –140 MW th of dried brown coal –Methanol production –Started operation in 1986, shutdown in 1997 with 67,000 hours GTI U-Gas Process –Shanghai, China –1000 TPD, 8 gasifier low-pressure using bituminous coal –Fuel gas for coke oven –Started operation in 1995, currently moth-balled 70,000 hours

26 Advantages of Indirectly Fired Combined Cycles (IFCC) Operations very similar to pc-fired boilers Nearer-term technology Higher efficiencies – 45% when firing coal, over 50% with NG supplement Half the water usage of a typical steam-based plant because of the Brayton cycle Slagging heat exchangers are self-cleaning –Much lower loss of heat transfer due to fouling –Much less overconstruction

27 IFCC Schematic Efficiency, 47.3% GT output, 161 MW ST Output, 150 MW Coal/Gas 65%/35% Generator Steam Turbine Ash Slag Coal Gas Turbine Radiant Air Heater Convective Air Heater Selective Noncatalytic Reactor Zone Heat Recovery Steam Generator Generator FGD Hot Air Air Key: FGD: Flue Gas Desulfurization GT: Gas Turbine ST: Steam Turbine

28 Chemical Looping CO 2 Hydrate Microbial /Algae Microbial /Algae Electro- chemical Pump Electro- chemical Pump Others Chemical (TSA) Chemical (TSA) Zeolites ACs Physical (PSA,TSA) Physical (PSA,TSA) Metal Oxides Si/Al Gels Inorganic Membrane Metallic Polysulphone Polyamide Organic Membrane Ceramics Others Cellulose derivatives Others Technologies for CO 2 Capture Caustics Rectisol Others Physical Selexol Amines Others Chemical Absorption Cryogenics Others Adsorption Adsorption Membranes

29 Methods for Reducing GHG Emissions Renewable energy technologies Advanced high-efficiency energy systems Improve efficiency on existing systems Reduce consumption of energy Sequester GHG emissions

30 Phase II Goals Increase public understanding of CO 2 sequestration Perform field validation tests that develop: - MM&V protocols - Regional sequestration strategies - Best separation/source matches - Regulatory and permitting strategies - Environmental benefits and risks - Information needed to monetize C credits Continued regional characterization Regional partnership program integration PCOR Partnership

31 Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships The Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Program represents more than 216 organizations in 40 states, three Indian nations, and four Canadian provinces.

32 Partnership Benefits (cont.) Breaking news on our four regional field verification activities.

33 Summary Clean coal will be part of our future energy mix. Coal gasification will be one option. CO 2 capture and sequestration will be part of future coal development activities. A range of power generation options will be used to meet our future energy needs.

34 Contact Information Energy & Environmental Research Center University of North Dakota 15 North 23rd Street Stop 9018 Grand Forks, North Dakota Telephone No. (701) Fax No. (701) Dr. Michael L. Jones Senior Research Advisor (701)


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