Presentation on theme: "Coal in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities"— Presentation transcript:
1 Coal in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities Presented at the Electricity 2020 ForumGrand Rapids, MNDr. Michael L. JonesSenior Research AdvisorEnergy & Environmental Research CenterGrand Forks, NDFebruary 14, 2007
2 Humanity’s Top Ten Problems for the Next 50 Years 1. ENERGY2. WATER3. FOOD4. ENVIRONMENT5. POVERTY6. TERRORISM AND WAR7. DISEASE8. EDUCATION9. DEMOCRACY10. POPULATIONbillion Peoplebillion PeopleRichard Smalley, 2003 (1996 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry)
4 “Hubbert’s Peak” by Kenneth Deffeyes (2001) M. King Hubbert predicted U.S. oil production would peak in 1970.It did.The same approach predicts world oil production will peak within this decade.It will.The days of cheap energy from oil will then be gone.
5 Richard Smalley, 2003 (1996 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry)
18 IGCC DiagramSource: National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy
19 Opportunities for Low-Rank Coal Gasification High reactivity – Lower temperature gasification processes – transport reactorHigh sodium and calcium – Catalyzes gasification ratesHigh moisture – Water for steam gasification, shift reaction, increased gas flow
20 What Is the Best Conversion Technology? Key Fuel PropertiesMoisture contentCoal reactivityCaking propertiesInorganic materials – Ash/slag and trace elementsSulfur levelsOxygen content
21 Lignite Gasification to Produce Liquid Fuels, Hydrogen, Electricity, and Carbon Dioxide Modified after Gray and others, 2004.
22 Fate and Impacts of Impurities on Gasification and Gas Cleanup 64Cyclone5Coal Preparation andUpgrading/Slurry723RecycleSulfur RemovalAnd AmmoniaRemovalGas Purificationand SeparationSyngas CoolerHot Gas Filter1Coal/Biomass/Pet CokeGasifier12345GasificationFuel ReactivityPartitioning (Vapor, Liquid, Solid)Slag FlowBed/Ash ReactionDepositionGas Processing/CoolingCondensationTransportDeposition Growthand RemovalHot Gas CleanupParticulateHgNaTrace elementsHalogensQuartzFuel Prep and UpgradingSlurry PrepDryingMineral RemovalBlendingCalciteNa+Ca++Pyrite76Sulfur RemovalH2S --Metal OxideImpact of Na, KTrace elementsHgHalogensGas Purification and SeparationShift ReactionsSeparation andPurification
23 Examples of Current Experience Eastman Chemical Company's coal gasification plantHigh-sulfur Appalachian bituminous – 1300 ton/dayAcetyl chemicalsOver 22 years of operationTampa Electric's Polk Power StationGE Energy (Texaco) gasifier – slurry-fed, single-stage, entrained flowPittsburgh Basin and Appalachian coals, petcoke, and biomass – 2200 ton/dayMedium-Btu syngas fired to produce electricity – 250 MWeDOE Clean Coal Project – 4- to 5-year demonstrationCommercial operation began in 1995SG Solutions – Wabash RiverE-gas (ConocoPhillips) slurry-fed, two-stage, entrained-flow gasifierIllinois Basin coal, petroleum coke262 MWe (net) of electricityGE Energy (Texaco) gasifiers – slurry-fed, single-stage, entrained-flow quench gasifier
24 Examples of Current Experience (cont.) Shell Gasification (Nuon) Buggenum – NetherlandsShell gasifier – entrained flow with dry fuel feeding and recycled syngas coolingRange of bituminous coals253 MWe of electricityOperation since 1998Elcogas – Puertollano, SpainPrenflo gasifier entrained-flow system with dry fuel feedingCoal and petroleum coke298 MW of electricityBegan operating in 1998Schwarze Pumpe GmbhFuture Energy Gmbh – entrained flow with dry dry feeding cooling screen design130 MWth brown coal before 1992; waste oil slurries afterOperation since 1984
25 Examples of Current Experience (cont.) Piñon Pine IGCC Power Project (Sierra Pacific)KRW fluidized-bed gasifierUtah bituminous, 0.5%–0.9% sulfur coal – 90 MWDOE Clean Coal Project – Problems during start-up and project was not completedHTW Demonstration Berrenrath, GermanyHigh-temperature Winkler fluidized bed with dry feed140 MWth of dried brown coalMethanol productionStarted operation in 1986, shutdown in 1997 with 67,000 hoursGTI U-Gas ProcessShanghai, China1000 TPD, 8 gasifier low-pressure using bituminous coalFuel gas for coke ovenStarted operation in 1995, currently moth-balled 70,000 hours
26 Advantages of Indirectly Fired Combined Cycles (IFCC) Operations very similar to pc-fired boilersNearer-term technologyHigher efficiencies – 45% when firing coal, over 50% with NG supplementHalf the water usage of a typical steam-based plant because of the Brayton cycleSlagging heat exchangers are self-cleaningMuch lower loss of heat transfer due to foulingMuch less overconstruction
27 IFCC Schematic Coal Air Steam Generator Turbine Gas Hot Air Efficiency, 47.3%GT output, 161 MWST Output, 150 MWCoal/Gas 65%/35%GeneratorSteamTurbineAshSlagCoalGasRadiantAir HeaterConvectiveSelective NoncatalyticReactor ZoneHeat RecoverySteam GeneratorFGDHot AirAirKey:FGD: Flue Gas DesulfurizationGT: Gas TurbineST: Steam Turbine
28 Technologies for CO2 Capture AbsorptionAdsorptionMembranesCryogenicsOthersCausticsRectisolOthersPhysicalSelexolAminesChemicalInorganic MembraneMetallicPolysulphonePolyamideOrganic MembraneCeramicsOthersCellulose derivativesChemical LoopingCO2 HydrateMicrobial/AlgaeElectro-chemicalPumpOthersChemical(TSA)ZeolitesACsPhysical(PSA,TSA)Metal OxidesSi/Al Gels
29 Methods for Reducing GHG Emissions Renewable energy technologiesAdvanced high-efficiency energy systemsImprove efficiency on existing systemsReduce consumption of energySequester GHG emissions
30 PCOR Partnership Phase II Goals Increase public understanding of CO2 sequestrationPerform field validation tests that develop:- MM&V protocols- Regional sequestration strategies- Best separation/source matches- Regulatory and permitting strategies- Environmental benefits and risks- Information needed to monetize C creditsContinued regional characterizationRegional partnership program integration
31 Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships The Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Program represents more than 216 organizations in 40 states, three Indian nations, and four Canadian provinces.
32 Partnership Benefits (cont.) Breaking news on our four regional field verification activities.
33 Summary Clean coal will be part of our future energy mix. Coal gasification will be one option.CO2 capture and sequestration will be part of future coal development activities.A range of power generation options will be used to meet our future energy needs.
34 Contact InformationEnergy & Environmental Research CenterUniversity of North Dakota15 North 23rd StreetStop 9018Grand Forks, North DakotaTelephone No. (701)Fax No. (701)Dr. Michael L. JonesSenior Research Advisor(701)