1 December 7, 2004 Janet McCabe IDEM/OAQ Air Regulatory Update: Mercury and PM2.5 Presentation to the 18th Annual Surface Mined Land and Reclamation Technology Transfer SeminarDecember 7, 2004Janet McCabeIDEM/OAQ
2 Mercury and Health Effects Mercury in Indiana’s environment is a public health and environmental concern. Mercury—especially in its organic form, methylmercury—can affect the central nervous system of adults and children.The primary route of human exposure to methylmercury is dietary, and unborn children are as much as 10 times more susceptible than adults to methylmercury’s detrimental effects.Mercury has been detected in nearly all fish-tissue samples collected in Indiana since 1983, often prompting health officials to issue advisories that warn about human consumption of these fish.
3 Mercury and Air Emissions Precipitation (wet deposition) is the primary mechanism for transporting airborne gaseous or particulate mercury from the atmosphere to surface water and land.Mercury in the atmosphere can be from manmade sources (coal-fired power plants, municipal incinerators, industrial boilers) or from natural sources (forest fires, geologic formations, volcanoes).Manmade sources of mercury emissions to the atmosphere have been implicated for causing the increased concentrations of methylmercury found in fish.
4 Global ContextMuch of the mercury circulating through today's environment is mercury that was released years ago, when mercury was commonly used in many industrial, commercial, and residential products and processes.Mercury is naturally occurring as well as human-causedLand and water surfaces can repeatedly re-emit mercury into the atmosphere after its initial release into the environment.Anthropogenic emissions are roughly split between these re-emitted emissions from previous human activity, and direct emissions from current human activity.
5 Worldwide Distribution of Emissions Recent estimates, which are highly uncertain, of annual total global mercury emissions from all sources, natural and anthropogenic, are about 4,400 to 7,500 metric tons emitted per year.Source: USEPA
6 The U.S. in the Global Context U.S. anthropogenic mercury emissions are estimated to be roughly 3% of the global total; emissions from the U.S. power sector are estimated to account for about 1% of total global emissions.EPA has estimated that about 1/3 of U.S. emissions are deposited within the contiguous U.S. and the remainder enters the global cycle.Current estimates are that about 1/2 of all mercury deposition within the U.S. comes from U.S. sources. However there are regional differences in these numbers. For example, U.S. sources represent a greater fraction of the total deposition in the Northeast because of the direction of the prevailing winds.
7 Mercury Emissions in Indiana 2002 emissions: 10,565 lbs (5.25 tpy)Breakdown by source categoryCoal utilities lbsOther sources lbsNote: Other sources include electric arc furnaces, industrial boilers, foundries, cement kilns, mobile and area sources
8 EPA’s Proposed Mercury Rule Clean Air Act requires EPA to consider regulating hazardous air pollutants, including mercury, from power plants.After extensive study, EPA proposed a rule for public comment on January 30, 2004.Comment period ended June 29, and generated 540,000 comments, including 4000 unique commentsEPA must issue a final rule by March 15, 2005, per court order.
9 EPA’s Proposed RuleThe proposed rule applies to plants > 25 MW and has two optionsOption 1:Applies technology-based emission limits applicable to all affected plantsWould reduce emissions nationally by 14 tons (29%) by 2007, from 48 to 34 tpyNo cap on emissionsHigher emission limits for subbituminous than for bituminous coal
10 EPA’s Proposed Rule Option 2 Market-based cap and trade program Caps applied in two phases:amount of cap to be decidedtpy cap (70% reduction)States would allocate allowances from a state “budget” to plants on a lbs/year basisPlants may install controls or purchase allowancesAdjusts credit allocation based on coal rank
11 Indiana’s CommentsIndiana submitted comments on EPA’s proposed rule June 29, 2004Indiana supports federal rules to control mercury emissions from power plantsFederal rule should be fuel-neutralEmission targets and timing appear to fall short of what is technologically feasibleEPA should conduct more investigation of local impacts of a cap and trade approach
12 Hoosier Environmental Council Petition Presented to the Air Pollution Control Board June 2, 2004Petitions the board to adopt rules to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plantsProposes a reduction of 90% by July 1, 2008Requests public hearings to receive citizen input
13 Public Hearing and Workgroup Process Air Board held a public hearing on October 6, 2004, in Indianapolis to consider the rulemaking petitionAir Board directed IDEM to establish a workgroup, open to the public, to gather and consider information relevant to a state mercury ruleWorkgroup meetings have been held monthly; next meeting December 8 in Vincennes
14 Mercury Workgroup Schedule September 29: mercury contamination in IN, programs to reduce, how utilities produce mercuryOctober 27: US EPA’s proposed ruleNovember: other states’ efforts; technology options; control optionsDecember: control options; mercury deposition issuesJanuary 2005: report to Air BoardOther developments: EPA issued NODA 12/1
15 EPA’s Proposed Fine Particle Designations in Indiana June 29, 2004
17 Fine Particle Designation Process Governor’s recommendation made on Feb 15, 2004.6 nonattainment counties: Lake, Elkhart, Marion, Clark, Vanderburgh and DuboisGovernor’s letter raising concerns about designation process, June 23, 2004EPA proposed designations on June 29, 2004 (18 counties and 1 township)The Clean Air Act provides 120 day consultation periodIDEM responded on September 1; discussions ongoingEPA’s draft implementation rule expected Winter 2004EPA’s final designations expected by December 31, 2004, effective 60 days laterEPA to publish final implementation rule early 2005State attainment plans (SIPs) due early 2008Areas must attain the standard by early 2010
18 Likely Implementation Milestones for Fine Particles RequirementBasic/Subpart 1Final DesignationsNo later than December 31, 2004Effective Date for DesignationsTo be determined.Attainment DeadlineFive years from effective dateAttainment SIP DeadlineThree years from effective dateTransportation ConformityRequired-finding in place one-year from effective dateNSR-Source Permit TriggerPrecursors and thresholds to be determinedNSR Offset RatioTo be determined
19 Emission Credit Registry Sources can voluntarily register their reductions as emission credits if they are permanent, quantifiable, enforceable and surplus.The registry provides a public database in a central location for sources to view available emission credits.This could be a useful tool for sources in nonattainment counties that wish to construct or modify and are unable to limit or control emissions below the nonattainment NSR thresholds.The new Emission Credit Registry became available on June 15, 2004 and is accessible at:
20 What Measures Will Improve Air Quality? Measures in Place to be Implemented Prior to 2007NOx SIP Call (Indiana’s NOx Reduction Rule)Tier II motor vehicle engine standardsLow Sulfur Gasoline StandardsHeavy Duty Diesel Engine StandardsUltra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel StandardsNon-road Diesel Engine and Low Sulfur Fuel RuleNOTE: These measures are predicted to bring all areas of Indiana into attainment of the 8-hour ozone standard, with the exception Central and Northwest Indiana. Impact of theses measures on the reduction of PM 2.5 is yet to be quantified.Federal Measures Currently Under ConsiderationMulti-pollutant legislation / Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR)
21 Additional Clean Air Measures Diesel reductions (retrofits, idle reduction programs, electrification)Energy Efficiency Projects (credit available under Indiana’s NOx Rule)Local Open Burning ProgramsMobile source programs
22 Outreach Efforts Underway IDEM and IDOC will meet with local officials, businesses and other stakeholders in all affected counties once designations are finalStakeholder groups established and meeting in Central Indiana, Southwest Indiana and Northwest Indiana to consider local clean air measures; will be established in other areas as neededIDEM can provide informational sessions on Emissions Credit Registry on request
23 Key Websites IDEM Mercury Workgroup: IDEM PM2.5 Information:IDEM Emission Credit Registry:
24 How Do I Find Out More? IDEM Website: www.in.gov/idem/air FINE PARTICLESMERCURYNEW SOURCEREVIEWEMISSIONCREDITREGISTRYShawn SealsSusan BemStacey PfefferKim CottrellIDEM Website: