Presentation on theme: "Principal Investigator:"— Presentation transcript:
0 POWERLINE COMMUNICATIONS FOR ENABLING SMART GRID APPLICATIONS Task ID:Prof. Brian L. EvansWireless Networking and Communications GroupCockrell School of EngineeringThe University of Texas at AustinMay 3, 2012
1 Principal Investigator: Task Summary | Background | PLC Noise Modeling and Mitigation | PLC TestbedTask Description:Improve powerline communication (PLC) bit rates for monitoring/controlling applications for residential and commercial energy usesAnticipated Results:Adaptive methods and real-time prototypes to increase bit rates in PLC networksPrincipal Investigator:Prof. Brian L. Evans, The University of Texas at AustinCurrent Students (with expected graduation dates):Ms. Jing Lin Ph.D. (May 2014)Mr. Yousof Mortazavi Ph.D. (Dec. 2012)Mr. Marcel Nassar Ph.D. (Dec. 2012)Mr. Karl Nieman Ph.D. (May 2014)Industrial Liaisons:Dr. Anand Dabak (TI), Mr. Leo Dehner (Freescale), Mr. Michael Dow (Freescale), Mr. Frank Liu (IBM) and Dr. Khurram Waheed (Freescale)Starting Date: August 2010
2 Task Deliverables Date Tasks Dec 2010 Task Summary | Background | PLC Noise Modeling and Mitigation | PLC TestbedTask DeliverablesDateTasksDec 2010Uncoordinated interference in narrowband PLC: measurements, modeling, and mitigationMay 2011Single-transmitter single-receiver (1x1) PLC testbedDec 2011Narrowband PLC channel and noise: measurements and modelingOn-goingTwo-transmitter two-receiver (2x2) PLC testbedNarrowband PLC noise mitigation
3 Smart Grid: Big Picture Task Summary | Background | PLC Noise Modeling and Mitigation | PLC TestbedSmart Grid: Big PictureLong distance communication : access to isolated housesReal-Time : Customers profiling enabling good predictions in demand = no need to use an additional power plantMicro- production: better knowledge of energy produced to balance the networkDemand-side management : boilers are activated during the night when electricity is availableSmart building : significant cost reduction on energy bill through remote monitoringAny disturbance due to a storm : action can be taken immediately based on real-time informationSecurity features Fire is detected : relay can be switched off rapidlySmart car : charge of electrical vehicles while panels are producingSource: ETSI
4 Task Summary | Background | PLC Noise Modeling and Mitigation | PLC Testbed Power LinesBuilt for unidirectional flow of power and not for bidirectional communicationsHigh Voltage (HV) 33 kV – 765 kVMedium Voltage (MV) 1 kV – 33 kVLow Voltage (LV) under 1 kVConcentrator (Transformer)Source: Électricité Réseau Dist. France (ERDF)
5 Powerline Communications Task Summary | Background | PLC Noise Modeling and Mitigation | PLC TestbedPowerline CommunicationsCategoryFreq. BandBit RateApplicationsUltra narrowband0.3 – 3.0 kHz~100 bpsAutomatic meter readingOutage detectionVoltage monitoringNarrowband3 – 500 kHz~500 kbpsDevice-specific billingSmart energy managementBroadband1.8 – 250 MHz~200 MbpsHome area networksNarrowband PLC systemsBidirectional communication over MV/LV lines between local utility and customersIndustry standards: G3, PRIMEInternational standards: G.hnem, IEEE P1901.2
6 Narrowband PLC Systems Task Summary | Background | PLC Noise Modeling and Mitigation | PLC TestbedNarrowband PLC SystemsProblem: Non-Gaussian impulsive noise is primary limitation to PLC communication performance yet traditional communication system design assumes noise is GaussianGoal: Improve communication performance in impulsive noise (i.e. increase bit rate and/or reduce error rate)Approach: Statistical modeling of impulsive noiseSolution: Receiver design to mitigate impulsive noiseParametricNonparametricListen to environmentNo training necessaryFind model parametersLearn statistical model from communication signal structureUse model to mitigate noiseExploit sparsity to mitigate noise
7 Narrowband PLC Impulsive Noise Task Summary | Background | PLC Noise Modeling and Mitigation | PLC TestbedNarrowband PLC Impulsive NoiseCyclostationary NoiseAsynchronous NoiseExample: rectified power suppliesExample: uncoordinated interferenceRx ReceiverDominant in outdoor PLCIncreases with widespread deployment
8 Cyclostationary Noise Modeling Task Summary | Background | PLC Noise Modeling and Mitigation | PLC TestbedCyclostationary Noise ModelingMeasurement data from UT/TI field trialCyclostationary Gaussian Model [Katayama06]Proposed model uses three filters [Nassar12]DemuxPeriod is one half of an AC cycles[k] is zero-mean Gaussian noiseAdopted by IEEE P narrowband PLC standard
9 Asynchronous Noise Modeling Task Summary | Background | PLC Noise Modeling and Mitigation | PLC TestbedAsynchronous Noise ModelingDominant Interference SourceEx. Rural areas, industrial areas w/ heavy machineryMiddleton Class A Distribution [Nassar11]Impulse rate l Impulse duration mHomogeneous PLC Networkli = l, mi = m, g(di) = g0Ex. Semi-urban areas, apartment complexesMiddleton Class A Distribution [Nassar11]General PLC Networkli, mi, g(di) = giEx. Dense urban and commercial settingsGaussian Mixture Model [Nassar11]Middleton Class A is a special case of the Gaussian Mixture Model.
10 Asynchronous Noise Sparse in time domain Learn statistical model Task Summary | Background | PLC Noise Modeling and Mitigation | PLC TestbedAsynchronous NoiseSparse in time domainLearn statistical modelUse sparse Bayesian learning (SBL)Exploit sparsity in time domain [Lin11]SNR gain of 6-10 dBIncreases 2-3 bits per tone for same error rate - OR -Decreases bit error rate by x for same SNRtime~10dB~6dBTransmission places 0-3 bits at each tone (frequency). At receiver, null tone carries 0 bits and only contains impulsive noise.
11 Task Summary | Background | PLC Noise Modeling and Mitigation | PLC Testbed Our PLC TestbedQuantify application performance vs. complexity tradeoffsExtend our real-time DSL testbed (deployed in field)Integrate ideas from multiple narrowband PLC standardsProvide suite of user-configurable algorithms and system settingsDisplay statistics of communication performance1x1 PLC testbed (completed)Adaptive signal processing algorithmsImproved communication performance 2-3x on indoor power lines2x2 PLC testbed (on-going)Use one phase, neutral and groundGoal: Improve communication performance by another 2x
12 Our PLC Testbed Hardware Software Task Summary | Background | PLC Noise Modeling and Mitigation | PLC TestbedOur PLC TestbedHardwareSoftwareNational Instruments (NI) controllers stream dataNI cards generates/receives analog signalsTexas Instruments (TI) front end couples to power lineReal-time system runs transceiver algorithmsDesktop PC running LabVIEW is used as an input and visualization tool to display important system parameters.1x1 Testbed
13 Our Peer-Reviewed Publications Tutorial/Survey ArticleM. Nassar, J. Lin, Y. Mortazavi, A. Dabak, I. H. Kim and B. L. Evans, “Local Utility Powerline Communications in the kHz Band: Channel Impairments, Noise, and Standards”, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Special Issue on Signal Processing Techniques for the Smart Grid, SepConference PublicationsM. Nassar, A. Dabak, I. H. Kim, T. Pande and B. L. Evans, “Cyclostationary Noise Modeling In Narrowband Powerline Communication For Smart Grid Applications”, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Proc., Mar. 2012, Kyoto, Japan.M. Nassar, K. Gulati, Y. Mortazavi, and B. L. Evans, “Statistical Modeling of Asynchronous Impulsive Noise in Powerline Communication Networks”, Proc. IEEE Int. Global Communications Conf., Dec. 2011, Houston, TX USA.J. Lin, M. Nassar and B. L. Evans, “Non-Parametric Impulsive Noise Mitigation in OFDM Systems Using Sparse Bayesian Learning”, Proc. IEEE Int. Global Communications Conf., Dec. 2011, Houston, TX USA.
16 Cyclostationary Noise Asynchronous Impulsive Noise PLC Noise ScenariosBackground NoiseCyclostationary NoiseAsynchronous Impulsive NoiseSpectrally shaped noiseDecreases with frequencySuperposition of lower-intensity sourcesIncludes narrowband interferenceCylostationary in time and frequencySynchronous and asynchronous to AC main frequencyComes from rectified and switched power supplies (synchronous), and electrical motors (asynchronous)Dominant in narrowband PLCImpulse duration from micro to millisecondRandom inter-arrival time50dB above background noiseCaused by switching transients and uncoordinated interferencePresent in narrowband and broadband PLCtime