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Ammonium Nitrate and UAN

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1 Ammonium Nitrate and UAN
ChE 397 – Team 7 Ammonium Nitrate and UAN Mentor Adam Kanyuh (UOP) Members Tim Brown (Team Leader) Mahalet Sebhatu (Scribe) Gabriel Salamanca Rami Saigh

2 Introduction This plant focuses on the production of Ammonia-Based fertilizers. The plant will be located in the Williston, North Dakota Our focus is on the production of Ammonium Nitrate (A.N.) and Urea-Ammonium Nitrate (UAN-32) These products are valuable in the fertilizer industry due to their high levels of nitrogen.

3 Outline Ammonium Nitrate (A.N.) Urea-Ammonium Nitrate (UAN)
Design Basis Inputs and Outputs Environmental Review Competing Processes Nitrophosphate Carnit Stengel Block Flow Diagram Conclusion Urea-Ammonium Nitrate (UAN) Design Basis Inputs and Outputs Environmental Review Block Flow Diagram Conclusion

4 Design Basis Ammonium Nitrate Production
Based on a total output of TPD ( TPD) of NH4NO3, dry weight Feed streams: 423.9 TPD (460.8 TPD) NH3 dry weight TPD ( TPD) HNO3 dry weight At 63% HNO3 by weight: TPD ( TPD) Output streams 920.5 TPD ( TPD) NH4NO3 dry weight Split between granular and solution streams, amounts are to be determined TPD ( TPD) NH4NO3 dry weight Sent to UAN process Assumptions: 100% yield Full separation of product from waste Red figures based on 92% operation time The process is extremely exothermic, producing heat in excess of it’s own required processes resulting in available heat for other processes. If the ammonium nitrate reaches 240 degree Celsius, it has the potential to blow up. Utilities required: Steam, Electricity, Water

5 Design Basis Environmental Review: Ammonium nitrate:
Processes releasing most of emissions are the neutralizers (nitric acid, ammonia, and particulates) depending on which reactant is present in excess, but mostly ammonia. Ammonia emission range from g/kg to 3.14 g/kg. According to EPA, particulate emission from ammonium nitrate solutions based on an average neutralizer capacity of 131,500 metric tons/year. [3]: Emission point Maximum ground level concentration (μg/m3) Neutralizer 539 Evaporator/concentrator 190 Cooler 16

6 Competing Processes I Nitrophosphate Process (a.k.a. Odda process)
Involves acidifying phosphate rock with nitric acid to produce calcium nitrate crystals, which later react with NH3 to produce ammonium nitrate. Process uses many raw materials that aren’t supplied, so it is economically unsound to run in the plant as currently designed. This process has an addition of Carbon and Calcium, which would be excessive to remove and extra equipment. [4] Ca3(PO4)2 + 6 HNO H2O → 2 H3PO4 + 3 Ca(NO3) H2O Ca(NO3)2 + 2 NH3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NH4NO3 + CaCO3

7 Competing Processes II
Carnit Process Two reactors are required for this process A titanium reactor for the acidic solution A low carbon stainless steal reactor for the alkaline solution. Process involves boilers and a falling film evaporator made from low carbon stainless steel Unreacted nitric acid recycles to the reactor to react with additional ammonia. Extra steps are required to produce granular ammonium nitrate. [5]

8 Competing Processes III
Stengel process Energy Efficient Relatively few pieces of equipment Recovers much of the exothermic energy and has the potential to use it in another process. NH3(g) + HNO3 (aq)  NH4NO3 (aq) 99% yield This is the most viable option, both feed streams can be easily provided and doesn’t produce excessive waste.

9 Process Selection [Odda]
Process uses many reactants that aren’t supplied, so it is economically unsound to run in the plant as currently designed. This process has an addition of Carbon and Calcium, which would be excessive to remove and extra equipment. [5] [Carnit] Process requires extra equipment Process is more complicated 97.5% yield [Stengel] Process uses reactants efficiently Good energy recover in terms of recycled steam Low emissions 99% Yield

10 Block Flow Diagram (A.N.)

11 Design Basis Urea-Ammonium Nitrate (UAN-32)
Based on Product steam of TPD (2590.9) Feed Streams: TPD ( TPD) NH4NO3 dry weight 831.3 TPD (903.6 TPD) CO(NH2)2 dry weight 687.6 TPD (747.4 TPD) H2O May be mixed in with the two previous feeds Product stream TPD (2590.9) UAN-32 (solution) UAN-32 is defined to have 32% nitrogen by weight Assumptions Well-Mixed No Waste Streams Perfect pH balance Dry feed steams Red figures based on 92% operation time Utilities – Water, Electricity

12 Design Basis Environmental Review: UAN: Handling and Storage:
UAN solution is not explosive; however, it decomposes to noxious, poisonous gases when exposed to high temperature. No gaseous emissions or waste arise during the non-pressure mixing of the aqueous based components if the best available technology is employed. pH values and temperatures must be monitored continuously. The ammonium/nitric acid levels are generally too small to cause a major hazard. [2] Handling and Storage: Avoid using zinc or copper alloys in contact with UAN solution due to corrosion. Use corrosion inhibitors to prevent corrosion. [1]

13 Block Flow Diagram (UAN)

14 Conclusion We will use the Stengel process to manufacture A.N. on a total basis of TPD. Also include the manufacture of UAN on a basis of TPD by a mixing process All information presented today is a portion of our Report Outline. Design Basis Introduction Enviromental concerns and standards Process Description Block Flow Diagrams Flow Sheet, material and energy balances, hand calculations, and rough economics will be covered on the next presentation.

15 Thank you for your time Questions?

16 References [1] [2] %20Ammonium%20Nitrate.pdf [3] ndex=1976%20Thru%201980&Docs=&Query=&Time=&EndTime=&SearchMethod=1&TocRestr ict=n&Toc=&TocEntry=&QField=&Qfi [4] [5] it+Ammonium+Nitrate+Process&source=bl&ots=rWUhKgOFIn&sig=RzRctOgG8ZuFTLM M0Et2dE- jiAY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=CVoWT9X5KIKvgweCr_yhAw&ved=0CD0Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q =Carnit%20Ammonium%20Nitrate%20Process&f=false

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