Presentation on theme: "District Energy/Microgrids: Resilient, Efficient Infrastructure"— Presentation transcript:
1 District Energy/Microgrids: Resilient, Efficient Infrastructure Robert Thornton, President & CEONew England Electricity Restructuring Roundtable – “Bracing for Storms in New England”Boston , MADecember 21, 2012
2 501(c)6 industry association 2000+ members in 26 nations Formed in 1909 – 103 years in 2012501(c)6 industry association2000+ members in 26 nations56% end-user systems; majority in North America; 44 statesMost major public & private colleges and universities; urban utilities.A little background on my organization.The International District Energy Association was founded nearly 98 years ago in Toledo Ohio as the National District Heating Association, to support the combined heat and power industry, mainly downtown steam system operations in most major cities across the United States.Today, IDEA has over 900 members from 21 different countries.Our staff provides advocacy and promotes the use of efficient district energy systems. We organize and host conferences, perform industry research and outreach, support peer exchange and training and serve as a business and technical clearinghouse for the industry.We publish District Energy magazine, a quarterly industry magazine and maintain a robust web site with over 1200 technical papers and copious content on our industry.
4 What is District Energy/Microgrid? Local “distributed” generation integrating CHP; thermal energy; electricity generation; thermal storage and renewablesLocated near load centers; customer density; often some mission- critical needsRobust, economic assetsCHP interconnected with regional & local gridAble to “island” in the event of grid failureMichael King
6 Resilient Infrastructure for Local Clean Energy Economy Connects thermal energy users with sourcesHardened distribution assets for higher reliabilityUrban infrastructure – hidden community assetAggregates thermal loads for economies of scale
7 This graph demonstrates the before and after effect of district cooling service on the electricity demand of an actual 358,000 sq ft office building in Cleveland, OH.The orange curve, or camel hump, is the peak monthly power demand over a 12 month period with the 1.5 MW peak in July. This is the actual metered KWD demand on the local electricity grid in 2004 with two electric chillers operating to supply air conditioning to the office building space.The green curve, is after district cooling was connected , and the electric chillers were no longer operating. The peak electric demand varies by less than 2% between January and July, essentially establishing a flat and consistent electric demand profile for the entire year.The demand is reduced by nearly 50% from 1487 KWD to 793 KWD.To an electricity utility, the orange part of the curve is actually the bad cholesterol which is the most expensive to purchase, provide and manage.
8 Future Proofing A More Resilient City Illustration, copyright AEI / Affiliated Engineers, Inc.Roger LautzCentral plant: data on loads is used to specify an appropriately sized lead heat or cooling generator, or prime mover, to supply base load,and back-up boilers to meet peak load. Variety of types of prime movers.Siting central plant—detailed consideration to identify optimum locationFuelFuture proofing— planning space for additional capacity within the plant utility to cover future expansion of the network;— a building design that will allow plant replacement and the later fitting of new technologies, such as fuel cells orbiomass CHP;— sizing pipe work to allow future expansion of the network.
9 Super Storm Sandy: By the Numbers 820 miles in diameter on 10/29/12Double landfall size Isaac & Irene combinedCaused 131 fatalitiesTotal estimated cost to date - $71 billion+ (dni lost business)New York - $42New Jersey - $29Affected 21states (as far west as Michigan)8,100,000 homes lost power57,000 utility workers from 30 states & Canada assisted Con Ed in restoring power
10 Long Island, NY Danbury , CT Garden City, NY Garden City, NY Top left: Danbury, CTTop right: Long Island, NYBottom left, bottom right: Garden City, NY (home of Nassau Energy Corp.)Garden City, NYGarden City, NY
11 NYC Co-Op City Bronx, New York “City within a city” - 60,000 residents, 330 acres, 14,000+ apartments, 35 high rise buildingsOne of the largest housing cooperatives in the world; 10th largest city in New York State40 MW cogeneration plant maintained power before, during and after the storm (heat & power)If considered a municipality, Co-Op City Complex would be the 10th largest in New York State.Co-Op city source:
12 Mission-Critical Operations Danbury Hospital (Danbury, CT) – 4.5 MW CHPsupplies 371 bed hospital with power and steam to heat buildings, sterilize hospital instruments & produce chilled water for AC$17.5 million investment, 3-4 year payback, cut AC costs 30%Nassau Energy Corp. (Long Island, NY) – 57 MW CHPSupplies thermal energy to 530 bed Nassau University Medical Center, Nassau Community College, evacuation center for CountyNo services lost to any major customers during SandySouth Oaks Hospital (Long Island, NY) – 1.3 MW CHPHartford Hospital/Hartford Steam (CT) – 14.9 MW CHPBergen County Utilities Wastewater (Little Ferry, NJ) MW CHP (Process sewage for 47 communities)Danbury Hospital source -Nassau Energy Corp supplies all of the thermal requirements for the Nassau University Medical Center; a major 530 bed trauma hospital as well as the Nassau Community College which served as an evacuation center for Nassau County. During the storm event no services were lost to any of our major customers which also includes Nassau Veteran’s Memorial Coliseum. Our electric output was steady during the entire event to our offtaker, Long Island Power Authority. (LIPA).
13 Princeton University, NJ Stony Brook Univ, NY Top left: PrincetonTop right: Stony Brook Univ.Bottom left: Fairfield, CT (home of Fairfield Univ.)Bottom left: Ewing, NJ (home of The College of New Jersey)Fairfield, CTEwing, NJ
14 Resilient University Microgrids The College of New Jersey (NJ) – 5.2 MW CHP“Combined heat and power allowed our central plant to operate in island mode without compromising our power supply.” - Lori Winyard, Director, Energy and Central Facilities at TCNJFairfield, University (CT) – 4.6 MW CHP98% of the Town of Fairfield lost power, university only lost power for a brief period at the storm’s peakUniversity buildings served as area of refuge for off-campus studentsStony Brook University (LI, NY) – 45 MW CHP< 1 hour power interruption to campus of 24,000 students (7,000 residents)NYU Washington Square Campus (NY, NY) – 13.4 MW CHPPrinceton University (NJ) – 15 MW CHPCHP/district energy plant supplies all heat and hot water and half of the electricity to campus of 12,000 students/faculty"We designed it so the electrical system for the campus could become its own island in an emergency. It cost more to do that. But I'm sure glad we did.“ – Ted Borer, Energy Manager at Princeton University
15 Case Example District Energy/Microgrid: Princeton University > 150 Buildings; 12,000 peopleAcademicResearchAdministrativeResidentialAthleticPrinceton University in New Jersey is one of our nation’s oldest and most respected colleges .
16 Production Capacity & Peak Demands Princeton University Electricity Rating Peak Demand(1) Gas Turbine Generator 15 MW 27 MWSteam Generation(1) Heat Recovery Boiler ,000 #/hr(2) Auxiliary Boilers 300,000#/hr 240,000 #/hrChilled Water Plant(3) Steam-Driven Chillers 10,100 Tons(3) Electric Chillers 5,700 Tons 11,800 Tons(8) CHW Distribution Pumps 23,000 GPM 21,000 GPMThermal Storage(2) Electric Chillers 5,000 Tons(1) Thermal Storage Tank 40,000 Ton-hours*peak discharge 10,000 tons (peak)(4) CHW Distribution Pumps 10,000 GPMSolar PV Farm MWe16,500 panels hectaresPrinceton has a campus energy system that produces steam, chilled water and electricity.The gas turbine is rated at 15 MW and the peak campus demand is around 27 MW.They have 480,000 pounds per hour of total steam capacity and a campus peak demand of about 240,000 pounds.For chiller plant, they have 16,800 tons of chiller capacity, a mix of electric and steam driven chillers. The campus cooling peak is about 11,800 tons.Princeton also has a thermal storage tank and dedicated electric chillers that provide 40,000 ton hours of cooling and depending on the rate of discharge of the thermal storage tank, it can provide up to 10,000 tons capacity.
17 The plant is located in the southwest section of the campus by the hockey rink.
18 Princeton Micro-Grid Power Generation Dispatch To Optimize Savings – PJM Grid This graph depicts a few days in July 2005.The pink curve is the campus electricity demand.The blue curve is the cogeneration production, making their own power.The yellow is the amount of electricity purchased from the grid.On July 8, Princeton avoided purchased very little from the grid.The comparative price shifted a little during evening hours as they charged their tank and the price of gas versus was higher than wholesale power price.On July 10, they met a portion of their electric load with self generation. But you can see how the load curve swings from day to day and they typically follow the demand curve with their own generation.
19 Princeton CHP/District Cooling Reduces Peak Demand on Local Grid Grid demandPrinceton Demand
20 Princeton University PV Farm – Aug, ,500 PV panels generate up to 327 Watts each at 54.7 Volts DC
24 Princeton University Microgrid Benefit to Local Grid During August peak: 100+ deg F; 80% RH2005 campus peak demand on grid 27 MWImplemented advance control scheme2006 campus peak demand on grid 2 MWMicrogrid “freed up” 25 MW to local gridreduces peak load on local wiresavoids brownoutsenhances reliabilitysupports local economyOne key point for our industry is the positive impact our systems have on the local electric grid in displacing peak demand and improving reliability.The Princeton experience underscores the value proposition.You might recall we had a major power failure and cascading grid collapse in August 2003.This resulted in a new office focused on electricitiy reliability and the grid at the US DOE.Currently, electric utilities do not transfer this value to the source in any real sense, other than avoided demand charges.We need policy makers to better understand our impact on electric reliability. We frankly need to do a better job informing policy makers overall. Here’s what Christie Whitman had to say…
25 Thermal energy also critical, not just electricity District Energy/Microgrids: ConsiderationsThermal energy also critical, not just electricityCHP is clean, proven, and competitiveRobust assets, not “backup” systemsImpediments: capricious standby charges; opaque interconnection process; value thermalInstitutions driven by efficiency, climate actionGovernors/mayors seeking more resiliencyClean, reliable infrastructure drives economic growth
27 Princeton's Cogeneration Plant Provides Power During Hurricane https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=WtjIj91imSQForbes: Natural Gas: America's Future Electric Grid?New York Times: How Natural Gas Kept Some Spots Bright and Warm as Sandy Blasted New York CityLessons from Sandy: how one community in storm's path kept lights onIn Sandy's wake, clues to a more resilient transmission system emergePost-storm Prescription: Energy Reliability and Onsite PowerLessons learned from Hurricane SandyStatus of operations at Fairfield University due To Hurricane Sandy
28 Microgrids Keep Power Flowing Through Sandy Outages Combined Heat & Power Saver/Savior at TCNJMore evidence of value of cogeneration during SandyPlatts: Electric Utility Week - After Sandy, more thoughts turn to building up resiliency; answers are complex and elusiveWill Hurricane Sandy Change the Way We Distribute Power?How to avoid the next Sandy meltdownHow CHP Stepped Up When the Power Went Out During Hurricane SandyBackup Generator FailuresWhy Do Hospital Generators Keep Failing?NYU Hospital Evacuated After Backup Generator Goes Down