Presentation on theme: "A PRESENTATION TO GREEK SHIPPING COMMUNITY Best Fuel Purchase Practices, Energy Management and Asset Protection – An attempt to quantify benefits MARPOL."— Presentation transcript:
A PRESENTATION TO GREEK SHIPPING COMMUNITY Best Fuel Purchase Practices, Energy Management and Asset Protection – An attempt to quantify benefits MARPOL ANNEXE VI – AN UPDATE
BEST FUEL AND LUBE PURCHASE PRACTICES – ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND ASSET PROTECTION- AN ATTEMPT TO QUANTIFY THE BENEFITS 1.Bunker Industry Overview and Potential for savings 2.Quantification of savings through Bunker Quantity Surveys, ROB Surveys and Sludge Surveys 3.Holistic View of Bunker Fuel Performance including Bunker Purchase Efficiency - Saving Millions 4.Algorithms to Identify Problem Fuels saving marine machinery from major breakdown expenses 5.Spending less $ through best Fuel and Lube management – Energy Efficiency and Asset Protection 6.Total Lube Management – Quantifying $ Benefits 7.Scrubbers – A new simplified low cost regulations compliant design
INTRODUCTION TO BUNKER INDUSTRY - GLOBAL AND IN SINGAPORE GLOBAL BUNKERING – 230 MILLION MT HFO AND 70 MILLION MDO VALUE - $240 BILLION ((HFO $700/MT, MDO $1200/MT, AVERAGE TAKEN AS $800/MT) SINGAPORE QUANTITY BUNKERED IN SINGAPORE > 40 MILLION MT THE EFFECT OF WATER WATER CONTENT IS 0.16% AGAINST 0.06% IN JAPAN 0.1% OF WATER = 40,000 MT = $32 MILLION !
INTRODUCTION TO BUNKER INDUSTRY - GLOBAL AND IN SINGAPORE THE EFFECT OF DENSITY DIFFERENCE EVEN FOR DENSITY DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BDN (SAY 990) AND LAB DENSITY (980), IT IS 10 MT PER 1,000 MT. IN SINGAPORE, THIS COMES TO 400,000 MT = $320 MILLION THE EFFECT OF QUANTITY SURVEY SHORTAGE ASSUMING 40,000 BUNKERINGS AT 1,000 MT EACH AND 10 MT LOST PER BUNKERING = 400,000 MT LOST DUE TO QUANTITY SUPPLY SHORTAGE = $320 MILLION !! ADD UP THESE LOSES AND IN SINGAPORE ALONE THE LOSS IS NEARLY $672 MILLION HOW TO REDUCE THESE LOSSES?
QUANTIFICATION OF SAVINGS FOR BQS, ROB AND SLUDGE SURVEYS Assumptions: 1 Bunkering Stem = 3,000 MT of HFO used up in a 30 day voyage. #SERVICENATURE OF $700/MTCOST OF SERVICE 1BQS - Quantity Shortage30 MT$21,000$1,000 2BQS - Density Differential3000 X ( ) = 30 MT$21,000included in #1 3BQS - Water Differential3000 X ( ) = 3 MT$2,100included in #1 4Remaining on Board (ROB)30 days X 2 MT/day = 60 MT$42,000$1,000 5Sludge Survey (SS)3000 X 0.5% = 15 MT$10,500$1,000 Savable Loss in 30 day voyage$96,600 Total Cost of Serviceabout $3,000
WHY BQS? Disputes on bunker quantity are about 8 times that of disputes on quality. Lot of scope for errors & manipulations Well known that quantities and their measurements are manipulated by some suppliers through sounding tape, temperature, water addition, ship staff corruption, Cappuccino etc. Quantity surveys do not eliminate, but reduce losses considerably
WHY DO BQS WITH VISWA? Viswa Lab is the one of few labs to be accredited to ISO by Singapore Accreditation Council for the Bunker Quantity Survey Activity Highly Experienced, Highly paid and mature surveyors familiar with Cappuccino and Line blendingCappuccino and Line blending Calibration table and barge track recordCalibration table and barge track record Proper sampling and dealing with barge captainsProper sampling and dealing with barge captains 7 Exclusive employees surveyors in Singapore/Malaysia area, 3 in mainland China/Hong Kong area and many more in US and Europe7 Exclusive employees surveyors in Singapore/Malaysia area, 3 in mainland China/Hong Kong area and many more in US and Europe
WHY ROB SURVEY? WHY ROB SURVEY - To capture unaccounted and hidden bunker fuels on ships - Sounding all tanks and hidden spaces for the above - Helps in keeping ship staff and supply barge stay above temptation - Helps shore operations to calculate exact fuel consumption - Helps shore operations to order the correct bunker fuel quantity - Savings can be 2 MT/day or $42,000 in a 30 day voyage
WHY SLUDGE SURVEY? HISTORY - Some sludge is always produced on a ship; this is stored in the sludge tank. It contains some fuel which has value PRACTICE The sludge generation can be increased through unethical practices such as - Forced de sludging of heavy oil purifier - Excessive draining of heavy oil settling and service tank -Forced purifier malfunctioning to extract more sludge -Excess sludge so produced stored in sludge tank and smaller quantity declared. The excess sludge commands premium and payments in some ports
WHY SLUDGE SURVEY? Viswa Solutions -Viswa surveyors will carry out comprehensive sludge survey, calculate the sludge discharge, study the oil record book and identify and quantify malpractices -Savings affected = 0.5% or 15 MT/3000 MT= $10,500 per 30 day voyage
BUNKER PURCHASE EFFICIENCY (BPE) VL uses three clear parameters to study Bunker Purchase Efficiency (BPE) 1.Density differential, 2.Water content differential 3.EFN (Engine Friendliness Number) The study reveals that avoiding bunkering in a certain port will improve BPE considerably. Similarly, avoiding purchasing from a certain supplier can show dramatic improvements in BPE. See below Singapore example * There is a difference in the supplier BDN density and the lab determined density. Fuel buyer can claim this difference. ** There is a difference supplier BDN water content and the lab determined water content. Fuel buyer can also claim.
BUNKER PURCHASE EFFICIENCY (BPE) COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE ON QUALITY SINGAPORE PORT - 4/2010 TO 4/ ABCD had lowest losses due to density differential (- 0.02%) 2.ABCD purchased fuel with lowest water content (0.13%) 3.Catfines in fuel purchased by ABCD was lowest at ppm 4.Vanadium in fuel purchased by ABCD was lowest at ppm 5.ABCD purchased fuel had best EFN at 61 6.Quantity loss per 1000 MT by ABCD due to density difference and water content was lowest at 1.43 MT/1000 MT (worst performer lost 3.78 MT/1000 MT). This means that ABCD saved over 2.35 MT/1000 MT or $1.65 per MT over the poorest bunker purchase buyer.
BUNKER PURCHASE – SHOWING BENEFITS OF FUEL QUALITY INCLUDING IGNITION AND COMBUSTION PROPERTIES TRUE WORTH INDEX – TABLE 1 CALCULATING TWI (EFN common as 50) - TABLE 1CALCULATING TWI (EFN common as 50) - TABLE 1 BUNKER PORT AVERAGE LIFT (MT) AVERAGE DENSITY (Kg/m3) QUANTITY CONSIDERED FOR CALCULATION (KG) AVERAGE WATER (%) AVERAGE WATER (Kg) KG AVAILABLE FOR COMBUSTION ROTTERDAM SINGAPORE JEDDAH TOKYO HOUSTON UAE
BUNKER PURCHASE – SHOWING BENEFITS OF FUEL QUALITY INCLUDING IGNITION AND COMBUSTION PROPERTIES TRUE WORTH INDEX – TABLE 2 CALCULATING TWI with EFN common as 50 (continued)CALCULATING TWI with EFN common as 50 (continued) ABCDEFGH BUNKER PORT KG AVAILABLE FOR COMBUSTION AVG CALORIFIC VALUE (MJ/Kg) MJ in 1000 kg (A X B) TWI (NO EFN) (expressed as %) MJ available for work (C X D) HFO 380 cost $/MJ (F/E) MJ/$ (E/F) ROTTERDAM $ SINGAPORE $ JEDDAH $ TOKYO $ HOUSTON $ UAE $ BEST PORTJeddah $/MJ or35.16 MJ/$ TRUE PRICE DIFFERENTIAL FROM JEDDAH ROTTERDAM22.80%( )/ SINGAPORE23.70% TOKYO1.40% HOUSTON28.60% UAE16.20% Though Rotterdam price appears to be cheaper at $644 per MT, if you take into account the quality of the fuel, Jeddah fuel is 22.8% less expensive even though the Jeddah fuel costs $703 per MT.
GARD - AN INTERNATIONAL P&I COMPANY REPORTED: MAIN AND AUXILARY ENGINE REPORTED CLAIMS - 31% OF TOTAL HULL AND MACHINERY CLAIMS INDUSTRY STATISTICS INDICATE 80% OF ALL ENGINE BREAKDOWNS ARE RELATED TO FUEL OIL OF LUBE OIL. CIMAC USER GROUP IN VIENNA COMPLAINED THAT 40% OF THE VESSELS DEVELOPED MACHINERY PROBLEMS WITHIN THE WARRANTY PERIOD. ENGINE BREAKDOWNS, BLACKOUTS, DRIFTING SHIPS CONSTITUTE MAJOR DANGERS FUEL RELATED MACHINERY PROBLEMS – P&I FINDINGS
-Asked if they had encountered "any serious off- specification fuel deliveries" last year, 52% said no, while 44% said yes. 4% did not reply. Off spec included items covered by para 5.1 of ISO 8217: % reported filter clogging, 48% experienced sludging, 40% said they had fuel pump sticking/seizures, and 19% had piston ring breakages. -77% said they had no regulatory problems in emission control areas (ECAs), while 22% said they did. FINDINGS OF A SURVEY CONDUCTED ON BUNKER FUELS
WITH THE REGULATIONS DRIVEN NEED TO DROP SULPHUR CONTENT, MORE AND MORE REFINERY PROCESS CHANGES BEING EMPLOYED – MORE CONTAMINANTS ARE FINDING THEIR WAY INTO THE FUEL COMPLIANCE WITH ISO 8217 NO GUARANTEE THAT CONTAMINANTS WILL NOT BE PRESENT IN OVER 99% OF MACHINERY PROBLEMS, FUEL CONFORMED TO THE ISO 8217 SPECS!! MACHINERY PROBLEMS AND ISO
18 SOME QUESTIONS A)Can we identify problem fuels using comprehensive testing and before they cause machinery damage? Yes, thereby you can save machinery from poor performance and fuel related damage. B) Can a problem fuel be treated on board to mitigate damage? Yes. Performance of Purifier/Filters have to be monitored closely. Asset protection of high order can be achieved through proper monitoring of onboard treatment C) Can the performance of the fuel be maximized using mechanical and chemical manipulations? Yes. Through TFM and TLM, substantial savings can be achieved
19 HOLISTIC VIEW OF BUNKER FUEL
Using the Magic of Algorithms to identify problem fuels and saving millions
Algorithms In Layman's terms, play with numbers (data), find patterns and empirical rules. A formula or a set of rules to solve a problem Definition Of Algorithm
Viswa Lab Algorithms #ALGORITHMACRONYM 1 ENGINE FRIENDLINESS NUMBER EFN 2 PURIFIER EFFICIENCY FRIENDLINESS NUMBER PEFN 3 PROBLEM FUEL IDENTIFICATION NUMBER PFIN 4 TRUE WORTH INDEX TWI 5 NEW EQUIVALENT CETANE NUMBER NECN 6 FILTER BLOCKING TENDENCY NUMBER FBTN 7 CONTAMINANT PRESENCE INDICATOR CPI 8 FAMES DETECTION INDICATOR FDI
Beautification Algorithm Beautification Algorithm uses mathematical formula to alter original form into more attractive version Israeli Software takes into account 234 facial parameters. These parameters were arrived at based on likes and dislikes of 68 people who expressed their preference in beauty.
Algorithms In Bunker Fuel Typically a fuel test yields 29 data points Typically a fuel test yields 29 data points With additional tests, this can be up to 40 With additional tests, this can be up to 40 Yes, we can use data, statistical analysis, pattern recognition studies to identify most of the problem fuels Yes, we can use data, statistical analysis, pattern recognition studies to identify most of the problem fuels The secret to identifying problem fuels is using appropriate Algorithms The secret to identifying problem fuels is using appropriate Algorithms Viswa Lab deeply into Algorithms and can claim success in >85% Viswa Lab deeply into Algorithms and can claim success in >85%
ALGORITHM PFIN (Problem Fuel Identification Number) PISTON RING BREAKAGE PROBLEM – SEVERE M.E PISTON RING BREAKAGE PROBLEM PORTS – SINGAPORE, GREECE, GIBRALTAR, SPAIN, PANAMA, HOUSTON PROBLEM PERIOD – OVER 3 YEARS NUMBER OF REPORTED CASES - OVER 100
BROKEN PISTON RINGS
Fuels with high MCR(11.5%), high asphaltene (> 10.5%) and high CCAI (>849) were found to cause main engine piston ring breakage. However, in a few cases even this combination did not cause piston rings to break The need for finding other parameters which, in addition to the three above can effectively pin down the problem fuels was clear. VL was able to identify Xylene Equivalent number and Reserve Stability Number as two other parameters which in combination with the three listed above, clearly flagged fuels likely to cause piston ring breakage with over 85% certainty using an algorithm developed for this purpose. Further study continuing. WHAT IS PFIN? (Problem Fuel Identification Number)
PFIN GLOBAL COVERAGE PORTS PFIN TESTS REQUIREDPORTS PFIN TESTS NOT REQUIRED SingaporeHong Kong MaltaBrazil GibraltarAfrica PanamaArgentina HoustonAustralia SpainRussia ARAJapan ChinaKorea UAESaudi Arabia
Quantification of Fuel Quality-EFN EFN < 35 Fuel usually has problem EFN > 60 generally there is no problem 18 years, hundreds of thousands of samples after Engine Friendliness Number (EFN) - Already famous Benchmark of fuel quality. Quantification helps evaluation of engine maintenance cost.
TRUE WORTH INDEX OF BUNKER FUEL –TWI (PUBLISHED AT BUNKERWORLD.COM) The Selection of Bunker fuel – Importance of TWI True worth of a fuel is the energy transformable to useful work with minimal machinery wear What constitutes the True Worth of a Fuel? Calorific Value (CV) – the energy content Engine Friendliness Number (EFN) Equivalent Cetane Number (ECN) or the ability of the fuel to combust on time to maximize fuel energy usage
Determination FBT Of Problem Fuel Oils Procedure Fuel oil is pumped with target viscosity of 35 cst at flow rate (20mL/min) through 10µm mesh filter paper using a piston type metering pump. Fuel oil is pumped with target viscosity of 35 cst at flow rate (20mL/min) through 10µm mesh filter paper using a piston type metering pump. Back pressure of filter is recorded continuously. Back pressure of filter is recorded continuously. Test is designed to record pressure until 100kPa or the volume of the oil pumped reaches 300 mL. Test is designed to record pressure until 100kPa or the volume of the oil pumped reaches 300 mL. FBT is pressure differential/volume pumped FBT is pressure differential/volume pumped
Sample ID AAABBBCCCDDD Vessel Name Morning Express ANTWERPENCARDONIA AU ARIES Density (kg/m 3 ) °C (cst) Temperature to attain 15 cst viscosity ( °C) Al+Si (ppm) TSP (%,mass) Iron (ppm) Water (%,vol) FBT number (obtained by ASTM formula) Test parameters of fuel oil Determination Of FBTN Of Problem Fuel Oils
Energy Management Energy Management – Not only saves energy… (ENERGY = FUEL = $$) but also reduces emissions
VISWA ENERGY INITIATIVES Energy and Emission improvements – Driven by regulations VISWA Contributes through : TOTAL LUBE MANAGEMENT TOTAL FUEL MANAGEMENT CHOOSING THE FUELS WITH BEST VALUE (TWI) – SAVINGS IN COST, EMISSIONS AND ENERGY ENERGY MONITORING – SEEMP & EEOI SCRUBBERS
VISWA LAB TOTAL LUBE MANAGEMENT LUBE SELECTION BASED ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY Lubricants provide a barrier between rubbing surfaces and prevent metallic wear Lubricants consume 5% to 15% of the energy transmitted in order to provide this lubrication. This energy loss is used for overcoming churning losses and friction losses which are load, viscosity and chemistry dependent. Viscosity behavior under high temperature and high shear mainly determines oil energy efficiency. Many base oils to meet many viscosity requirement.
VISWA LAB TOTAL LUBE MANAGEMENT LUBE SELECTION BASED ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY In selecting the right lubricant for the right function, energy aspect has not received due weightage. Energy efficiency can be improved by selecting the right viscosity (lower the better but must avoid boundary conditions) Energy efficiency can also be improved by right selection and quantity of the additives. The savings in energy far outweighs the cost of the lubricant itself.
VISWA LAB TOTAL LUBE MANAGEMENT LUBE SELECTION BASED ON ASSET PROTECTION Asset protection simply means reduced wear and tear in the machinery. Wear and tear can be reduced by correct selection of additives and their quantity Wear and tear can be reduced by monitoring the oil condition and taking preventive action Wear and tear reduced by the correct filtration, particle count, temperature and every operational aspect of the oil Asset protection should extend even to the surface finish condition of the rubbing parts. The machinery life can be extended 3-4 times by investing in the above points
VISWA LAB TOTAL LUBE MANAGEMENT LUBE CONDITION MONITORING INCLUDING AFTERMARKET ADDITIVES. Detergents to keep spaces clean which will have the effect of clean combustion which could add to the fuel efficiency. Detergents prevent scale formation which impedes heat transfer (0.1 mm layer of soot/sludge can affect heat transfer to the effect of 50 to 100 degC). Higher the temp of the piston, greater the wear on the liner and piston ring. Identifying and purchasing After Market Additives - This is based on knowledge and functionality and how the additives work. This can provide valuable asset protection, higher energy efficiency, lower wear and particles generation and longer life for the lubricating oil.
VISWA LAB TOTAL LUBE MANAGEMENT LUBE AND MACHINERY DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
WEAR DEBRIS ANALYSIS
Viswa Total Fuel Management A concept in fuel management introduced by Viswa in 2001 How to get the best out of the fuel – Maximize Thermal Efficiency How to get the best out of the fuel – Maximize Thermal Efficiency Obtain the ignition and combustion characteristics. Obtain the ignition and combustion characteristics. Carry out complete analysis and forensic studies to identify chemical contaminants. Carry out complete analysis and forensic studies to identify chemical contaminants. Based on analysis results and EFN and TWI values of the fuel, mechanical manipulation of machinery controls to obtain maximum thermal efficiency Based on analysis results and EFN and TWI values of the fuel, mechanical manipulation of machinery controls to obtain maximum thermal efficiency Also chemical manipulation by using additives or lighter fractions such as distillate fuels Also chemical manipulation by using additives or lighter fractions such as distillate fuels
TFM Benefit – As Computed For APL/NOL SHIPPING Calculations Over Several Voyages
Tests Performed On Fuel For TFM Routine Analysis TAN/SANGC-MSAsphalteneStability Reserve stability number Xylene equivalent number Fuel Tech Ignition and Combustion Purifier Efficiency - Before & After - Spectroscopic And Particle Count Analyze Ship Machinery Condition With Logged Data Monitor Results After Corrections Are Implemented
How Does It Work Output: Parameters derived from Combustion Pressure Trace and Rate of Heat Release (ROHR)
Case: Problem Fuel Fuel Properties According to ISO 8217 Caused extensive problems for main engine Caused extensive problems for main engine – Reduced engine output – Heavy knocking at part load – Cylinder components needed replacement FIA testing at Fueltech shows: FIA testing at Fueltech shows: – Bad ignition and combustion properties – Indication of dumb-bell fuel Normal fuel Problem fuel Normal fuel Problem fuel
FIA - Curve & Glossary 46
Figures on Manipulation
ENERGY MANAGEMENT MODULES ENERGY MANAGEMENT MODULES FUEL MANAGEMENT SHIP ENERGY EFFICIENCY MANAGEMENT CREATING AWARENESS AND MOTIVATION AND TRAINING IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN VOYAGE PLANNING OPTIMIZED SHIP HANDLING HULL MAINTENANCE
ONBOARD ENERGY MONITOR MEASURES THE FOLLOWING EEOI - Energy Efficiency Operational Index TonHFO/Ton nm - Mass of HFO per nautical mile TonLFO/Ton nm - Mass of LFO per nautical mile TonCO2/nm - CO2 per nautical mile kWh/nm - Energy used per nautical mile kWh/Shaft Kw - ME efficiency TonCO2/shaft kWh - CO2 per shaft energy kn/shaft kWh - Velocity per shaft energy Ton CO2 / kWh - Generators emissions GEffi. - % Generator and efficiency Ton CO2 / kWh - Boiler emissions
SOME OTHER FUEL SAVING OPTIONS TECHNOLOGYPOSSIBLE SAVING Optimized Hull design and formupto 10% Weather and Voyage Routing4% Propeller Mewis Duct4% to 6% Fins on propeller boss nut1% Propeller - 3 bladesupto 3% Trim Adjustment3% to 5% Wind Energyupto 50% LFC Paintupto 9% Emulsion Fuelupto 10% Choosing the right lubricants5% to 15%
OTHER ENERGY SAVING OPTIONS STARISTIND GriegStarShipping firstvessel withMDinfullscale September Cost around USD 200,000. Fitting time 2 days in Dry Dock Retrofitting Possible. Currently 140 on order Upto 6% energy savings
MARPOL ANNEXE VI LIMITS ON SULPHUR GLOBAL (Jan 1st)EMMISSION CONTROL AREAS ENTRY INTO FORCE DATE >= 2012 TO 2020/25* >= 2020/25* >= 1 Jul 2010 TO < 1 Jan 2015 >= 1 Jan 2015 LIMITS 3.5% + 0.5% + 1.0% % + * EFFECTIVE YEAR (2020 OR 2025) WILL BE DECIDED IN ALTERNATE TECHNOLOGIES ALSO ACCEPTABLE INCLUDING EXHAUST GAS CLEANING SYSTEM
LIMITS ON SULPHUR - EUROPEAN UNION (EU) REQUIREMENTS AND CARB 0.1 % SULPHUR LIMIT(m/m) FOR MARINE FUEL INTRODUCED EFFECTIVE DATE: JANUARY 1, 2010 APPLIES TO ALL TYPES OF MACHINERY CALIFORNIA – 0.1% FROM 01 JANUARY 2014
Why Scrubbers? CASE 1 Consider a ship of 35,000 DWT consuming 25 MT per day. Based on detailed working, it is reasonable to assume that a ship will be in ECA area for at least 100 days in a year. Take the example of a ship coming from Japan/China to US West Coast. –Voyage takes 30 days. In a year, at least 11 voyages. This will involve: Port stay of 11 voyages X 2 x 3 days stay = 66 days. Maneuvering time of 0.5 day X 22 times = 11 days US West Coast ECA entry will be 1 X 22 = 22 days. Total ECA time = approximately 100 days
Why Scrubbers? Consider the following benefits for Case 1 As ECA area increases, this 100 days can become much more thereby increasing the savings. Post 2015, the differential cost between HFO and MDO can be much more than $300 per MT. After 2020, there will be substantial benefit when the sulfur content is capped at 0.5%. Assuming the ship will be around for another 10 years, the savings will be: –265 (days) X 25 (consumption) X $220 + –34 (days) X 20 (consumption) X $220 + –66 (days) X 5 (port consumption) X $220 = $1,680,000 per year So from 2012 to 2020, savings are $ 630,000 and From 2020 to 2030, savings are $18,500,000 Up to 2030, the savings will come to $19 million
Why Scrubbers? Other benefits are: Not having to have more tanks and pipelines for LS fuel, The freedom to buy any sulphur fuel, Not having to go to ports with added delay and bunkering small quantities of low sulphur fuel all of which are expensive and time consuming.
Introducing VISWA Scrubbers Forefront of Technological Excellence. Fully automated trouble free operation A product developed by three IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) Engineers with combined experience of over 100 years 30 years of experience, supplying pollution control equipment including scrubbers Expertise in all aspects of Ships and Marine industry through the Viswa Group
VISWA Scrubbers Features and Options Single scrubber can treat exhaust gas streams from ALL combustion sources Includes main engine, auxiliary boilers and generators Scrubber capacities up to 20 MW Higher capacity scrubbers available Options for exhaust gas treatment in ports
A LOGICAL alternative to WET SCRUBBERS - An exclusive from Viswa Scrubbers A new simplified low cost regulations compliant design New Design Dry scrubbers Spray Dried Absorbers Uses lime for SO2 capture Safe to handle No Centrifuges No wash water to be discharged
Schematic Diagram of SDA Inlet exhaust gas From main engine, auxiliary engine and boilers Air to Atomizer Spray Dryer Lime & Water Fabric Filter Stack Waste solids (CaSO3 & CaSO4) Atomizer
Advantages of SDA Ca(OH)2 + SO2 > CaSO3 + H2O CaSO3 + ½ O2 > CaSO4
CONCLUSION Substantial savings are possible through bunker quantity management Asset protection and long term savings are possible through a Holistic Management of Bunker fuels Energy Efficiency can be augmented through fuel savings and Total Fuel Management and Energy saving in Total Lube Management. Lube Management also enhances asset protection Low cost new design scrubbers help in conforming to emission regulations with maximum savings and minimum complications Additional Energy Savings ideas Viswa Lab will continuously partner, participate and contribute in realizing these goals
MARPOL ANNEXE VI REGULATIRY UPDATES * MEPC 62 EEDI – 01 JAN 2013 – NEW SHIPS SEEMP 01 JAN 2013 – ALL SHIPS EEOI ( Voluntary ) MARKET BASED MEASURES DISCUSSED *MEPC 63 LARGELY UNEVENTFUL Clarifications on EEDI Discussions on ECA compliant fuels Market Based Measures Discussed 65
MEPC 62 Chapter 4 Enters into Force on 01Jan 2013 All ships 400 GT and Above (Some exceptions ) Attained EEDI not to exceed Required EEDI Building Contract on or after 01 Jan 2013 No Building Contract - Keel Laid or Similar stage of construction Irrespective of above dates delivery on or after 01Jan 2015 All ships to be provided with SEEMP 30% reduction in three phases by 2025
67 Energy Efficiency Design Index Cost: Emissions of CO 2 Benefit: Cargo capacity & transport work Complex formula to accommodate most ship types and sizes
Attained Index Cost: Emission of CO 2 Benefit: Cargo capacity transported a certain distance Relates to seagoing maximum condition – maximum capacity transported using maximum engine power
Attained Index C F : Conversion between fuel and CO 2 SFC: Specific fuel consumption P, V ref and Capacity: A consistent set of engine power required to sail at a certain speed when the ship is carrying its capacity in calm weather f w : Speed reduction factor in wind and waves f i : Correction factor for any regulatory limitation on capacity
Benchmark Against Baseline Different Benchmarks for different types
Benchmark against a baseline From public databases (LRFP*) a baseline for the ship types in the current MEPC discussion is derived for –Bulker –Tanker –Gas carrier –Container ships –General cargo ships –Ro-ro passenger ships, etc. The Required EEDI of a new ship shall be below the Baseline EEDI Required < EEDI Baseline
EEDI base line vs. required EEDI EEDI base line = a x DWT –c To be determined according to Guidelines Reduction of EEDI (MEPC61) Required EEDI = base line x (1-(X/100)) X = reduction ratio of EEDI(%) Y Y DWT : Ship Size requiring attained EEDI to be less than required EEDI 73
Baseline Establishment EEDI New Baseline formula agreed at MEPC 60
Baseline Establishment Ship typeabc [Passenger ships[ ]] Dry Cargo CarriersDWT Gas tankersDWT TankersDWT Container ShipsDWT [Ro-Ro Ships] General Cargo ShipsDWT [Ro-ro Passenger Ships] Refrigerated Cargo ShipsDWT If the design of a ship makes it possible to fall into more than one of the above ship type definitions the required energy efficiency design index for the ship the most stringent energy efficiency design index.
Verification of EEDI
78 Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) An efficiency indicator for all ships (new and existing) obtained from fuel consumption, voyage (miles) and cargo data (tonnes) Cargo Onboard x (Distance traveled) Fuel Consumption in Operation = Actual Fuel Consumption Index Index
Objective of the EEOI Measuring energy-efficiency of existing ships Evaluation of operational performance by owners or operators Continued monitoring of individual ship Evaluation of any changes made to the ship or its operation Currently voluntary in nature
Market Based Instruments Should MBIs be included? Reasons for MBIs –Long life of ships –Growth of international shipping –CO2 reductions due to EEDI (new ships) = long term measure –Measures on existing ships = not sufficient to meet reductions of 20% or more in the short terms (up to 2020) Which MBI? - Bunker Levy (Denmark/Japan) - Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) (Norway, Germany, U.K. & France) - US alternative – based upon EEDI - World Shipping Council (WSC) – modified US alternative - IUCN Proposal of Levy on Imported Goods - Bahama proposal of doing nothing other than Technical and Operational Measures.
Work Being Done At IMO EEDI and SEEMP will come into force as a part of MARPOL Annex VI by 2013 under tacit acceptance. Many leading maritime nations (European and Asian) are testing EEDI Formula and EEDI Base formula and carrying out impact assessment and reporting back to IMO for development of regulations that are equitable and implementable.
MEPC 63 SESSION 27 FEB TO 02 MARCH 2012 EEDI Formula Correction Factors AGREED Bulk carriers and Tankers built to CSR Ship Specific Structural Enhancements Containerships – 70% Deadweigtht Chemical carriers Cubic correction factor ICE Class ships ALL SHIPS - Weather correction factor option Minimum Power and Mimnimum Speed – No AGREEMENT reached – defer to MEPC 64 82
Epilogue – Crisis ; Danger or Opportunity ? Crisis Danger Climate Change Opportunity Green Growth 83
Coming together is a beginning, Staying together is progress & Working together is a success - Henry Ford Viswa Lab will be happy to be your partner in these endeavors and to achieve these goals together THANK YOU