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Evolution towards Smart Grids: Research and Development in Europe (Evolução rumo às redes inteligentes: pesquisa e desenvolvimento na Europa) P.F. Ribeiro,

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Presentation on theme: "Evolution towards Smart Grids: Research and Development in Europe (Evolução rumo às redes inteligentes: pesquisa e desenvolvimento na Europa) P.F. Ribeiro,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evolution towards Smart Grids: Research and Development in Europe (Evolução rumo às redes inteligentes: pesquisa e desenvolvimento na Europa) P.F. Ribeiro, PhD, IEEE Fellow

2 PAGE 2 The design and operation of life sustainable infrastructures such as electric energy grids can no longer ignore the increasing demands of more and sophisticated users, the scarcity of energy resources and the environmental concerns. Within this context, the concept of smart grids has surfaced and some significant technological developments are taking place. However, and due to the great complexity of such systems, which involve a number of interwoven technological systems and societal aspects, engineers and designers concentrate on the methodological side of the engineering design and pay less attention to the ontological, epistemological and ethical aspects. Introductory Words

3 The electric power grid is a crucial part of society infrastructure and needs constant attention for maintaining its performance and reliability. A power systems grid is a widespread, interconnected system and is as strong as its weakest link and/or its control operation strategies during emergency conditions. Security and energy sustainability have become major priorities to both customers and electric companies. Deployment of sustainable / renewable energy sources are crucial to a healthy relationship of society and the environment. An aggressive search of sustainable sources and a sensitive, but firm implementation of solutions is much needed. Solutions need to taken into account a sensitive balance of societal needs, environment al concerns and the economics of energy projects.

4 Unfolding of Meaning ActionMeaningWorldview Technology Introductory Words

5 Reality Technology Culture History Technology Culture History Introductory Words

6 NatureMaterialsParts Sub- System Product / System AspectsSociety Complexities

7 Parts Transistor Properly Biased Properly Specified Parts Example Arithmetic Spatial Kinematic Physical

8 Sub-System Complete Circuit Functional Sub- System Interface with other sub- systems Sub- System Example Logical / Physical Communications Economics

9 Product / System Electric Utility Functions Design Specs Product / System Example Concepts Specs Theory Quantitative Analysis Practical Considerations Design Instrumentalities Arithmetic Spatial Kinematic Physical Biotic Sensitive Logical Historical Communications Social Economics Aesthetics Juridical

10 Aspects Technical Scientific Technological Business Market Political Societal Juridical Ethical Example

11 Society Culture TraditionReligion Society

12 Engineering Design Philosophical Questions Essence Nature Scientific Technological Market Political Juridical Ethical

13 Themes Society Politics Multidisciplinary Platforms Business Technologies. Multidisciplinary Research Bach. stud. R&D TU/e Electrical Engineering Department PAGE 13 OED ECO EM MSM SPS ES CS EPE EES Electrical Engineering Conn. WorldCare & CureSm. & Sust.S. COBRACWTePCTC CSP

14 PAGE 14 Electrical Energy Systems (EES) Electromechanics and Power Electronics (EPE) Design Methodology for Electronic Systems (ES) Mixed Signal Micro Electronics (MsM) Control Systems (CS) Signal Processing Systems (SPS) Electro-Optical Communications (ECO) Opto-Electronic Devices (OED) Electromagnetics (EM) TU/e Electrical Engineering Department

15 Electrical Energy Systems Group (EES) Mission: Generation of knowledge to support the supply and efficient use of electrical energy Call for a sustainable society: Intelligent networks and their components are needed to integrate distributed and sustainable generation Disturbance free design (EMC) is needed to enable an all electric sustainable society Pulsed Power Technology is needed for the efficient recycling of material flows PAGE 15

16 Electrical Energy Systems Group (EES) 12 professors 6 technical staff 23 PhDs and post-docs 4 guests More than 25 master students (EE and SET) PAGE 16 People involved in education and research Conn. WorldCare & CureSmart & Sust. Soc.

17 Facilities in the Corona building PAGE 17 Power quality and RES laboratory EMC laboratory High-voltage laboratory - Pulsed power - EMC - Intelligent test methods Further outside facilities with companies

18 PAGE 18 The evolution towards smart grids Residence Factory Wind Microturbine Commercial Central Generation Fuel Cell Flywheel Substation Photovoltaic Battery Power & Communications Link Microturbine Hyper car Flowbattery Pumped Storage Dispatchable DSM

19 Smart grids onderzoek: uitdagingen en resultaten Wat zijn relevante themas voor Universitair onderzoek Wat denken we daarmee te bereiken Wat zijn onze partners, wie is onze klant Waar staan we over 10 jaar PAGE 19

20 Roadmap for research (example EU project) PAGE 20

21 Research roadmap (same example EU project) PAGE 21 TU/e EES Scope

22 PAGE 22 Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures Handling Power Quality Issues Design, Control and Protection of Distribution Networks Short circuit contributiom Supply of P and Q Short circuit contributiom Supply of P and Q Short circuitdetection Responce time / Selectivity Ride - through behavior Ride - through behavior Intelligent Design Tuning Systembehavior Model ofdecentral generation Protection Research on smart grids

23 Design, Control and Protection of Distribution Networks (overview) Finished thesis work of Frans Provoost on Intelligent Distribution Network Design Finished thesis work of Roald de Graaff on Flexible distribution systems through the application of multi back-to-back converters Finished thesis work of Edward Coster on Distribution Grid Operation Including Distributed Generation Ongoing research of Else Veldman on Flexible and Efficient Electricity Distribution Grids Ongoing research of Panagiotis Karaliolios on Short-circuit behaviour of distribution networks with high penetration level of DG Ongoing research of Petr Kadurek on Intelligent and Decentralized Management of Networks and Data PAGE 23

24 Intelligent Node = = out in Design, Control and Protection of Distribution Networks (some results) PAGE 24 V1set V1V2 2 1 V2set 2 1 Concept of an Intelligent Node (Research of Provoost theoretical, De Graaff practical)

25 Design, Control and Protection of Distribution Networks (some results) PAGE 25 Voltage profile at the MV busbar during and after a 100ms s/c event in HV grid (research of Coster –CHPs and Karaliolios –DG in general)

26 Design, Control and Protection of Distribution Networks (some results) PAGE 26 households with normal electricity use houses with 5 m 2 solar panel electric vehiclesheat pumpsmicro-CHP boilers combination combination Daily load profiles for different combinations of residential load elements (Research of Veldman)

27 Design, Control and Protection of Distribution Networks (some results) PAGE 27 LV and MV voltages measured at smart substation. Impact of voltage control with smart transformer(Research of Kadurek)

28 Handling Power Quality Issues (overview) Finished thesis work of Sjef Cobben on Power Quality: Implications at the Point of Connection Finished thesis work of Cai Rong on Flicker Interaction Studies and Flickermeter Improvement Almost finished thesis work of Peter Heskes on Minimizing the Impact of Resonances in Low Voltage Grids by Power Electronics based Distributed Generators Ongoing research of Sharmistha Bhattacharyya on Power Quality Requirements and Responsibilities at a Customer's Point of Connection in the Network Ongoing research of Vladimir Ćuk on Power Quality Modelling Techniques PAGE 28

29 Handling Power Quality Issues (some results) PAGE UnbalanceVoltage level DipsFlickerHarmonic distortion PQ classification system developed by Cobben

30 Handling Power Quality Issues (some results) PAGE 30 PQ responsibilities sharing among different parties in the network (Research of Bhattacharyya)

31 Handling Power Quality Issues (some results) PAGE 31 Harmonic current interaction – AC/DC converter and industrial lamps (Project of Ćuk)

32 Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (overview) Finished thesis work of Phuong Nguyen on Multi-Agent System based Active Distribution Networks Almost finished thesis work of Jasper Frunt on Analysis of Balancing Requirements in Future Sustainable and Reliable Power Systems Ongoing research of Ioannis Lampropoulos on Evaluation and assessment of local balancing resources Ongoing research of Khalil el Bakari on Operation and Design of Smart Grids with Virtual Power Plants Ongoing research of Greet Vanalme a.o. on Transition Roadmap for the Energy Infrastructure in the Netherlands Starting research of Frits Wattjes on Concept of an Integrated Smart Grid where both System/Network operators and market parties create value Starting research of Ballard Asare-Bediako on Intelligent Energy Management System at Household Level Starting research of Helder Ferreira on Reliability analyses on distribution networks with dispersed generation PAGE 32

33 PAGE 33 Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results) The use of agents for power routing and power matching (research of Nguyen)

34 PAGE 34 Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results) Aggregation of DERs under the VPP concept (Research of El Bakari) Windmills (solo) micro-CHP (Households) Solar panels V kV kV kV Interconnections Wind farms (bio- )CHP (Industry ) Wind farms (Offshore) CHP (Industry ) G G Power Plants Load TSO VPP Operators Other renewable Controllable loads Storage devices Operator: Large Scale Virtual Power Plant (LS-VPP) Intelligent devices Intelligent devices Operator: Virtual Power Plants (VPP) Smart meter s Intelligent devices Intelligent devices Intelligent devices Intelligent devices Intelligent devices DSO VPPs can be operated by commercial market players as well as system operators

35 PAGE 35 Projected load profiles for 2.45m flexible devices (of each type which means 30 % of the households having these) for 5 days Covered prediction errors between 1h-ahead and 15min-ahead forecasts of 2.5 GW wind production in assuming 30 % of active households for DSM (research of Lampropoulos) Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results)

36 PAGE 36 Functional overview Smart Home Installation (research of Asare-Bediako)

37 PAGE 37 Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results) Interaction Gas and Electricity Network Development (TREIN project)

38 Prices for energy and AS Cleared volume and price for energy and AS per PTU TSO PX market AS market BRP 1 BRP m Prosumers Communication and interfaces in ahead energy markets (research Frunt and Lampropoulos) Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results) PAGE 38 Request to reserve capacity Bilateral contracts & capacity bids Bilateral contracts Bid curves for energy and AS …

39 Transition towards new Electrical Infrastructures (some results) PAGE 39 Interaction between Market and System (research of Frunt)

40 LAB-SETUP at ECN Mini Testgrid

41 Laboratory equipment Triphase development system o Rapid prototyping of power electronics applications o Controlled by pc (Matlab-Simulink) Mini test grid Hz o Motor / synchronous generator o RLC-loads o DER simulator

42 Lab equipment (converters) Mini testgrid 20kVA Hz Triphase Development System

43 Triphase Development System

44 EERA SmartGrids SP1 - Network Operation

45 Network Operation - Sub Program partners

46 Overview - Approach in EERA SG-SP1 Potential problems in the future grid o Onset of grid instability Background of frequency stability o Variable generation and the swing equation o General characteristics of potential control measures What does literature tell us? Research field - EERA SG SP1 "Network Operation" o Objective: Need for a universal "Primary" Smart Grid Control structure o Main Problems Addressed Conventional and Future Grid Control o Central Grid Control o State-of-the-art in Smart Grid control o Local Grid Control

47 Future grid problems & their principal cause (simplified grid layout)

48 Onset of grid instability General order of instability events: First Voltage instability o Indicates failure in power delivery Then frequency instability (if things go really wrong) o Indicates significant power imbalance A stable grid starts with a stable frequency

49 Objective: Need for a universal "Primary" Smart Grid Control structure A universal and relatively simple "primary" control structure for Smart Grids is to be developed to a mature concept Basic grid operation is guaranteed by giving the primary control structure precedence over all other algorithms ICT-layers for purposes like energy trading and grid asset management may be added depending on local needs

50 Main Problems Addressed Developing and choosing effective new control structures Grid integration of new control structures o Normal operation o Emergency situations and micro grids o Flexible control centre cycles

51 Central Grid Control Subdivision of control time scales -- conventional control algorithms & techniques Control time scale Control algorithmAssociated technique Communication signals Aim Synchronising torque Rotating inertia Voltage phase angle Short term imbalance energy buffer System balancing by grid operator 30 sec – 15 minPrimary control Frequency-Power Voltage-Reactive power Local controller Droop control system frequency Instant balancing 25 sec – 15 minSecondary control Load-Frequency Control Inter-area controller droop curve shifting Inter area power flow Inter area balancing by grid operator 10 min – 1 hourTertiary control 15 min set points from Day-ahead market Electronic message one day ahead Generated power Day-ahead generation schedule Scheduling / Energy trading 1 ms – 30 sec Synchronous machine response

52 State-of-the-art in Smart Grid control Supply and Demand Matching algorithms Electrical energy storage Virtual Synchronous Machine algorithms Micro grids (…) One algorithm and associated techniques alone cannot stabilise the future Smart Grid each algorithm and associated technique has its own operational time frame The electrical system however operates in real-time across all conceivable time frames

53 Control time scale Control algorithmAssociated technique Communication signals Aim Synchronising torque Virtual inertia Voltage phase angle Short term imbalance energy buffer System balancing by grid operator 30 sec – 15 minPrimary control Frequency-Power Voltage-Reactive power Virtual inertia Droop control system frequency SOC of local stores Instant power balancing 5 min – 30 minSecondary control Load-SOC Control SDM control ( SDM = Supply and Demand Matching) SOC of local stores (SOC=State of Charge) Short term storage balancing 10 min – 1 hourTertiary control 15 min set points from Day-ahead market Electronic message one day ahead Generated power Day-ahead generation schedule Scheduling / Energy trading 1 ms – 30 sec Synchronous machine response Local Grid Control Subdivision of control time scales -- Smart Grid control algorithms & techniques

54 Complementary actions of: Conventional control o Inertia and P-f droop control Instant power balancing o Virtual inertia and P-f droop Short term storage balancing o SDM control (SDM = Supply and Demand Matching) Local grid operation Instant Power balancing 0-10 minutes Stabilisation of: Frequency Voltage Short term storage balancing 5-30 minutes Restoration of local balance Normal operation Severe Disturbance Local Grid Main Grid

55 Synergetic benefits of Instant Power Balancing & Short Term Storage Balancing Instant Power Balancing with Virtual Inertia: o Stabilises local grid up to 10 minutes under unbalanced conditions => Low bandwidth communications system sufficient Short Term Storage balancing with Supply and Demand Matching: o Restores local system balance continuously => Limited energy store sufficient Together: Builds business case for future grids

56 Statements (for discussion) The reliability of the Future Grid may be: o low in a classical top-down control structure o enforced by using loosely connected micro-grids o weakened by a too heavy ICT footprint For a Future Grid we need algorithms that: o stabilise interconnected local-grids o offer a local stabilising equivalent to: Primary control Secondary control o Reduce the ICT footprint Key to the success of Future Grids is: o A gradual transition from the conventional top-down control structure to peer-to-peer local-grid control structure

57 Technologies for Sustainable Smart Grids

58 Barriers Cost Unreliability T&D Incompatibility Load Flow Control Voltage Control Protection Power Quality Issues Politics Regulations

59 Intelligent / Sustainable Cities Buildings, Houses, Transportation, Electric Grid Distributed (Renewable) Energy Sources Regionally Optimized Portfolio /Mix of Renewable Energy Integration with Macro and Micro Grids Normative Practices Economics, Market, Business Political Will For Caring and Just Communities Smart Living Attractively / Aesthetically / Ecologically Friend / Stable Environment Intelligent / Sustainable Cities Buildings, Houses, Transportation, Electric Grid Distributed (Renewable) Energy Sources Regionally Optimized Portfolio /Mix of Renewable Energy Integration with Macro and Micro Grids Political Will For Caring and Just Communities The Big Picture – Smart Living

60 Identity, Functions and Structure Smart-GridFundamental Functions Highest Subject Functions Qualifying Functions Working Functions GenerationPhysical DistributionPhysical Customers Loads Social Economical Physical MarketEconomical Social Economical ICTPhysical

61 Concluding Remarks Distributed generation, micro grids, super-grid, and renewable energy sources offer many benefits (including increasing the security of supply and reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, etc.). Although these benefits are clearly identified, DG and Renewables, etc. are not always economically viable. Their viability depends heavily on energy prices, stimulation measures and the consideration of all societal aspects and not only the technical side. Technical difficulties and customer responses should not be trivialized - though they offer an opportunity for engineering creativity. A vigorous political initiative with regard to stimulation measures for DG and Renewables is necessary to encourage serious investments by the market. Smart-Sustainable-Micro-Grids can provide the required integration and higher reliability, security, flexibility and more sustainable electric energy for smarter living.


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