2Wood smoke: The other secondhand smoke Smoking has been banned in bars and restaurants but …we are all “smoking” involuntarily on our own property and in public spaces due to wood smoke pollution.
3Wood smoke: A major source of fine particle pollution in Minnesota Residential burning is one of the largest sources of fine particle pollution in the metro and state-wide, according to an internal PCA Whitepaper Report.Wherever wood is burned, air quality near the source far exceeds safety standards.
4Wood smoke: A severe health hazard “Particle Pollution is the most important contaminate in our air – we know that when levels go up, people die.”Joel Schwartz, Ph.D.Harvard School of Public HealthE Magazine, Sept/Oct
5Wood smoke: Why is it so dangerous? Wood smoke’s fine particles are too small to be filtered by our lungsThey collect in the tiny sacs where oxygen enters the bloodstreamThey cause structural and chemical changes deep within our lungs
6Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Fine particulate matter is a complex mixture of very small liquid droplets or solid particles in the air.Major sources are cars, trucks, construction equipment, coal-fired power plants, wood burning, vegetation and livestock.These particles can be directly released when coal, gasoline, diesel fuels and wood are burned.Source:
7PM2.5 Harms HealthFine particulates are associated with increased hospitalizations and deaths due to respiratory and heart disease and can worsen the symptoms of asthma.People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly and children are the groups most at risk.Source:
8Everyone is at risk from wood smoke exposure 30 % of Minneapolis children have asthmaAsthma is the #1 reason for school absenteeismMillions of Americans have impaired lung function including emphysema and COPD.Wood smoke is implicated in premature death in people of all ages.m
9Asthma statisticsAsthma is one of this country's most common and costly diseases. - the annual cost of asthma is nearly $18 billion.Every day in America:40,000 people miss school or work due to asthma.30,000 people have an asthma attack.5,000 people visit the emergency room due to asthma.1,000 people are admitted to the hospital due to asthma.11 people per day and thousands per year die of asthma attacksAsthma accounts for one-quarter of all emergency room visits in the US each year, with 2 million emergency room visits.Annually, asthma accounts for more than 10 million outpatient visits and 500,000 hospitalizations.Source – Asthma and Allergy Foundation:
10Smoke from backyard fires can… Irritate eyes, lungs, throat and sinusesReduce lung function, especially in young children and is implicated in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)Increase severity of existing lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, pneumonia and bronchitisIncrease risks of heart attacks and strokes*Source:
11Wood Smoke violates property rights Deprives taxpayers of the right to breathe clean air on their property, and even in their homes.According to the California Air Resources Board, up to 70% of smoke from chimneys can re-enter neighboring residences, exposing neighbors to toxic smoke.
12Wood smoke violates the ADA The American with Disabilities Act (ADA)Requires cities to provide “access” to public spaces, including streets, parks and sidewalks, to all people including those with disabilities, such as asthma.Wood smoke presents a “physical barrier” that restricts the activities of many people.
13Wood Smoke and public events Food vendors at festivals, art shows and the MN State Fair are increasingly using wood grills which heavily pollute the surrounding areaWood grilling restaurants are also increasing in number and pollute neighborhoodsWood grilling creates heavy pollution which harms everyone’s healthAt risk groups must avoid these areas which excludes them from being able to use public placesMinnehaha Falls, Labor Day 2011Bluegrass Festival Food Vendors
14Fine particulates in wood smoke are so miniscule that windows and doors cannot adequately keep them out of your house. 70% of the small particles from outside get into the house. Even homes with modern air exchangers may not prevent the assault of wood smoke indoors.
15Wood smoke’s black carbon soot contributes to Global Warming Al Gore calls on world to burn less wood and fuel to curb ‘black carbon’ Guardian.co.uk, Tuesday, April 28, 2009 Black carbon soot from auto and truck engines, aircraft emissions, burning forests and the use of wood- and coal-burning stoves is implicated in the melting of ice in polar and mountain regions and is also suspected of interfering in the seeding of clouds for rain.
16Wood smoke vs. tobacco smoke Wood smoke and cigarette smoke contain many of the same carcinogenic components; i.e., benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, lead, and mercury.Wood smoke is far more concentrated and travels farther than cigarette smoke, remaining chemically active in the body up to 40 hours longer than cigarette smoke.
17The facts are clear… Air pollution alters health Air pollution disproportionately affects childrenAir pollution exacerbates pulmonary and cardiovascular diseaseAir pollution may be a causative factor in pulmonary and cardiac diseaseAltering air pollution improves healthPaul T. Kubic, M.D.Children’s Respiratory &Critical Care Specialists, P.A.
18Wood smoke: a recognized contributor to air pollution 2010 Statistics:17 Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups142 Moderately Unhealthy Days
19League of Women Voters’ Minneapolis Air Quality Forum March 2011 LWV Forum recognized wood smoke as a major contributor to air pollution in the metroMinnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) presented slides at the Air Quality ForumSlides that follow are from Lisa Herschberger, MPCA
20State of Minnesota41% of the Direct PM2.5 Emissions (17,056 tons) are from Residential Wood CombustionGraph Source:
21Twin Cities Metro Area30% of the Direct PM2.5 Emissions (2,757 tons ) are from Residential Wood Combustion – Restaurants contribute 6%Graph Source:
22Wood Burning45% of the state Wood Burning “Facilities” are in the Metro AreaThe Metro Area is a small portion of the overall State of Minnesota
23About 1/3 of Metro Residential Wood Combustion is from Recreational Outdoor Burning = 857 tons of PM 2.5Graph Source:
25Residential Wood Burning is a major source of the carcinogen Benzo(a)pyrene “Benzo(a)pyrene is one PAH which has been studied extensively. This PAH is considered a potent carcinogen, meaning low doses may cause cancer. The toxicities of other, less potent, PAHs are commonly evaluated relative to benzo(a)pyrene “**http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/children/chemicals.htmlGraph Source:
27What can Minneapolis do? EDUCATE - Initiate an immediate educational campaign on the hazards of wood smokeEducational notices with water billsSound bite on 311 callsInclude wood smoke hazards with cigarette smoke curriculum in schools
28What else can Minneapolis do? Eliminate outdoor recreational fires in MinneapolisEliminate recreational burning at public parks, just as cigarette smoke is restrictedBan Outdoor Wood Boilers (OWBs), as other suburbs have doneDisallow mobile sources of wood burning, such as traveling barbecued rib vendorsPlace a moratorium on wood burning restaurants
29Wood burning reduction future goals Incentivize wood burning fireplace change- outs to gas or electric onlyChange out existing wood grills in restaurants to gas or electric onlyRequire that new home builders and remodelers install only gas or electric fireplaces