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Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz New approaches to airborne particle monitoring A.Lloyd Spetz, 1,2 J. Huotari 2, C. Bur 1,3, M. Sobocinski.

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Presentation on theme: "Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz New approaches to airborne particle monitoring A.Lloyd Spetz, 1,2 J. Huotari 2, C. Bur 1,3, M. Sobocinski."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz New approaches to airborne particle monitoring A.Lloyd Spetz, 1,2 J. Huotari 2, C. Bur 1,3, M. Sobocinski 2 R. Bjorklund 1, J. Juuti 2, J. Lappalainen 2, H. Jantunen 2, A. Schütze 3, M. Andersson 1 1 Div Applied Sensor Science, Dept. Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE Linköping, Sweden, 2 Microelectronics and Material Physics Laboratories, University of Oulu FIN Oulu, Finland 3 Laboratory for Measurement Technology, Saarland University, Campus A5 1 D Saarbrücken, Germany

2 New approaches to airborne particle monitoring SiC-FET improved sensor devices New design, improved function Applications Monitoring of particles by Impedance spectroscopy Heating and detection of emissions Future technology Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

3 SiC-FET sensors, wafer and mountingSiC-FET sensor system 4 SiC wafer, ~2000 chip Processing on 4 SiC wafers using standard methods Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

4 SiC-FET transistor as gas sensor I/V characteristics SiC-FET: presence of gas – a shift in the I/V-curve Mike Andersson Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz O H Si O H H H SiC/Si Si O Three phase boundary: gas - metal - oxide Porous film Pt, Ir, Pd, … Metal Insulator Semiconductor SiO 2 Strong OH dipoles charge the gate H2H2 C3H6C3H6 H2OH2O O2O2 CO 2 NH 3

5 Control of primary and secondary air by 2 SiC-FET gas sensors (different operation temperatures) 1 temperature sensor Increased efficiency and lower emissions Temperature sensor Gas sensors Mike Andersson Silicon Carbide Sensors Combustion control in small power plants

6 Emissions from controlled combustion Emissions, uncontrolled combustion SenSiC AB: Silicon Carbide Sensors Combustion control in small power plants Mike Andersson The sensors measure the ratio between CO and oxygen in the flue gases

7 SenSiC AB: SiC-FET sensor system combustion control in small and medium sized power plants New application: Control of urea injection when using SCR by ammonia sensors in power plants and stationary diesel engines Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

8 Control of urea injection in power plants SNCR – Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction of NO/ NO 2 by NH 3 through urea injection in the flue gas SCR-Selectiv Catalytic Reduction of NO/NO 2 in a catalytic converter by NH 3 Control of urea injection by an NH 3 sensor Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

9 Portable nanoparticle sensor Nanoparticles show adverse health effect according to –Size –Shape –Content –Concentration Nanoparticles damage cells – Toxic effect on cells CHEMPACK project ( ) FiDiPro position University of Oulu i Finland Welding nanoparticles (courtesy of Pam Drake, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH). Asbestos fibers (courtesy of the US Geological Survey). Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

10 IMCS 2012, A. Lloyd Spetz EuNetAir Soot sensor based on Thermophoresis Thermophoresis: A force acting on particles in a temperature gradient Soot is deposited on the coldest surface Thermos packaging to decrease temperature on the sensor surface Soot sensor surface Thermos

11 Soot measurement in diesel engine Exhaust pipe Robert Bjorklund, Linköing University and Ann Grant, Volvo Technology SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz Soot sensor

12 IMCS 2012, A. Lloyd Spetz EuNetAir Soot measurements during 6 World Harmonized Transient Cycles t(min) M, °C min/cycle, 18 min response time, 1370 mg/cycle, 40 mg/kWh) Robert Bjorklund and Ann Grant Heater on, 600°C Exhaust gas 200°C Sensor 160°C

13 Particle generator Joni Huotari Peter Möller Mike Andersson Robert Bjorklund PALAS RGB 1000 dry particle generator Pegasor nanoparticle sensor as reference Flow through chamber for testing of sensors (SiC-FETs) A measurement chamber with probe connections will be built for measurements from DC to GHz range Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

14 Impedance spectroscopy of particles Airborne steel plant particles Deposited CNT particles CNT (8.9 µg/ml) CNT (89 µg/ml) SEM: Optical spectra Impedance spectra, potential for size, concentration and kind of particles and possible for on-line measurements Joni Houtari SEM Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

15 Detection of particle content Flow controller 1 100ml/min Flow controller 2 100ml/min Heater with particles Sensor chamber Electronics Data acquisition LabView Gas mixing program T-control Const. I control N2N2 O2O2 Waste Heating of particles and detection of emissions with gas sensors SiC- FET sensor Christian Bur Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

16 Detection of particle content Christian Bur Ammonia containing fly ash Particles heated to 430°C. Detection by SiC-FETs and environmental mass spectrometer. Gas flow: 25ml/ min Mass spectrometer signal SiC-FET signal. Pt gate, T=220 o C, I S-G = 55 µA Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

17 Future: Envisaged packaging ideas One alternative co-fired LTCC modules Maciej Soboskinski Mike Anderson Jari Juuti Detection of emitted gases by sensor array Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

18 Conclusions Toxic gases and airborne nanoparticles need to be monitored for environmental control The new generation SiC-FETs provide a powerful sensor platform for detection of gases (and eventually particles) The content of nanoparticles is important to measure: Impedance spectroscopy or heating particles and subsequent detection of the emissions by gas sensors SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz

19 Acknowledgements Applied Sensor Science at Linköping University Prof. Anita Lloyd Spetz Dr. Mike Andersson Dr. Robert Bjorklund Dr. Jens Eriksson, post doc Zhafira Darmastuti, PhD student Christian Bur, PhD student Hossein Fashandi, PhD student Peter Möller, research engineer Grant support is acknowledged from: The VINN Excellence Center in Research & Innovation on Functional Nanostructured Materials (FunMat) The Swedish Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA), The Swedish Research Council and TEKES in Finland Microelectronics and Material Science Laboratories, University of Oulu Prof. Heli Jantunen Prof. Jyrki Lappalainen Prof. Anita Lloyd Spetz Ass. Prof. Jari Juuti Dr Mike Andersson Joni Huotari, PhD student Maciej Soboskinskij, PhD student Laboratory for Measurement Technology, Saarland University Prof. Andreas Schütze Christian Bur, PhD student COST Action EuNetAir TD 1105 European Network on Air Pollution Control

20 Sources of emissions: e.g. industry, vehicles, volcanous and candles (soot) Swedish Lucia performance (1963) Clean environment through air quality control by sensor systems A clean environment should belong to human rights. Sensor systems are needed for emission monitoring and control. Toxic substances include: NO x, SO 2, CO, O 3, PAH, PM 10, PM 2.5, PM 1 The vulcano St. Helena Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

21 SiC-FET transducer platform for gas sensors I/V characteristics SiC-FET: presence (red dashed line) of a gas - internal voltage drop at the gate metal/ insulator interface – a shift in the I/V-curve Absence of gas Presence of gas Cross section of depletion SiC-FET Gate sensing layer: porous catalytic metal, Pt, Ir Mike Andersson Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

22 Impedance spectra of particles from steel plant and CNTs Steel plant particles CNT Optical image, airborne particles from steel plant Impedance spectra, potential for on-line measurements SEM: CNTs deposited on IDEs Joni Huotari SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz

23 Sensor signal set to alarm level of 15-20ppm ammonia. Detection of NH 3 in low oxygen and high CO concentration functions NH3 detection using new SiC-FET sensor design NH 3 CO Mike Andersson Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

24 Inauguration A. Lloyd Spetz Impedance spectra of particles from steel plant and CNTs Impedance spectra for detection of concentration, size, content with potential for on-line measurements Joni Huotari CNTs Steel plant particles

25 Market legislations for heavy duty trucks On Road US On Road EU On Road Japan NO x (g/kWh) PM (g/kWh) 0.05 US04 US10 US07 EU-II 95/96 EU-III 00/01 EU-VI 13/14 ~ Japan NLT 05 EU-V 08/09 EU-IV 05/06 From 2015: 0.4g/kW-hr for NO x, 0.02 g/kW-hr for PM Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

26 Silicon Carbide Sensors Combustion control in small power plants Mike Andersson

27 SCR, Selective Catalytic Reduction, system 4NO +4NH 3 + O 2 4N 2 + 6H 2 O 2NO 2 +4NH 3 + O 2 3N 2 + 6H 2 O NH 2 CONH 2 + H 2 O 2 NH 3 + CO 2 Engine Catalyst NH 3 NO x Urea injection Control Algorithms Urea Tank Engine model Catalyst model NH 3 sensor requirements: Operation T > 400 C (700 C short periods of time) Detection limit <10 ppm SCR now in trucks by both Volvo and Scania OBD (On Board Diagnostics) expected

28 NH 3 Lab measurements SiC-FET sensor signal to ammonia for two SiC FETs. Detection limit < 5 ppm in 10% O 2 / N 2. Mike Andersson Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

29 Particles spread by volcanos The eruption plume of St. Helen volcano, in 1980 courtesy of NASA. Volcanic iron oxide rich soil in Rwanda (courtesy Biomed Central.) Podoconiosis Aggressive African- endemic Kaposis sarcoma of the foot Buzea et al. Biointerphases, 2, 4 (2007) MR17-MR71 SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz

30 The SiC-FET ammonia sensor Diesel engine measurement SCR system Two MISiCFET sensors and optical reference instrument H. Svenningstorp, H. Wingbrant Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

31 31 Nano-ID NPS500 based on DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer) technology, portable particle measurement device (5- 500nm) Present commercial particle detectors DEKATI ELPI (Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (6 nm – 10 µm) Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

32 NH 3 sensor mounting for urea control in boilers Värmeforsk projects: A and P Partners: SenSiC AB, Alstom Sweden AB, Tekniska Verken, Vattenfall Two position sensor mounting ~ 40 cm apart Robert Bjorklund Fine Particle Forum August 15, 2013, A. Lloyd Spetz

33 Gobi desert dust storm spread Ten major sources of dust in the world Bacteria, hitch hiking by African dust, was found in North America. Hitchhiker in Luxemburg, 1977 Buzea et al. Biointerphases, 2, 4 (2007) MR17-MR71 SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz

34 Healthy particles Sea spray from ocean waves (courtesy NASA). Pale blue swirls in Lake Michigan, probably caused by calcium carbonate chalk from the lakes limestone floor (credit: NASA/GSFC) TEM image of mineral dust mixture with sea salt collected from the marine troposphere Buzea et al. Biointerphases, 2, 4 (2007) MR17-MR71 SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz

35 Fires produce (nano)particles Distribution of active fires detected by Terras MODIS sensor across the planet on July 2006 Buzea et al. Biointerphases, 2, 4 (2007) MR17-MR71 SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz

36 First results, detection of ammonia containing fly ash particles. Particles are heated repeatedly to ~ 800°C. A small gas flow brings emissions from heater to SiC-FET sensors. Detection of particle content Workplace and Indoor Aerosol conference in Lund: Detection of Pd in particles by the catalytic CO conversion efficiency Christian Bur SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz

37 IMCS 2012, A. Lloyd Spetz EuNetAir

38 Future development Particles are charged, SiC- FET device a possibility Source and drain contacts need protection by over glass, but also bond wires must be protected Additional functionality by smart packaging, LTCC packaging (Docent Jari Juuti): Collection of particles by thermophoresis (cold sensor surface), applied voltage, magnetic field Detection of content of particles by heating at a hot spot and detection of emissions by a sensor array, smart operation and data evaluation SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz

39 Tailoring of SiC based field effect sensors for CO 2 monitoring SiC based CO 2 sensor Li 2 CO 3 -BaCO 3 sensing layer MgO prevents response to hydrogen containing gases H. Inoue, M. Andersson, M. Yuasa, T. Kida, A. Lloyd Spetz, and K. Shimanoe: CO 2 sensor combining an MISiC capacitor and a binary carbonate, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 14 (1) (2011) J4-J7. SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz

40 Tailoring of SiC based field effect sensors for O 2 monitoring M. Andersson, A. Lloyd Spetz, Tailoring of SiC based field effect gas sensors for improved selectivity to non- hydrogen containing species, IMCS13, Perth, Australia, July 12-14, 2010, 369. No response to hydrogen containing gases Response to oxygen SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz

41 Sensor system for control of small and medium sized power plants Mike Andersson and Magnus Palm: installation of a sensor system for control of a domestic boiler) at Ariterm Sweden AB (key partner) SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz

42 NANOSIGHT - optical method to measure size - laser light source - typical range 10 nm nm BECKMAN COULTER - particle size of fluid with nanoparticles - laser light - for size analysis: electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) LIGHTHOUSE WORLDWIDE SOLUTIONS - handheld and portable particle counters - minimum sensitivity: 200 nm AIRMODUS - condensation to grow 1 nm diameter nanoparticles to optically detectable sizes KANOMAX - condensation to grow 15 nm diameter nanoparticles to optically detectable sizes - PEGASOR - Portable real time measuring instrument - Detection of total surface area, mass, number of particles BECKMAN COULTER NANOSIGHT LM10 KANOMAX MODEL 3800 AIRMODUS LIGHTHOUSE HANDHELD Present commercial particle detectors SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz

43 Envisaged packaging ideas Material combinations and process development to enable wafer level integration of functional packages by cost effective means. SPIE Baltimore, April , A. Lloyd Spetz


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