Presentation on theme: "Chartered Consulting Engineers Cost & Carbon Saving Opportunities in the Food & Allied Industry Doug Marriott BSc CEng CSci FIEE FIET FInstR MInstPet MEI."— Presentation transcript:
Chartered Consulting Engineers Cost & Carbon Saving Opportunities in the Food & Allied Industry Doug Marriott BSc CEng CSci FIEE FIET FInstR MInstPet MEI FIFST FRSA Chartered Engineer - Chartered Scientist Director Doug Marriott Associates Ltd Email email@example.com Tel +44(0) 1227 730912 Mob +44(0) 7860 firstname.lastname@example.org
Chartered Consulting Engineers Agenda Waste Statistics Co- Tri Polygeneration GQCHP – Good Quality CHP Commercial Considerations for use of CHP Applications Some Examples and Site Details Sorption Systems Commercial Example ~ Funding Grants Concluding Remarks
Chartered Consulting Engineers Some Food Industry Statistics Major user of energy ~ 100TWh which is equivalent to 11% of energy use by business 7.9 Million tonnes Carbon p.a. Significant waste stream ~ accounting for 10% industrial & commercial waste Refrigeration is a significant polluter in terms of refrigerant leakage (Can be >25% energy CO 2 equivalent in some sectors) Landfill waste costs rising annually -current cost typically £93/t overall
Chartered Consulting Engineers Waste Figures in the UK 19 million tonnes food waste (+/- 5%) 6.7 million tonnes household food waste 4.1 m t / p.a. food manufacture 3.0 m t / p.a. food service & restaurants 1.6 m t / p.a. retail food 3.6 m t / p.a. remainder ~ horticulture, agriculture, schools, hospitals. Source http://www.wrap.org.uk/retail/food_waste/nonhousehold_food.html
Chartered Consulting Engineers Defra Backs Anaerobic Digestion Organic Materials - Manure Slurry Food waste - could be source of 2 MWh e Source UK Gov. - Jane Kennedy Farming & Environment Minister Defra indicate the UK produces >100Mtonnes of organic waste (90 M tonnes from manure) Defra launching Task force - To Assist sectors such as Farming, Water Industry, Food Industry to produce biogas NFU target to have 1,000 on farm units by 2020 to power farms and have fertilisers as a byproduct
Chartered Consulting Engineers Definition of Polygeneration CHP is the simultaneous production of Heat & Power derived from a single or multiple source of fuel/energy. Polygeneration is the use of multiple energy inputs to create multiple energy outputs.
Chartered Consulting Engineers Grid Power Conventional Embedded Power Trigeneration? Why Trigeneration
Chartered Consulting Engineers Grid Supply Energy Efficiency Limitations Grid electrical efficiency use on site is limited to the power station efficiency minus distribution losses e.g. 40% - 4% = 36% (Max Available) The waste heat from the power stations have historically not been captured / used waste energy. CHP has opportunities to use this waste energy and can accordingly improve the thermal efficiency on applications compared to grid electrical supply reaching efficiencies of =>80%
Chartered Consulting Engineers Conventional Systems ή Power station 40-45% ή transmission = - 3% ή Power to site = 37- 42% ή Loss = 63% – 58% 2/3 energy is lost
Chartered Consulting Engineers Conventional Systems ή Power station 40-45% ή transmission = - 3% ή Power to site = 37- 42% ή Loss = 63% – 58% 2/3 energy is lost Energy Act - 80% reduction in energy use by 2050 How can we achieve it !
Chartered Consulting Engineers The key design Good Quality CHP (GQCHP) The target energy usage should ideally have a ratio of heat/power requirements, which are as closely in phase with the ratio of heat and power delivered by the CHP plant through all the production capacities / demand. The Measure is Good Quality CHP ( My Rule of thumb) Index = 200 Electrical Efficiency + 125 Thermal Efficiency > 100 GQCHP Avoids payment of climate change levy (CCL)
Chartered Consulting Engineers CHP the Success Criteria Continuous and matched heat & electrical supply & demand Suitable ratio of energy demand/supply Currently Spark Gap (electrical cost / fuel cost) > 3.0 CO 2 emission reduction – Tax advantages Improved security of supply Interruptible energy supply cost savings - supply security Suitable relative capital incentive – mains supply Relative maintenance costs not a significant penalty Projected life cycle costs are attractive compared to conventional.
Chartered Consulting Engineers Some Applications of CHP The plant electrical or part load supply plus Water/Fluid heating – Process industry, adjacent heating, space heating, food cooking/ pasteurisation Steam raising – district heating, process heating CO 2 + electricity + heat for horticulture Drying - direct – milk, process - indirect – waste sludge, - secondary processes
Chartered Consulting Engineers Actual Deliveries of CHP Systems by a Leading Supplier
Chartered Consulting Engineers Commercial Considerations for Successful CHP Applications e.g. Electricity £0.010/kWh : Gas £0.030 /kWh Rule of thumb Spark Gap > 3.0 Relative cost of power / fuel ~ Electricity to Gas Cost of electricity - gas ~ Price Gap = 7.0 p/kW Cost of electricity / gas ~ Spark Gap = 3.3 Electricity Connection Charge and agreements Gas Connection charge and agreement Potential to manage interruptible gas supplies
Chartered Consulting Engineers The Prime Movers There is a variety of available systems that can be applied as the electrical primary energy Supply devices. E.g. Reciprocating Engines Microturbines Gas Turbines Steam Turbines Solar ORC (Organic Rankin Cycle) Fuel Cells
Chartered Consulting Engineers Some fuels used in prime movers Natural Gas (including interruptible supplies, CNG) Wellhead Gases LPG (liquid and gaseous) Naphtha Landfill and Sewage Gas Mines Gas (Coal Bed Methane) High Hydrogen Gases Coke oven gas Synthetic Gases from biomass, coal and wastes Gasified (wood & waste food gas) Diesel, Kerosene & biofuels Crude Oil Waste solvents e.g. ethanol, methanol hydrocarbon based solvents Permits are potentially an issue to consider
Chartered Consulting Engineers Zero or Negative Cost Fuels
Chartered Consulting Engineers An Example of a CHP application Waste Reprocessing plant Washing Plastic Food Crates Uses a submersible conveyor with direct gas fired heaters (effective heating water to 70 0 C in a tank through which the conveyor belt with the crates are transported and dried with an air knife) – replaced with a CHP Heating load 600kW h effective Electrical site load 400kW e +/- 150 kW e Note the balance of supply and demand !
Chartered Consulting Engineers Typical Life Cycle Costs
Chartered Consulting Engineers Trigeneration CHCP & CHRP Reasons for use over CHP Improve Thermal Efficiency + 20% Reduce Emissions ~ Direct & Indirect Life Cycle Cost reductions Security of supply Refrigeration Simplified
Chartered Consulting Engineers Applications of Trigeneration CHCP A simultaneous demand for heat, cooling/refrigeration and power Food & Food Retail Industry Manufacturing and Process Industries Hotels Hospitals Leisure Centers Office and Residential Buildings Schools and Domestic Residences
Chartered Consulting Engineers Sorption Absorption is the incorporation of a substance into another of a different state. e.g. Liquids into Solids or Gases into Liquids Absorption is basically where a material takes in another substance. Adsorption is the physical adherence or bonding of ions and molecules onto the surface of another phase ( e.g. reagents adsorbed to solid catalyst surfaces). Sorption Refrigeration Systems
Chartered Consulting Engineers Water refrigerant Vacuum Vessel H 2 O evaporates Chilled Water formed Silica Saturates Heat Regenerates Silica Cycle commences Adjacent chamber – typically 2 chambers Adjacent chamber with external thermal storage necessary Simplified Silica Gel Schematic
Chartered Consulting Engineers Simplified Lithium Bromide - Li/Br Water – Refrigerant Evaporator Pumps weak Soln Rectifier concentrates the solution Vapour driven off Liquefied – condensed Evaporates Care to avoid triple point solidification DRIVING HEAT SOURCE
Chartered Consulting Engineers Simplified 2 Stage Li/Br Compared with Single Stage Higher Generator temperature input reqd Resultant higher COP DRIVING HEAT SOURCE
Chartered Consulting Engineers Li / Br Gauge Pressure (kg/cm 2 G) Absolute Pressure (kg/cm 2 G) Temp ( o C) Remarks Pressure 1011183.2 Driving pressure for double effect type Driving pressure for single effect type 89174.5 56158.1 12119,6 0.51.5110.8 1 atm. 760 mmHg100 Atmospheric Pressure Vacuum 650.095.5 High Temp. Generator Pressure Condenser Pressure Evaporator Pressure 525.990.0 167.662.6 92.550.0 61.041.5 31.830.0 29.428.6 9.210.0 6.545.0 5.683.0 Pressure & Temperature Relationships Li/Br
Chartered Consulting Engineers Simplified Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (AARP) Temp +5 o C down to -60 o C NH 3 refrigerant /H 2 0 absorbent Flexible and rapid temp adjustment/ start up Only one moving part (pump) No refrigerant losses Low Maintenance No Triple point issues Long Life >30 Years Performance a function of plant temperatures Fuels Cost Low Zero Negative Carbon/Cost – opportunity
Chartered Consulting Engineers Operation of Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (AARP) Evap +5 – 60 0 C Gen heat +95 to 180 0 C Various heating media - steam - hot oil Condenser low temp e.g. + 56% COP @ -50 0 C +43% COP @ -40 0 C Various cooling solns - industrial brines etc
Chartered Consulting Engineers Generally food process where CHRP is needed Ideal consideration on new investment Retrofit when considering time expired plant needing / or environmental upgrade It needs planning from conception Food Industry Applications for Trigeneration
Chartered Consulting Engineers AMMONIA ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION PLANTS (AARP) Steam / Heat Driven Wide refrigeration temperatures from + 5 o C to –60 o C. Accepts Heat source of 85 o C. No moving parts, except a robust centrifugal pump. High availability reliability, low maintenance. Fully automatic. No running attention required. Outdoor / rooftop installation possible. Long life even beyond 40 years. Best efficiency up to 30% of rated capacity. Oil-free refrigerant, no fouling problems.
Chartered Consulting Engineers Polygeneration Dairy Complex in Govind Dairy India with Integral Block Ice Making Plant Fuel waste sugar cane husk, coal, wood, other waste fuel Steam @ 21 bar G Steam driven electrical turbine Steam exhaust powers AARP Complete cooling services Integral ice making plant
Chartered Consulting Engineers Example of Relative Payback/ Cost Conventional vis CHRP
Chartered Consulting Engineers Chilled Food Application at 1 Tonne/hr Dairy Produce Chilling Yogurt
Chartered Consulting Engineers Assumptions for Comparisons Tri-gen plant producing at 80kWe Process heating Hx2 = 71 kW Regenerative Hx1 = 45 kW Spiral cooling duty = 55 kWr 6000 hrs p.a. production plan
Chartered Consulting Engineers Conventional PlantTri-generation Plant Capital cost£ 35k (Refrigeration plant + heating) £110k (Based on MGT) Electrical requirement 52.5 kWe (Imported Main Grid)25 kWe (to drive the fans, lights etc). (From the 80 kWe CHP plant) Exported electricity0 kWe55 kWe Gas consumption88.75 kWf285.7 kWf Running cost p.a. £ 38,513£ 42,855 Equivalent exported energy cost p.a. 0£26,400 Net running cost p.a. £ 38,513£ 16,455 Relative maintenancesimilar for both installations Capital cost difference+ £ 75,000 Net running cost difference-£ 22,058 Pay back on the difference3.4 Years Economic Comparison of Conventional ~ Tri-generation
Chartered Consulting Engineers Comparison Between Conventional and Tri-generation System Conventional System Overall Efficiency: 51 % Running Cost: £800 p.w. CO 2 Emissions:12.6 t/day Tri-generation System Overall Efficiency 73 % (COP=0.35) Running Cost: £440 p.w CO 2 Emissions: 5.3 t/day Note: Efficiency and environmental performance of tri-generation system will increase significantly when low temperature absorption refrigeration systems with COP (Coefficient of Performance) close to 1.0 are achieved. Doug Marriott Associates Saving Business Energy
Chartered Consulting Engineers We acknowledge with thanks the Co-Funding Provided by Defra under the Advanced Food Manufacturing Food Link Programme. The project is directed by Prof Savvas Tassou Brunel University. The Consortium in the AFM project in addition to the above is: Tesco, Somerfield - Co-op, A&N Shilliday & Co Ltd, Cambridge Refrigeration Technology, Bond Industries Ltd, Bock Kaltenmaschinen GmbH, ACDP, Apex Air Conditioning Ltd, CSA, Bowman Power Group Ltd, Danfoss Ltd, George Barker & Co (Leeds Ltd) - part of the Elfi Group, Cogenco Ltd & Doug Marriott Associates Ltd Acknowledgements
Chartered Consulting Engineers Some Grants and Funding & Options Option 1Community & Charitable Grants <£30 K www.eon-uk.com/sourcewww.eon-uk.com/source Option 2ECA 100% first year Energy Savingwww.eca.gov.uk / Low Carbon/Water Conservationwww.eca-water.gov.ukwww.eca-water.gov.uk Option 3Shell Springboard < £40 k www.shellspringboard.org www.shellspringboard.org Option 4Defra - Rural Enterprise Scheme www.defra.gov.uk/erdp/schemes/res www.defra.gov.uk/erdp/schemes/res Option 5Collaborative Research TSB http://www.grantsforindustry.co.uk/business-grants/eligibility-check http://www.grantsforindustry.co.uk/business-grants/eligibility-check Option 6Low Carbon Building Programme http://www.lowcarbonbuildingsphase2.org.uk/filelibrary/LCBP2E/LCBP2E_Guidance_Notes_new_v1.0.pdf Option 7Renewable Heat Incentive http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/meeting_energy/renewable_ener/incentive/incentive.aspx Alternative Option 8Waste heat generation of Electricity 15-20% recovery
Chartered Consulting Engineers Other References and Web Access http://www.therenewableenergycentre.co.uk/grants/ www.bwea.com/you/funding.html http://www.renewableenergyfocus.com/view/8384/small-business-captures-largest-share- of-renewable-energy-grants/ http://www.renewableenergyfocus.com/view/8384/small-business-captures-largest-share- of-renewable-energy-grants/ http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/business/Business/Local-Authorities/Funding http://www.sungiftsolar.co.uk/grants.htmlhttp://www.r-e-a.net/info/links/funding-links http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/sources/renewa bles/business-investment/funding/r-and-d/page19363.htmlhttp://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/sources/renewa bles/business-investment/funding/r-and-d/page19363.html www.edfenergy.com/Business-Electricity www.edfenergy.com/Business-Electricity http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.berr.gov.uk/energy/sources/renew ables/business-investment/funding/page19360.html http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.berr.gov.uk/energy/sources/renew ables/business-investment/funding/page19360.html http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy Dougs Em email@example.com Tel +44(0) 1227 730 712 Mob +44(0)firstname.lastname@example.org www.spiral-freezers.co.uk