Presentation on theme: "Rendering Is:.. Essential! …Sustainable!"— Presentation transcript:
1Rendering Is:.. Essential! …Sustainable! Ross Hamilton, Ph.D.Vice President Government Affairs & TechnologyDarling International Inc.Rendering Is:.. Essential! …Sustainable!
2The California Legislature stated in Assembly Bill No. 1249*: “The Legislature hereby finds and declares all of the following:The rendering industry is a critical health and safety infrastructure for California. Rendering is an effective tool to eliminate many human and animal disease pathogens, protects our groundwater and air resources, and greatly reduces greenhouse gas emissions compared to other alternative disposal options.*California Assembly Bill No. 1249, Chapter 280, Approved by Governor October 11, 2009.
3What is available to the rendering industry to recycle? Wastes generated by the meat and food industries in US.SourceAmount(million pounds)On-farm and pre-slaughter3,702.4Inedible byproducts removed at slaughter39,047.6DownstreamFat, bone and trim from processing23,850.7Expired meat from retail stores3,960.4Used cooking (frying) oil5,629.4Total76,190.2
4Kills pathogenic organisms Protects (sustains) the environment What does rendering do?Kills pathogenic organismsProtects (sustains) the environmentRecycles carbonRecycles energyProvides control, verification and traceability to regulatory agencies and the public that condemned or expired meat products are not re-used as human food.The industry does all of this within hours of receiving raw materials, rather than taking weeks or months as some popular alternative methods do.
5What does rendering do? Kills pathogenic organisms Pathogens that may threaten human and animal health thrive on perishable organic materials.
6Challenge – Pathogens threaten human & animal health Adequate heat kills conventional pathogensPathogens are common in animal materials ABacteriaRaw tissueClostridium perfringens71.4 %Listeria species76.2 %L. monocytogenes8.3 %Campylobacter species29.8 %C. jejuni20.0 %Salmonella species84.5 %SalmonellaListeriaA FPRF, facilities sampled winter and summer.64% of > 1400 human pathogens are zoonotic73% of 177 emerging pathogens originated in animalsBSE agent is a potential hazard, but is addressed through compliance with FDA regulations
7Time and Temperature Profile Continuous cooker with fat added back Assume lower critical limit of 255˚ FLower critical limit of 255 F.EU data
8Predicted Bacteria Death Rate Initial population = 2*106 – Assume material exposed to 255˚ F LCT for 3 minutesOrganismTime to kill 1 log (90%), seconds% killed at 255 F for 3 minutesLog reduction 255 F for 3 minClostridium perfringens (spore)3.2> %7.8Salmonella<.001Essentially all1,600,000Listeria monocytogenes2,400,000Camplylobacter jejuni1,425,000,000E. Coli569,000,000Staphylococcus aureus103, ,000Table supports using Clostridia as indicator, but is based on food industry data and may not apply to rendered products that are high in fat. A threshold log reduction has not been determined for animal feed.
9Rendering uses HACCP principles for feed safety Animal Protein Producers Industry – Code of PracticeBased on HACCP-like (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) planFollows written procedures and process controls for feed safetyVerified by third party auditorsFDA agreesHazard analysis and hazard control are in Food Safety Modernization Act of 2010RawMaterialSizingGrindingHeat Processing(Time x Temperature)PressStorage/Load-outFat clean-upProteinUsedCookingOilDecantingCertificationsInspectionsTemperatureCompliancetestingLabeling
10Rendering breaks disease cycle Protects surface and groundwater from pathogensUsed by federal agencies to eradicate diseases in animalsSome other disposal methods use bacteria to decompose materialDisease cyclePathogen contaminationRaw byproductsPathogens multiplySpread by wind, water, animalsInfect humans & animalsRenderingSanitized productsNew usesRendering is the “Gate Keeper”
11What does rendering do?Protects (sustains) the environment
12Sustains the environment Obvious ways:Prevents fats and oils from polluting waterwaysControls accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in soilAssures landfill space available for non-recyclablesRendering process removes water to reduce original volume by 60%.Compared to other disposal methods, reduces discharges of particulates, SO, dioxins and hydrogen sulfide.Proper grease disposal prevents occlusion of sanitary sewer systemsNew benefit realized:Recycling of carbon and nitrogen – the raw materials Darling recycles are rich in these elements. Fats and oils are 76% carbon. Animal proteins contain % carbon and 8 – 14% nitrogen.
13Rendering SUSTAINABILITY Planet People Profit The rendering industry has been the gatekeepers of food safety and the environment for decades, offering a sanitary and eco-friendly way to dispose of the massive amount of meat and food by-products produced every year.Trap ServicesSUSTAINABILITYAnimal ProductionFeed nutrientsFeed safety programsAnimal healthPlanetPeopleRenderingBiofuelMeat processingRestaurant ServicesFood StoresMeat byproductRestaurantsAnimal SlaughterProfit
14What does rendering do? Recycles1 materials/nutrients: Rendering is recycling. It processes used or waste food materials to make useful products having industrial uses, nutrients for animals and renewable fuels.Rendering captures carbon and nitrogen to avoid greenhouse gas emissions.Rendering captures many times more carbon than it emits from its processes.Rendering recycles phosphorus and other minerals to prevent loading of the soil and waterways.Rendering is a better example of recycling than recycling of aluminum cans, because rendering has remained economically sustainable for more than a century.1 Webster defines recycle as: “to treat or process used or waste materials so as to make suitable for reuse.”
15Rendering Annually Recycles (million lb) : Our Green ImpactRendering Annually Recycles (million lb) :NutrientPCRAUS totalCarbon56010,511Nitrogen1661,072Phosphorus13384Rendering protects the environment:US rendering facilities utilize world-class processing equipment, treatment processes and control equipment to minimize the discharge impact on the local environments’ air and water.
16What does rendering do? Recycles carbon : Rendering captures many times more carbon than it emits from its processes.Carbon and nitrogen captured in rendered products cannot form CO2, methane or nitrous oxide.Thus, rendering is considered to be an effective Carbon capture and GHG avoidance technology.
17Rendering is a net carbon capture technology Assumptions: (1) 70.6 billion lb of animal byproducts generated on-farm, at slaughter, from processing and by grocery stores; and (2) 5.6 billion lb of used frying oil generated by the food industry is recycled by the rendering industry.GHG Sources1 Calculated using data from Shanwei et al., 2007 for composting animal remains: 100% of carbon emitted as gases (96% as CO2 and 4% as methane) and 6% of nitrogen emitted as nitrous oxide.
18What does rendering do? Recycles energy: Captures the energy in the raw materials and packages it into stable products that can be stored, transported and used easily.All rendered products contain significant amounts of energy.Fats , greases and oils are nature’s way of concentrating and storing energy,Whether energy is measured in calories or as BTU, it is still energy.
19Rendering More energy than Anaerobic Digestion. Energy of rendered and AD products, BTU/lbAnaerobic Digestion1Peak biogas production not reached for 10 daysProducts are biogas and effluent.Complete digestion not likely:Ash (15 to 30%) left in effluent19% of volatile solids left after 28 daysBiogas characteristics76.3% BTU of natural gas73% methane27% carbon dioxideMethane is used to make electricity or in boilers.CO2 not combusted and is released as greenhouse gasEffluent dried for land applicationVFAs may be toxic to plants1 Data from Zhang et al Bioresource Tech. 98:929RenderingProducts recycled same day receivedEnergy in protein meals is used by animals for growth and production.Energy in fats is used by animals for growth & milk/egg production, as a fuel source in boilers or as a feedstock for biodiesel /renewable diesel.
20364 million MMBTU provided by: Rendering captures the energy contained in animal byproducts and food waste into stable products that are easy to store, transport and use.The 76.2 billion pounds of animal byproducts and used frying oil generated each year in the US contains more than 364 million MMBTU. The quantities of common sources of energy needed to provide an equivalent number of BTU are listed below.Alternative fuel source364 million MMBTU provided by:Coal, tons18.3 millionElectricity, kWh106.9 billionNatural gas, cubic feet355.2 billionCrude oil, barrels62.9 millionGasoline, gallons2.9 billionHeating oil, gallons2.6 billion
21The coal needed to generate electricity for 2.3 million households. Rendering animal byproducts and food waste captures the energy into stable products that are easy to store, transport and use.The energy that would be captured by rendering all of the 76.2 billion pounds of animal byproducts and used frying oil generated each year in the US1 would be equivalent to the following sources of energy used by typical US households in a year:The coal needed to generate electricity for 2.3 million households.The energy from the electricity used by 6.8 million households.The natural gas used by 4.3 million households for furnaces and to heat water.The gasoline used to fuel the cars driven by 2.7 million households.The heating oil used to heat 3.6 million households.1 More than 364 million MMBTU.
22What does rendering do?Provides control, verification and traceability to regulatory agencies and the public that condemned or expired meat products are not re-used as human food.
23Raw Material composition Collection-transportation How rendering is regulated and control is maintained over raw/finished materials:Raw Material compositionCollection-transportationProcessingTallowProteinAnimal FeedNon-Feed UseUSDA/FSISUSDA/APHISState Dept of AgricultureFDA-CVMFDA-CFSANFatty Acid SplittersExportsMeat not for human foodCity & State Health DeptUS & State EPA, OSHA, DOT, etc.
24Key FDA Regulations Renderers Must Comply With 21 CFR §§ & – CMPAF (Feed Rule)Effective October 26, 2010 – the primary rule for compliancePublic Health & Bioterrorism Preparedness Act21 CFR Parts 1 and 20 – Facility RegistrationEach facility (except trap only) is registered - will ask for number21 CFR §§ through – Prior NoticeNotify FDA when “Food” is to be imported (i.e. Canadian fat & bone)21 CFR Parts 1 and 11 – Record Keeping RequirementTrace material one-step forward and backward (including transport)21 CFR Parts 1, 10 and 16 – Administrative DetentionProcedures to detain “food” reasonably likely to be unsafeFood & Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007FD&C Act Section 415 – Reportable Food RegistryReport adulterated food that may cause death/serious illnessFood Safety Modernization Act of 2010 – regulations pending…
25Safety of rendered products used in feed regulated by the U Safety of rendered products used in feed regulated by the U.S Food & Drug Administration (FDA)Food Drug & Cosmetic Act definition of “Food”Articles of food or drink for man or other animals – including components of any such articlesFDA considers rendered products safe (CPG ). This guidance recognizes that rendering:Has provided more than 100 years of recycling to meat and food industries.Has supplied nutrients to animals since the 1940’s.Processes designed to assure the resulting feed ingredients pose no threat of disease transmission to animals.
26How do alternative disposal methods stack up ? Because rendering recycles fats and proteins, it avoids the release of significant amounts of greenhouse gases. The alternative disposal options are all net producers of GHG.Methods that use decomposition to breakdown the material convert all of the carbon to methane and carbon dioxide and some nitrogen to nitrous oxide.Composting – CO2 primarily released with some CH4 & N2O.Landfills – Large amounts of CH4 produced; some CO2 & N2OBurial – Similar to landfillsEven if landfills capture methane, burning it as fuel or as a flame releases CO2.
27Rendering Prevents the Spread of Disease In 2001, the Government of the United Kingdom ranked various disposal options according to their risk of exposing the public to hazards.Bacterial hazards:Food pathogens (E.Coli, salmonella, botulism)Disease pathogens (Anthrax, TB, Plague, Tetanus)Drinking water pathogensChemical hazards:MethaneCarbon dioxideHydrogen sulfideOther harmful chemicalsThe UK concluded that rendering is the preferred method of disposalRisk increases with bar heightCooking Kills SalmonellaMeat and food byproducts provide an excellent environment for pathogens to grow and multiply.Temperatures (> 250°F) used during the rendering process are more than adequate to kill conventional disease- causing organisms, such as bacteria and viruses.
29How rendering compares to alternatives1 ItemCompostingDigesterRenderingControlled consistent process?LittleModerateFull controlTimely processing of raw materials?Weeks/months10 + daysSame dayTake surges/changes in raw materials?LimitsRoutineGHG emitted?YesCo2AvoidedWastewater controlled?Not allEnd products regulated?Minimal????Safely handle inedible meats?NoProcess regulated?Kills pathogens reliably?SpottyEnd products safe for animalsHazard2NAYes3Solids suitable for land application?FertilizerToxic to plants?4Source of biofuelUses energy1SustainableFor plant materialNot if energy cheap> 100 years old1 Compost and digester comparisons from Mata-Alvarez and Llabres, 20002 If meat included in compost, potential violation of 21CFR /2001 & Swine Health Protection Act3 Use for animals regulated. Certain products can not be fed to cattle and other ruminants4 Volatile fatty acids present in effluent may be toxic to plants..
30Rendering is the preferred disposal method Essential “Gate Keeper” for People & Planet Without rendering…. critical issues using other methods of disposal:Composting - Volume would fill 10,000 new Dallas Cowboy stadiums per yearComposting mammalian flesh is prohibited in California (14 CCR § )Landfill – Volume would reduce existing US landfill space by 25% per year and increase GHG emissionsIncineration – Cost prohibitive and has air quality issuesBurial – Potential for ground and surface water contaminationAbandonment –Greatest threat to environment and human/animal healthWithout grease collections –municipal sewers would become occluded and cost $millions to cleanNone reach rendering’s level of sustainability.
31Summary Rendering provides essential services to society. Rendering offers a sanitary and eco-friendly way to dispose of the massive amount of meat and food by-products produced every year.If not recycled, the large amounts of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus present in these organic materials may contribute to global warming, soil loading and water contamination.Our facilities utilize world-class processing equipment, treatment processes and control equipment to minimize the discharge impact on the local environments’ air and water.Rendering is Essential!Rendering is the Solution !!
32Mission Critical, Necessary, Essential and sustainable Rendering …Mission Critical, Necessary, Essential and sustainable