Presentation on theme: "Ross Hamilton, Ph.D. Vice President Government Affairs & Technology Darling International Inc."— Presentation transcript:
Ross Hamilton, Ph.D. Vice President Government Affairs & Technology Darling International Inc.
The Legislature hereby finds and declares all of the following: (a) The rendering industry is a critical health and safety infrastructure for California. Rendering is an effective tool to eliminate many human and animal disease pathogens, protects our groundwater and air resources, and greatly reduces greenhouse gas emissions compared to other alternative disposal options. (b) * California Assembly Bill No. 1249, Chapter 280, Approved by Governor October 11, 2009. 2
Source Amount (million pounds) On-farm and pre-slaughter3,702.4 Inedible byproducts removed at slaughter 39,047.6 Downstream Fat, bone and trim from processing23,850.7 Expired meat from retail stores3,960.4 Used cooking (frying) oil5,629.4 Total76,190.2 Wastes generated by the meat and food industries in US.
Kills pathogenic organisms Protects (sustains) the environment Recycles carbon Recycles energy Provides control, verification and traceability to regulatory agencies and the public that condemned or expired meat products are not re-used as human food. The industry does all of this within hours of receiving raw materials, rather than taking weeks or months as some popular alternative methods do.
Kills pathogenic organisms + Pathogens that may threaten human and animal health thrive on perishable organic materials.
BacteriaRaw tissue Clostridium perfringens71.4 % Listeria species76.2 % L. monocytogenes8.3 % Campylobacter species29.8 % C. jejuni20.0 % Salmonella species84.5 % Challenge – Pathogens threaten human & animal health A FPRF, 2001. 17 facilities sampled winter and summer. Pathogens are common in animal materials A Salmonella Listeria Adequate heat kills conventional pathogens 64% of > 1400 human pathogens are zoonotic 73% of 177 emerging pathogens originated in animals BSE agent is a potential hazard, but is addressed through compliance with FDA regulations
Lower critical limit of 255 F. EU data Assume lower critical limit of 255˚ F
Organism Time to kill 1 log (90%), seconds % killed at 255 F for 3 minutes Log reduction 255 F for 3 min Clostridium perfringens (spore) 3.2 > 99.9999%7.8 Salmonella <.001 Essentially all1,600,000 Listeria monocytogenes <.001 Essentially all2,400,000 Camplylobacter jejuni <.001 Essentially all1,425,000,000 E. Coli <.001 Essentially all569,000,000 Staphylococcus aureus <.001 Essentially all 103,000.000,000 Initial population = 2*10 6 – Assume material exposed to 255 ˚ F LCT for 3 minutes Table supports using Clostridia as indicator, but is based on food industry data and may not apply to rendered products that are high in fat. A threshold log reduction has not been determined for animal feed.
Raw Material Sizing Grinding Heat Processing (Time x Temperature) Press Storage/Load-out Fat clean-up Protein Used Cooking Oil Decanting Certifications Inspections Temperature Compliance testing Inspections Labeling Animal Protein Producers Industry – Code of Practice Based on HACCP-like (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) plan Follows written procedures and process controls for feed safety Verified by third party auditors FDA agrees Hazard analysis and hazard control are in Food Safety Modernization Act of 2010 9
Rendering breaks disease cycle Disease cycle Rendering Sanitized products New uses Rendering is the Gate Keeper 10
Obvious ways: Prevents fats and oils from polluting waterways Controls accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil Assures landfill space available for non-recyclables Rendering process removes water to reduce original volume by 60%. Compared to other disposal methods, reduces discharges of particulates, SO, dioxins and hydrogen sulfide. Proper grease disposal prevents occlusion of sanitary sewer systems New benefit realized: Recycling of carbon and nitrogen – the raw materials Darling recycles are rich in these elements. Fats and oils are 76% carbon. Animal proteins contain 22 - 30% carbon and 8 – 14% nitrogen. 12
Trap Services SUSTAINABILITY Animal Production Feed nutrients Feed safety programs Animal health Planet People Rendering Biofuel Meat processing Restaurant Services Food Stores Meat byproduct Restaurants Animal Slaughter The rendering industry has been the gatekeepers of food safety and the environment for decades, offering a sanitary and eco-friendly way to dispose of the massive amount of meat and food by-products produced every year. 13 Profit
Recycles 1 materials/nutrients: Rendering is recycling. It processes used or waste food materials to make useful products having industrial uses, nutrients for animals and renewable fuels. Rendering captures carbon and nitrogen to avoid greenhouse gas emissions. Rendering captures many times more carbon than it emits from its processes. Rendering recycles phosphorus and other minerals to prevent loading of the soil and waterways. Rendering is a better example of recycling than recycling of aluminum cans, because rendering has remained economically sustainable for more than a century. 1 Webster defines recycle as: to treat or process used or waste materials so as to make suitable for reuse.
Rendering protects the environment: 15 NutrientPCRAUS total Carbon56010,511 Nitrogen1661,072 Phosphorus13384 Rendering Annually Recycles (million lb) : US rendering facilities utilize world-class processing equipment, treatment processes and control equipment to minimize the discharge impact on the local environments air and water.
Recycles carbon : Rendering captures many times more carbon than it emits from its processes. Carbon and nitrogen captured in rendered products cannot form CO 2, methane or nitrous oxide. Thus, rendering is considered to be an effective Carbon capture and GHG avoidance technology.
17 GHG Sources 1 Calculated using data from Shanwei et al., 2007 for composting animal remains: 100% of carbon emitted as gases (96% as CO 2 and 4% as methane) and 6% of nitrogen emitted as nitrous oxide. Assumptions: (1) 70.6 billion lb of animal byproducts generated on-farm, at slaughter, from processing and by grocery stores; and (2) 5.6 billion lb of used frying oil generated by the food industry is recycled by the rendering industry.
Recycles energy: Captures the energy in the raw materials and packages it into stable products that can be stored, transported and used easily. All rendered products contain significant amounts of energy. Fats, greases and oils are natures way of concentrating and storing energy, Whether energy is measured in calories or as BTU, it is still energy.
Anaerobic Digestion 1 Peak biogas production not reached for 10 days Products are biogas and effluent. Complete digestion not likely: Ash (15 to 30%) left in effluent 19% of volatile solids left after 28 days Biogas characteristics 76.3% BTU of natural gas 73% methane 27% carbon dioxide Methane is used to make electricity or in boilers. CO 2 not combusted and is released as greenhouse gas Effluent dried for land application VFAs may be toxic to plants 1 Data from Zhang et al.2007 Bioresource Tech. 98:929 Energy of rendered and AD products, BTU/lb Rendering Products recycled same day received Energy in protein meals is used by animals for growth and production. Energy in fats is used by animals for growth & milk/egg production, as a fuel source in boilers or as a feedstock for biodiesel /renewable diesel.
Alternative fuel source364 million MMBTU provided by: Coal, tons18.3 million Electricity, kWh106.9 billion Natural gas, cubic feet355.2 billion Crude oil, barrels62.9 million Gasoline, gallons2.9 billion Heating oil, gallons2.6 billion The 76.2 billion pounds of animal byproducts and used frying oil generated each year in the US contains more than 364 million MMBTU. The quantities of common sources of energy needed to provide an equivalent number of BTU are listed below.
The coal needed to generate electricity for 2.3 million households. The energy from the electricity used by 6.8 million households. The natural gas used by 4.3 million households for furnaces and to heat water. The gasoline used to fuel the cars driven by 2.7 million households. The heating oil used to heat 3.6 million households. The energy that would be captured by rendering all of the 76.2 billion pounds of animal byproducts and used frying oil generated each year in the US 1 would be equivalent to the following sources of energy used by typical US households in a year: 1 More than 364 million MMBTU.
Provides control, verification and traceability to regulatory agencies and the public that condemned or expired meat products are not re-used as human food.
Raw Material composition Collection-transportation Processing TallowProtein Animal Feed Non-Feed Use USDA/FSIS USDA/APHIS State Dept of Agriculture FDA-CVM FDA- CFSAN State Dept of Agriculture Fatty Acid Splitters Exports USDA/APHIS Meat not for human food City & State Health Dept FDA-CVM US & State EPA, OSHA, DOT, etc. How rendering is regulated and control is maintained over raw/finished materials:
21 CFR §§ 589.2000 & 589.2001 – CMPAF (Feed Rule) Effective October 26, 2010 – the primary rule for compliance Public Health & Bioterrorism Preparedness Act 21 CFR Parts 1 and 20 – Facility Registration Each facility (except trap only) is registered - will ask for number 21 CFR §§ 1.276 through 1.285 – Prior Notice Notify FDA when Food is to be imported (i.e. Canadian fat & bone) 21 CFR Parts 1 and 11 – Record Keeping Requirement Trace material one-step forward and backward (including transport) 21 CFR Parts 1, 10 and 16 – Administrative Detention Procedures to detain food reasonably likely to be unsafe Food & Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 FD&C Act Section 415 – Reportable Food Registry Report adulterated food that may cause death/serious illness Food Safety Modernization Act of 2010 – regulations pending… 24
Food Drug & Cosmetic Act definition of Food Articles of food or drink for man or other animals – including components of any such articles FDA considers rendered products safe (CPG 7126.24). This guidance recognizes that rendering: Has provided more than 100 years of recycling to meat and food industries. Has supplied nutrients to animals since the 1940s. Processes designed to assure the resulting feed ingredients pose no threat of disease transmission to animals. 25
Because rendering recycles fats and proteins, it avoids the release of significant amounts of greenhouse gases. The alternative disposal options are all net producers of GHG. Methods that use decomposition to breakdown the material convert all of the carbon to methane and carbon dioxide and some nitrogen to nitrous oxide. Composting – CO 2 primarily released with some CH 4 & N 2 O. Landfills – Large amounts of CH 4 produced; some CO 2 & N 2 O Burial – Similar to landfills Even if landfills capture methane, burning it as fuel or as a flame releases CO 2. 26
Bacterial hazards: Food pathogens ( E.Coli, salmonella, botulism) Disease pathogens (Anthrax, TB, Plague, Tetanus) Drinking water pathogens Chemical hazards: Methane Carbon dioxide Hydrogen sulfide Other harmful chemicals The UK concluded that rendering is the preferred method of disposal 27 Risk increases with bar height Cooking Kills Salmonella Meat and food byproducts provide an excellent environment for pathogens to grow and multiply. Temperatures (> 250 ° F) used during the rendering process are more than adequate to kill conventional disease- causing organisms, such as bacteria and viruses. In 2001, the Government of the United Kingdom ranked various disposal options according to their risk of exposing the public to hazards.
Digester Compost Animal Feed Rendering FertilizerBiofuel Oleo-chemical Cosmetics Tires Paints Lubricants Fertilize r Dryer Generator Meat waste Effluent Biogas 75% Methane 25% CO 2 Electricit y Greenhouse Gases Water Captured C ? 7:1 capture to emit ratio Pet Food
ItemCompostingDigesterRendering Controlled consistent process?LittleModerateFull control Timely processing of raw materials?Weeks/months10 + daysSame day Take surges/changes in raw materials? Limits Routine GHG emitted?YesCo 2 Avoided Wastewater controlled?Not allYes End products regulated?Minimal????Yes Safely handle inedible meats?No Yes Process regulated?Little Yes Kills pathogens reliably?SpottyNot allYes End products safe for animalsHazard 2 NAYes 3 Solids suitable for land application?FertilizerToxic to plants? 4 Fertilizer Source of biofuelUses energy 1 Yes Sustainable For plant material Not if energy cheap > 100 years old 1 Compost and digester comparisons from Mata-Alvarez and Llabres, 2000 2 If meat included in compost, potential violation of 21CFR 589.2000/2001 & Swine Health Protection Act 3 Use for animals regulated. Certain products can not be fed to cattle and other ruminants 4 Volatile fatty acids present in effluent may be toxic to plants..
Essential Gate Keeper for People & Planet Without rendering…. critical issues using other methods of disposal: Composting - Volume would fill 10,000 new Dallas Cowboy stadiums per year Composting mammalian flesh is prohibited in California (14 CCR § 17855.2) Landfill – Volume would reduce existing US landfill space by 25% per year and increase GHG emissions Incineration – Cost prohibitive and has air quality issues Burial – Potential for ground and surface water contamination Abandonment –Greatest threat to environment and human/animal health Without grease collections –municipal sewers would become occluded and cost $millions to clean 30 None reach renderings level of sustainability.
31 Rendering provides essential services to society. Rendering offers a sanitary and eco-friendly way to dispose of the massive amount of meat and food by-products produced every year. If not recycled, the large amounts of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus present in these organic materials may contribute to global warming, soil loading and water contamination. Our facilities utilize world-class processing equipment, treatment processes and control equipment to minimize the discharge impact on the local environments air and water. Rendering is Essential! Rendering is the Solution !!