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May 14 th 2009 Calera Corporation Sequestering CO 2 in the built environment.

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Presentation on theme: "May 14 th 2009 Calera Corporation Sequestering CO 2 in the built environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 May 14 th 2009 Calera Corporation Sequestering CO 2 in the built environment

2 1 Carbon cycle: Most of the carbon is sitting the form of carbonate rock Calera Corporation CO 2 (Ca, Mg) CO 3 Fossil Fuels: All fossil fuels = 4,000 B tons CO 2 11B tons of CO 2 emitted by power and cement industry per year Kyoto requires a reduction of 5B tons of CO 2 conversion Atmosphere: 1700s: 400 B tons CO 2 Today: 700 B tons CO 2 The built environment: 32B tons of cement and aggregate used every year Sedimentary Rocks & marine sediments: million B tons CO 2

3 2 23 years of cement expertise, 3 successful medical device ventures founded and sold, worldwide penetration of high performance products Calera Corporation

4 3 World class team with international expertise in Energy, Geology, Water, and Building Materials Calera was founded in June 2007, by Brent R. Constantz, Ph.D. Calera has been funded by its unique investor Khosla Ventures Top talent with credentials 70 people 18 PhD 14 MS 5 MBA 2 JD, 3 patent agents, 1 paralegal Collective experience Collectively built large scale projects in 15 countries around the world Upwards of 100 SPEs Over 100 patents Management Team Successful entrepreneurs Public company execs Power, geology, water and building materials Investors and Advisors Khosla Ventures Scientific Advisory Board Carbon Advisory Board Specialty Technical Advisory Board Calera Corporation

5 4 Reactor Flue gas Cement & Aggregate Fresher Water (stripped of Ca & Mg) Saline Water Power plant The Calera Process: Mineral Carbonation Calera Corporation

6 5 Coal is the problem to solve, however the cost of CCS for fossil fueled power generation remains prohibitive 95%-100%20% - 40%10 %– 15%4% - 10% 1)CO 2 from Ethanol Fermenters 2)CO 2 from steam reforming at Refineries, Ammonia Plants, SNG Plants, 3)CO 2 Separated from sour natural gas 1)CO 2 from Cement Calcination 2)Other chemical plants 1)Coal Fired power plants 2)Oil & diesel generators 1)Natural gas fired power plants 2)Furnaces, small boilers, etc. Quantity Source: Natcarb - EIA - IPCC Special Report on Carbon Capture and Sequestration - Kurt House Analysis (MIT) Calera Corporation

7 6 Novel technologies and integrated design allow for beneficial reuse at global industrial scale Benefits of integrated solution: Lower capex and opex Partnering with top equipment suppliers and EPC firms to design for low cost and large scale from beginning Modular plant design allows for rapid deployment worldwide and added Intellectual Property protection Breakthroughs: -Maximized absorption efficiency with low energy use -Mineral loading -Multi-pollutant capture Breakthroughs: -Novel chemistry -Novel material science producing undefined polymorphs with cementitious properties -Industrial scale and economics Breakthroughs: -Ability to control particle size and material density -Reuse of waste heat Absorb PrecipitateDe-water Dry/Produc e Calera Corporation

8 7 Calera technology is mature and ready for a demo scale project Laboratory, Small Batch and Large Batch Scale –Has established the ability to efficiently capture and convert to mineral carbonate with seawater and waste base sources –Generating 5 tons of product capturing 2.5 tons of CO 2 per single batch Pilot –Establishes continuous process at 1 ton per day of product (0.5 tons of CO 2 from coal fired boilers –Will test efficiency and integration of individual process technologies –Testing on pulverized coal flue gas and site specific conditions and materials Demo –Takes flue gas from 20MW to 80MW of coal fueled host plant –Scales up in segments / modules KPI hurdle Pilot (Moss Landing) Demonstration (20MW) Full Scale Plant(s) Chemistry, Laboratory and Batch Processes Calera Corporation

9 8 CA pilots validate process, product and environmental feasibility Pilot plants running large scale batch and continuous processes Flue gas simulator – Ability to test any type of coal and flue gas composition Producing material for product development and testing Demonstration of waste mineral utilization Monterey Bay Marine Sanctuary requires highest level of environmental performance Moss Landing Power Station >1000 MW base load >1500 MW peaking Fuel: Natural Gas Operator: Dynegy Calera Pilot and Global R&D 150,000 sqft covered 200 acres total 60m gpd discharge permit 5m tons of mineral waste Calera Corporation

10 9 Moss Landing Pilot Plant - Process Flow Gas to Liquid Absorber Pump Recirculation Pump Induced Draft Fan CO 2 Depleted Flue Gas Baghouse Coal Air Pulverized Coal Hopper Coal Fired Boiler Simulator Forced Draft Fan Screw Feeder Precipitator With Pax Agitator Dewatering Feed Pump Epuramat 1500 Water to Treatment Wet Mill Spray Dryer Feed Pump Cement Aggregate Spray Dryer Seawater Moss Mag/Dolime Moss Mag Seawater Pump Base Feed Pump Calera Corporation

11 10 Moss Landing Pilot Plant - Process Flow Coal Air Seawater Moss Mag/Dolime Pulverized Coal Hopper Coal Fired Boiler Simulator Gas to Liquid Absorber Precipitator With Pax Agitator Moss Mag Forced Draft Fan Seawater Pump Base Feed Pump Dewatering Feed Pump Dewatering Wet Mill Spray Dryer Feed Pump Absorber Pump Recirculation Pump Induced Draft Fan CO 2 Depleted Flue Gas Cement Aggregate Water to Treatment Screw Feeder Baghouse Spray Dryer Calera Corporation

12 11 Moss Landing Pilot Plant – Coal Boiler Simulator Coal Fired Boiler Simulator (CFBS) Simulates time-temperature combustion history of full- scale utility boilers Capable of burning pulverized coal from anywhere in the world Capacity 1 MMBtu/hr Generates flue gas composition and temperature identical to full scale Calera Corporation

13 12 Moss Landing Pilot Plant Seawater Feed and Base Addition Systems Provides continuous supplies of seawater and solid base to the process Calera Corporation

14 13 Moss Landing Pilot Plant - Process Flow Coal Air Seawater Moss Mag/Dolime Pulverized Coal Hopper Coal Fired Boiler Simulator Gas Liquid Absorber Precipitator With Pax Agitator Moss Mag Forced Draft Fan Seawater Pump Base Feed Pump Dewatering Feed Pump Dewatering Wet Mill Spray Dryer Feed Pump Absorber Pump Recirculation Pump Induced Draft Fan CO 2 Depleted Flue Gas Cement Aggregate Water to Treatment Screw Feeder Baghouse Spray Dryer Calera Corporation

15 14 Moss Landing Pilot Plant – Gas Liquid Absorber NSG PureStream TM Absorber High efficiency compact CO 2 capture technology utilizes planar liquid jet technology. CEMS Calera Corporation

16 15 Moss Landing Pilot Plant - Process Flow Coal Air Seawater Moss Mag/Dolime Pulverized Coal Hopper Coal Fired Boiler Simulator Gas to Liquid Absorber Precipitator With Pax Agitator Moss Mag Forced Draft Fan Seawater Pump Base Feed Pump Dewatering Feed Pump Dewatering Wet Mill Spray Dryer Feed Pump Absorber Pump Neumann Recirculation Pump Induced Draft Fan CO 2 Depleted Flue Gas Cement Aggregate Water to Treatment Screw Feeder Baghouse Spray Dryer Calera Corporation

17 16 Moss Landing Pilot Plant Precipitator Precipitates absorbed CO 2 into solids Calera Corporation

18 17 Moss Landing Pilot Plant – Systems Solid-Liquids Separator Precipitates absorbed CO 2 into solids and separates supernatant. Calera Corporation

19 18 Moss Landing Pilot Plant - Process Flow Coal Air Seawater Moss Mag/Dolime Pulverized Coal Hopper Coal Fired Boiler Simulator Gas to Liquid Absorber Precipitator With Pax Agitator Moss Mag Forced Draft Fan Seawater Pump Base Feed Pump Dewatering Feed Pump Dewatering Wet Mill Spray Dryer Feed Pump Absorber Pump Neumann Recirculation Pump Induced Draft Fan CO 2 Depleted Flue Gas Cement Aggregate Water to Treatment Screw Feeder Baghouse Spray Dryer Calera Corporation

20 19 Moss Landing Pilot Plant – Systems Wet Mill and Spray Dryer Modifies particle size and shape of precipitant and then dries final product. Calera Corporation

21 20 Multi-pollutant Robustness and Control Potential In Calera Process SO 2 is absorbed in alkaline liquid and converted to sulfate In Calera Process SO 2 is absorbed in alkaline liquid and converted to sulfate Actual retrofit costs can vary significantly due to complexity of engineering for existing systems configurations Calera Process not sensitive to presence of other pollutants Calera Corporation Retrofit CapEx Costs * SO 2 ~ $ 325/kW - $ 450/kW NOx ~ $ 225/kW - $330/kW Hg ~ $36/kW - $ 42/kW TOTAL ~$ 586kW - $822/kW Retrofit CapEx Costs * SO 2 ~ $ 325/kW - $ 450/kW NOx ~ $ 225/kW - $330/kW Hg ~ $36/kW - $ 42/kW TOTAL ~$ 586kW - $822/kW (*)Sources: Sargent & Laundy (2007), DOE, Hoskins 2008 & PNM SJGS BART Analysis

22 21 Base Case Process Flow Diagram Flue Gas In Brine In Base Manufacture Natural, Waste Base Processing CO 2 Capture Precipitation Base Recovery Product Processing Calera Corporation

23 22 Mass and Energy Balance – Base Case Site Coal for 200 MW 2,900 kta mineral 800 kta fly ash 780 m 3 /h brine (5.9 MGD) 188 MW power 402 kta CO 2 emitted 2,336 kta Carbonate-rich Aggregate 123 kta Cement 938 kta CO 2 captured (70%) Power Plant Calera Plant 12 MW Sale 4,398 kta solids 1,938 kta Silica-rich Mineral Residue (potential for aggregate, other) Calera Corporation

24 23 Mass and Energy Balance – Generation 2 Site Coal for 200 MW 2,213 kta mineral 402 kta fly ash 41 kta salt (95% recovery) <120 m 3 /h brine (<1 MGD) 160 MW power 402 kta CO 2 emitted 2,183 kta Carbonate-rich Aggregate 115 kta Cement 938 kta CO 2 captured (70%) Power Plant Calera Plant 40 MW Sale 3,683 kta solids 1,485 kta Silica-rich Mineral Residue (potential for aggregate, other) Calera Corporation

25 24 Go to market strategy: the business model relies on revenue streams Project development co-invested with site host (CO2 emitter) Cooperating closely with cement, materials and architecture companies Calera builds, owns and operates carbon capture facilities Shared ownership with power, cement and water partners A partnership driven approach Market entry will begin with most progressive companies and regions, especially situations where carbon mitigation has high value Flexible technology allows broad range of sites Localized sourcing to suit range of sites and situations Positioning: cost effective, low risk Sustainable, stable and benign reuse of CO 2 Low capex, partnership with EPCs Several revenue streams: Product sales ($/ton-product) CO 2 off-take agreements ($/ton-CO2) Off-take agreements for regulated pollutants ($/ton-pollutant) Products: Pipeline development Carbon negative product pipeline to fit needs for more sustainable building material Product distribution is very localized with high infrastructure needs Calera is partnering with cement companies, water suppliers and others in supply chain Calera Corporation

26 25 Cement & CO 2 Source: EPA 2004, International Energy Agency July 2008 Approximately 1 ton CO 2 for each ton of cement (Range 0.7 – 1.1) Cement is inherently a heavy CO2 emitting process (since 1824) Calera Corporation

27 26 Calera Business Model: Sequester CO 2 from emitters and avoid CO 2 emitted in the traditional making of concrete Calera business model generates several revenues streams: –Building materials manufactured and sold –Carbon monetization of CO 2 sequestered and avoided –Softened water for RO Calera generates revenue from providing carbon emissions solutions: –CARBON EMISSIONS REDUCTION: Power generation (~25% of worldwide emissions) and cement production (~7% of worldwide emissions) by converting CO2 into stable building materials –CARBON EMISSIONS AVOIDED: Displacing conventional concrete mix components with carbon neutral (or better) materials Reducing by 50% the energy demand for desalination process Calera Corporation

28 27 Footprint = t CO 2 /t Mitigates fly ash Calera is developing a line of carbon negative building materials being tested against existing industry standards for large markets Carbonate Mineral SCM (CM-SCM) Reactive Carbonate Pozzolan (RCP) Synthetic Aggregate (SA) Cement Displacement Up to 20% of cement blend Testing against ASTM C 1157 – Standard Performance Specification for Hydraulic Cement Replaces all sand and aggregate Adjustable particle size Testing against ASTM C 33 – Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregate Footprint = - 0.5t CO 2 /t ~$25B ~$330B Worldwide market size: High performance, high value concrete Up to 50% of cement blend Testing against ASTM C 1157 – Standard Performance Specification for Hydraulic Cement First 3 products: Calera Corporation

29 28 Product Development Time Sand &Aggregate 3Bt 5 years 1 year $/ton SCM 24Mt Cement 120Mt Bricks 20Mt Drywall 20Mt Masonry Cement 4Mt 4 years3 years2 years 0 Mineral Filler 100Mt Light Weight Agg. 200Mt Concrete Blocks 50Mt Soil Stabilization 100Mt 30 Calera Mineral Carbonate can address a variety of large markets U.S. Market Global Market = ~10X Calera Corporation

30 29 Similar to shipping coal –Cost + business model proven Other factors to consider –Long term contracts –Offloading –Handling Transportation considerations are important Trucking Barges Rail Coal and Chemicals are top rail categories by revenue Calera Corporation

31 30 Concrete Carbon Footprint Calculator Introduced at World of Concrete 2009 by Calera Corporation Calera Corporation

32 31 Carbon Footprint Basic Calculation x Pounds of Ingredient Concrete Carbon Footprint Embodied CO 2 of Ingredient (per cubic yard) sum all ingredients First Carbonate Mineral concrete – July 2008 Calera Corporation

33 32 Embodied CO 2 of Concrete Materials ProductionTransportation Embodied CO 2 Per Ingredient + = ton CO 2 / ton material Cement Fine Aggregate (sand) Fly Ash Water Coarse Aggregate (gravel) Calera Corporation

34 33 Carbon Capturing Building Materials Embodied CO 2 Per Ingredient ton CO 2 / ton material Calera SCM Calera Fine Aggregate Calera Coarse Aggregate ProductionTransportation + = Calera Corporation

35 34 Ordinary Concrete emits ~537lb CO 2 / yd³ concrete Ingredientlb CO 2 / lb ingredient lb ingredient / yd³ concrete lb CO 2 / yd³ concrete Portland Cement Water Fine Aggregate , Coarse Aggregate , TOTALS3, Net CO 2 Emissions Per Cubic Yard 100% OPC Calera Corporation

36 35 Cement Water Fine Agg. Coarse Agg. Total 537 lb CO 2 Net CO 2 Emissions (lb) Per Cubic Yard Net CO 2 Emissions of Ordinary Concrete Calera Corporation

37 36 Use of high volume fly ash mix (50%) can help reduce to some extent the carbon footprint of concrete Ingredientlb CO 2 / lb ingredient lb ingredient / yd³ concrete lb CO 2 / yd³ concrete Portland Cement Water Fine Aggregate , Coarse Aggregate , Fly Ash TOTALS 3, Calera Corporation

38 37 …but has some performance and workability problems Total 302 lb CO 2 50% High Fly Ash Mix 44% Reduction in carbon footprint from traditional concrete OPC BUT Slower strength gain Net CO 2 Emissions (lb) Cement Water Fine Agg. Coarse Agg. Fly Ash Calera Corporation

39 38 Carbon Capturing Concrete Carbon Capturing Mix 20% Calera SCM, 20% Fly Ash used as cement replacement Total 293 lb CO 2 Net CO 2 Emissions (lb) Compared to 50% fly ash: Similar carbon footprint reduction No strength gaining issues Improved working properties Water Fly Ash Cement Calera SCM Fine Agg. Coarse Agg. Calera Corporation

40 39 Carbon-Neutral Concrete Carbon-Neutral Mix with 100% OPC, using mostly Calera fine aggregate Total 0 lb CO 2 Net CO 2 Emissions (lb) Water Cement Calera Fine Agg. Coarse Agg. Opportunities for cement companies to partner with Calera to manufacture green & sustainable concrete while maintaining their cement sales Calera Corporation

41 40 Carbon-Neutral Concrete Carbon Neutral Mix with High OPC Replacement & Improved Working Properties Net CO 2 Emissions (lb) Total -0 lb CO 2 20% SCMA 20% Fly Ash Replace a portion of fine aggregate with Calera Fine Aggregate Improved working properties No strength gaining issues Water Fly Ash Cement Calera Fine Agg. Calera SCM Fine Agg. Coarse Agg. Calera Corporation

42 41 Negative-carbon Concrete Ingredientlb CO 2 / lb ingredient lb ingredient / yd³ concrete lb CO 2 / yd³ concrete Portland Cement Water Fly Ash Calera SCM (0.450)113(50.9) Calera Fine Agg. (0.450)1,250(562.5) Calera Coarse Agg. (0.450)1,800(810.0) TOTALS 3,885 (1,146) Calera Corporation

43 42 Calera allows for carbon negative concrete mixes which sequester AND avoid CO2 Total: Water Fly Ash Cement Calera Fine Agg. Calera SCM Calera Coarse Agg. - 1,146 lb CO 2 /yd 3 of concrete Net CO 2 Emissions (lb) Reference Ordinary Concrete 537 lb CO 2 /yd 3 of concrete Net CO 2 avoided = 1,683 lb CO 2 Mix design: 20% Calera SCM 100% Calera Fine Agg. 100% Calera Coarse Agg. Source: Calera analysis Calera Corporation

44 43 Caleras value proposition Economically viable CO 2 control solution (avoided cost of allowances) Carbon negative concrete (offsets revenue streams + products sales) 537 lb CO 2 /yd 3 of concrete Water Fly Ash Cement Calera Fine Agg. Calera SCM Calera Coarse Agg. -1,146 lb CO 2 /yd 3 of concrete Net CO 2 Emissions (lb) Reference Ordinary Concrete Carbon negative concrete (CO 2 avoided) CO 2 control solution (CO 2 conversion) + + Sales of carbon negative concrete Value streams Calera Corporation

45 44 Calera Net CO2 Avoided (Capture – Emissions + Displacement) can be more than 100% of CO2 emitted by power plant Conservative life cycle analysis shows total CO2 avoided is higher than the total emissions of the power plant by ~7% Alternative cases show scenarios of up to 40% above total 3 rd party studies in progress with Harvard/MIT and others 7% >> up to 40% Calera Corporation

46 45 To maximize revenue from CO2 solutions, Calera has initiated an effort to quantify, verify and certify the carbon footprint of its technology Capture CO2 - Performance - Continuous Process Monitor - Tracking technology - Mass Balance Analysis Quantify - Write methodology - Apply as a new protocol Monetize - Bank/trade - Retire Certify - Registry selection - Registry approval Verify - 3 rd party verifier audit Calera has engaged leading carbon markets experts (Carbon Advisory Board – Carbon Symposium) Pilot running Instrumentation and analytics in place Carbon life cycle analysis Next steps Source: Calera analysis Calera Corporation

47 46 Calera is a mature, profitable and sustainable solution to climate change Calera Pilot and Global R&D (Ca, Mg) CO 3 A financeable project with revenue streams The largest natural storage of CO 2 A continuous process proven at pilot facility The first carbon negative concrete Water Fly Ash Cement Calera Fine Agg. Calera SCM Calera Coarse Agg. -1,146 lb CO 2 /yd 3 of concrete Reference Ordinary Concrete Net CO 2 Emissions (lb) Carbon negative concrete (CO 2 Avoided) + CO2 control solution (CO 2 conversion) + Sales of carbon negative concrete and softened water Calera Corporation

48 47 Endorsements You really ought to be able to replace most of the worlds need for cement, with the by-product of sequestering most of the worlds power plant emissions of CO 2 - that would be game changing - Carl Pope, President, Sierra Club Caleras process for creating cement from sequestering the CO2 from power plants is the most promising approach currently on the table - Marcia McNutt, President and CEO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute The Calera process shows great promise for green cement and sustainable concrete - Paulo Monteiro, Phd., Professor, Author of Concrete Caleras products, including cementitious materials and aggregates, are of great interest to the building industry as well as governmental agencies. - Gottfried, Founder: U.S. and World Green Building Councils The ability of your process to capture of particulates, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury, and other pollutants will give utilities an opportunity for one stop shopping as they face multiple emission reduction challenges. - Thomas B. Carter, Senior Vice President, Government Affairs, National Ready Mixed Concrete Assn. The Calera product not only provides an appropriate repository for CO 2, but can be used further for something constructive. - James R. ONeil, Prof. Emeritus, University of Michigan and 2004 Goldschmidt Medalist My view is their ideas are creative and demand careful debate and demonstration projects to see what they can do at large scale. Could be a significant new way to help us invent our way out of some the climate change problems we're facing. - Professor Stephen H. Schneider, Stanford University Calera Corporation


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