Presentation on theme: "Cross analysis of multi-stakeholder innovation in smallholder farming : Key lessons and policy recommendations from Benin, Kenya and South Africa AISA."— Presentation transcript:
Cross analysis of multi-stakeholder innovation in smallholder farming : Key lessons and policy recommendations from Benin, Kenya and South Africa AISA Conference, Nairobi, 30 May 2013
57 innovation cases ( Benin,Kenya, S. Africa ) Case 1 LessonsLessons Case 13 Collab. assessment CaseSelectionCaseSelection Inventory A n a l. f r a m e w o r k Feb/10Jul/13 13 cases Cross-AnalysisCross-Analysis Nov/11 JOLISAA Process
JOLISAA Assessment Process: Cases Entry pointNatural Resource Management Value chain development Benin* Integrated soil fertility management * Hwedo agrofishing system * Soy foods * Rice parboiling Kenya* Soil liming * Prosopis management * Aloe domestication * Mango processing * Solar milk cooling * Gadam sorghum South Africa* Integrated soil fertility management * In field rain water harvesting * Input bulk buying
Lesson 1: Innovations occur in the social wild, even when there is no intervention Lesson 2: Innovation processes comprise dynamic bundles of technological, institutional and organizational elements Lesson 3: Innovation processes that allow producers to connect with diverse value chains allow for more flexible and incremental changes Lesson 4: Over the long term, innovation processes unfold in unpredictable and unplannable ways Key Lessons to be Elaborated
1. Even where there is no intervention, numerous innovations occur in the « social wild » Aloe PPP : Kenya
» Arguments; » The aloe innovation process is a good example of the invisibility of local innovations to researchers and managers » Aloe has been flagged as endangered species because of its perceived overexploitation in the arid lands in Kenya. A new concept was designed for its conservation through use. Aloe was supposed to be cultivated, a processing industry was to be set up through PPP; the added value to the aloe sap would support conservation. A new value chain was to be created Great innovative concept, many pitfalls during implementation of the project, up to now it has not started » In parallel, local harvesters went on selling their products to boilers who were supplying Somali traders. Local innovations were developed in this informal value chain: traders trained boiling for a better quality of the gum, some small and medium scale processing units emerged for soap and cosmetics and some harvesters began to cultivate aloe. » Unfortunately, when the EU project was designed, there was no awareness about these processes.
2. Innovation processes comprised of dynamic bundles of technological, organizational and institutional elements Prosopis innovation bundle: Kenya
» Arguments » for the audience this lesson may sound too familiar but in practice, especially among researchers, innovation is still meant as technological innovation ; » The Prosopis case in Kenya is a good illustration on how innovation unfolds » Prosopis had been introduced as the wonderplant that would save arid lands in Kenya from desertification and poverty. It turned to be a noxious weed and action had to be taken in order either to get rid of it or to succeed in managing it. A first organisational innovation was set up: farmers field schools; They designed a set of technological innovations for managing the tree (pruning, using the pods, how to produce charcoal). » This required a change in rules, because charcoal production is prohibited. Such a change in regulations can be considered an institutional innovation. Then FFS groups specialised in charcoal production and trade. » In fact any technological innovation unfolds together with organisational innovations and even may imply some institutional changes; » A missing link would have considerably restrained the development of the innovation process if not have stopped it.
3. Diverse value chains within commodity allow flexible and inclusive changes Soybean value chains: Benin
» Arguments » Innovations are linked to market drives and development of value chains. Innovation managers mostly think in terms of developing or upgrading one type of value chain: the one high value chain giving access to demanding markets. » We distil lessons here around the soy case in Benin. » Soy has been introduced in the eighties for baby formula; now it has become a major crop. » Support has been given to oil plants. Projects also considered the medium scale value chain: innovation target linking producers to such VCs, productivity enhancement in medium to large scale processing units and to supplying farms. For the soy case, putting a focus on large scale industrial oil value chain also means competition with imports on global markets. » Soy case in Benin shows that many very small scale holders have made use of the initial innovation (soy introduction and knowledge on how to toast it). Food processing roots in a very rich local knowledge already used for a large range of food products. Small scale processors therefore transformed soy into a large range of substitutes to these food products (such as cheese, condiment etc). Several value chains emerged around food products for local and now urban consumer markets. » Issues are ˃- Small scale processing allows for step by step upgrading and asset acquisition : from no equipment to renting services, from renting services to own equipment, etc. This also reduces risk. ˃- For farmers also, the existence of parallel types of value chains is an asset: they are less dependent towards one large scale purchaser, it gives them the opportunity of step by step adjustment to an increase in quality and quantity requirements of the purchasers ˃- In french we say that many small streams come to a large one. Any of these small value chains seem unimportant but alltogether they feed large number of consumers. ˃- on the top of that market diversification reduces risks
4. Over the long term, innovation processes unfold in unpredictable and unplannable ways Initial plan: baby food Integration into cuisine Spreads through farming systems Oil plants adjust from cotton to soy Soybean evolution: Benin
» Arguments » Many innovations we know about happen to be triggered by projects at some stage in the process, mostly at early stages » In most cases project managers cannot anticipate what really happens, especially beyong project time frames » In the soy case, the project had been initially planned in order to bring mothers to integrate soy into infant food. But then soy was integrated as a substitute into many cooking recipies and this was the starting point of the many small scale value chains we talked about. This again gave impetus to integration of soy in farms and last but not least, soy being cultivated it was then considered an alternative to cotton seed by the oil plants. At every step, a serie of innovations chained up, up to a complex bundle. Such development could never have been anticipated. Here the processes displayed have taken place over more than 30 years and the outcome is this messy bundle of innovations. » This displays why, for project based innovation support, zooming out is necessary before zooming in.
Challenge: How to support innovation processes? L1: Innovations occur in the social wild, even when there is no intervention: R1: Policies, research and practice would do better recognizing and strengthening existing local innovation processes rather than trying to replace them. L2: Innovation processes comprise dynamic bundles of technological, institutional and organizational elements R2: Policy, research and practice should approach innovation in a way that integrates these elements. Challenges, lessons and recommendations
Challenge: How to support innovation processes? L3: Innovation processes that allow producers to connect with diverse value chains allow for more flexible and incremental changes: R3: Increase research and investment in innovation processes that permit flexible engagement with formal and informal value chain stakeholders. L4: Over the long term, innovation processes unfold in unpredictable and unplannable ways: R4: Provide an institutional environment that recognize and support unfolding processes and allow for flexible open- ended interventions. Challenges, lessons and recommendations
» Arguments » Lessons have been driven out of a specific case but would apply to many others » Intentionnally broad recommendations that sound familiar to you » What is intended for the discussion is the how to achieve them
Participants in JOLISAA CIRAD: Bernard Triomphe, Bernard Bridier, Henri Hocdé, KARI: Geoffrey Kamau, Teresiah Nganga, Kavoi Justice UAC : Simplice Davo Vodouhe, Anne Floquet, Roch Mongbo, Rigobert Tossou, UP: Joe Stevens, Brigid Letty, Rootman Gerrit WUR: Jolanda van den Berg, Todd Crane, Conny Almekinders, ICRA: Nour Sellamna, Hawkins Richards ETC: Ann Waters-Bayer, Nicoliene Oudwater, Meijboom Mariana And many field agronomists and small holders For more on the findings, visit our posters JOLISAA is funded by the EU