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Air Toxics Regulatory Update National Tribal Forum June 14, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Air Toxics Regulatory Update National Tribal Forum June 14, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Air Toxics Regulatory Update National Tribal Forum June 14, 2011

2 Overview Regulatory Updates Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Boiler MACT/CISWI Reconsideration Oil and Gas Sector Rulemakings Stationary Engines NESHAP Reconsideration and NSPS Amendments Petroleum Refinery Sector Rulemakings Chemical Sector Rulemakings Other Notable Regulatory Efforts Upcoming Regulations Pulp & Paper RTR Proposal Update 2

3 REGULATORY UPDATES

4 Timeline for the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards MILESTONEDATE Proposal Published in Federal RegisterMay 3, 2011 Public Hearings – Philadelphia & ChicagoMay 24, 2011 Public Hearing – Atlanta, GAMay 26, 2011 Comment Period EndsJuly 5, 2011 Final Rule SignedNovember 16, 2011

5 Boiler MACT and CISWI Reconsideration Issues identified by EPA Full load stack test requirement for carbon monoxide coupled with continuous oxygen monitoring Dioxin emission limit and testing requirements Data considered in setting emission limits may not fully reflect comments received Setting PM standards under GACT for existing oil-fired boilers Issues identified by Industry Dioxin and CO limits New source limits and HAP testing PM limits for some biomass boilers EPA issued a stay on May 18, 2011 We are moving forward expeditiously on the reconsideration 5

6 Oil and Gas Sector Rulemakings Oil and GAS NESHAP and NSPS Proposal: July 28, 2011 Final: February 28, 2012 Nationwide emissions HAP emissions of 130,000 tons VOC emissions of 3 million tons Methane emissions of 15.7 million tons (300 MMT CO 2 e) 40% of all U.S. methane emissions NESHAP revisions being considered NSPS improvements being considered for several emission points 5

7 Stationary Engine NESHAP Reconsideration and NSPS Amendments Existing Engines March 9, 2011 direct final/parallel proposal to address NESHAP monitoring requirements for engines complying with the 2004 NESHAP Reconsideration of 2010 NESHAP amendments in Summer/Fall 2011 Monitoring requirements Emission limits GACT analysis for area source engines New Engines Final NSPS amendments in June 2011 Existing and New Engines Propose requirements for engines used for back-up power (address peak shaving and emergency demand response) 7

8 Petroleum Refinery Sector Rulemakings Petroleum Refinery Sector NESHAP and NSPS Proposal: December 10, 2011 Final: November 10, 2012 Taking an integrated approach across the refinery sector to coordinate MACT and NSPS requirements that currently exist in many separate rules Key issues Accurate emission data Scope of the rulemakings Options to address GHGs Addressing environmental justice concerns and childrens health Approach for addressing malfunctions 8

9 Chemical Sector Rulemakings Taking an integrated approach across the chemical sector to coordinate MACT and NSPS requirements that currently exist in many separate rules Propose consolidated set of regulations for HAP and VOC from chemical plants Rules will reference new uniform standards Perform risk and technology review (RTR) for six MACT (three are under consent decree, three have statutory deadlines) Also perform technology review for the Hazardous Organic Chemicals NESHAP (HON), the largest chemical industry MACT Currently under court orders that require proposal for portions of this sector as early as Nov. 2011 9

10 Other Notable Regulatory Efforts EGU GHG NSPS Iron and Steel Sector NESHAP Startup, Shutdown, and Malfunction Rule PVC and Copolymer Production NESHAP Cement Reconsideration 10

11 Upcoming Regulations RuleProposalPromulgation Secondary Lead Smelting RTR NESHAP 4/29/11 (completed) 12/16/11 Compression Ignition Engines NSPS; Amendments 5/22/10 (completed) 6/8/11 Pulp & Paper RTR NESHAP 6/15/11 1/31/12 Chromium Electroplating and Steel Pickling RTR NESHAP 9/14/10 (completed) 6/30/11 Aerospace Manufacturing RTR NESHAP 8/31/11 6/29/12 Nitric Acid NSPS 9/30/11 11/15/11 Shipbuilding/Wood Furniture RTR NESHAP 9/14/10 10/31/11 Primary Lead RTR NESHAP 10/31/11 Mineral Wool Production/Wool Fiberglass RTR NESHAP 10/31/11 6/29/12 Ferroalloys RTR NESHAP10/31/11 6/29/12 11

12 Upcoming Regulations (continued) RuleProposalPromulgation Primary Aluminum RTR NESHAP 10/31/11 6/29/12 Secondary Aluminum RTR NESHAP 1/31/11 (completed) 10/31/11 Flexible Polyurethane Foam Prod. RTR NESHAP 10/31/12 Acrylic and Modacrylic Fibers RTR NESHAP 10/31/12 Polycarbonate Production RTR NESHAP 10/31/12 Off-Site Waste and Recovery RTR NESHAP 10/31/12 Phosphoric Acid RTR NESHAP 10/31/12 Phosphate Fertilizer RTR NESHAP 10/31/12 Group III Polymers and Resins RTR NESHAP 10/31/12 12

13 PULP & PAPER RTR PROPOSAL UPDATE

14 Logs Debarking Drum Chipper & Screens Chips Digester Pulp & Black Liquor Washers Evaporators Recovery Boiler Caustic Plant Lime: CaO Lime Kiln Lime Mud: CaCO 3 Green Liquor: Na 2 S, Na 2 CO 3 Strong Black Liquor Weak Black Liquor Wash Water Pulp Screens Brown Pulp Storage Bleached Pulp Storage Bleach Plant Wash Water MACT 1 NSPS MACT 2 Power Boiler Bark Steam Boiler MACT White Liquor: Na 2 S, NaOH Paper Paper Machine Refiners Additives Paper Making Slurry To Converting Waste Water Treatment Primary Clarifier ASB To River Water From Process Secondary Clarifier Sludge MACT 3 (bleached product) (unbleached produc t) Oil Coal KRAFT PROCESS Screens & Cleaners

15 Pulp & Paper Air Emissions Digester Blow Tank & Accumulator Washers & Screens Lime Kiln Slaker Dissolving Tank Turpentine Recovery Recovery Boiler Multiple Effect Evaporators Combination Fuel Boiler Wood Chips Pulp to the paper mill Gaseous Organic HAP VOC HAP metals PM HCl SO 2 Chlorine NO x HF CO CO 2 Gaseous Organic HAP VOC HAP metals PM HCl SO 2 TRS NO x CO CO 2 Gaseous Organic HAP VOC HAP metals PM HCl SO 2 TRS NO x CO CO 2 Gaseous Organic HAP VOC TRS Gaseous Organic HAP VOC TRS Gaseous Organic HAP VOC TRS Gaseous Organic HAP VOC TRS Wastewater Treatment Gaseous Organic HAP VOC TRS Bleach Plant HCl Chlorine Chloroform Gaseous Organic HAP VOC TRS Gaseous Organic HAP VOC TRS PM Gaseous Organic HAP VOC Pulp & Paper MACT Chemical Combustion MACT Boiler MACT NSPS

16 Pulp & Paper Sector in Perspective About 350 Pulp & Paper Mills 200 major sources subject to MACT, typically Integrated Pulp & Paper 150 area sources, paper only $115 billion in sales; 400K direct jobs 79 million tons paper produced 2008, 18% decrease from 1999 peak China eclipsed U.S. as largest paper producer in 2008; U.S. still largest in pulp production Energy subsidies for biomass energy (burning black liquor) have become an important factor in net income/profit Pollutant 2005 Emissions (TPY) (includes boilers) To Compare: Refineries HAP 57,000 14,000 VOCs 82,000 115,000 NO x 69,000 146,000 PM 2.5 50,000 30,000 SO 2 332,000* 247,000 CO 135,000 138,000 16 * Boiler MACT Rule (co-benefit) projected to reduce SO 2 by over 100,000 TPY with scrubber controls.

17 Pulping Sources in Category Main Pulping Sources: Digesters, Evaporators, (Some Facilities) Turpentine Recovery, Steam Strippers Low volume high concentration (LVHC) emission sources MACT controls – combustion device Secondary Pulping: Washers, Screens, Liquor Storage High volume low concentration (HVLC) emission sources MACT controls – combustion device, clean condensate alternative or waste water treatment Mechanical Pulping Sources: No MACT limits Bleaching MACT controls – scrubber, total chlorine free (TCF) 17 Evaporator: Concentrates Black Liquor

18 Example Pulp & Paper Processing Equipment 18 Turpentine Recovery Causticizing Equipment Digester Blow Tank

19 Papermaking Sources in Category Paper Machines No MACT limits An alternative compliance tool for HVLC control under clean condensate alternative Waste Water Treatment No MACT limits An alternative compliance tool for HVLC control using biological treatment (activated sludge) 19 Paper Machines

20 The CAA requires that we review MACT standards, considering advances in practices, processes, and control technologies. This allows us to tighten existing MACT standards with cost- effective controls. For the Technology Review, we also assess MACT to: address significant unregulated emission points require consistent monitoring and electronic compliance reporting fix administrative requirements that are duplicative or inconsistent What is Involved in the Technology Review? 20

21 Decision process for residual risk If maximum individual cancer risk (MIR) is less than 1 in 1 million and there are no other health impacts, then no further assessment is needed If MIR is greater than 100 in 1 million or other significant health impacts are identified, risks are unacceptable and must be reduced (this is not a bright line; uncertainties and other health factors need to be considered in this decision) If MIR is between 1 and 100 in 1 million, we tighten the standards if cost- effective controls are available to provide an ample margin of safety Also consider cost-effective controls to address other endpoints, including noncancer effects, population risks, and environmental impacts Consider facility-wide risks and demographic analyses to: make acceptability and ample margin of safety determinations identify other source categories for priority review and regulatory action, as appropriate What is Involved in the Risk Review? 21

22 For More Information Amy Vasu 919-541-0107 Vasu.amy@epa.gov OAR Policy & Guidance Information www.epa.gov/ttn/oarpg 22


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